Now showing items 21-40 of 3988

    • Perinatal grief following a termination of pregnancy for foetal abnormality: the impact of coping strategies.

      Lafarge, Caroline; Mitchell, Kathryn; Fox, Pauline; The University of Derby (Wiley., 2013-12-05)
      Pregnancy termination for foetal abnormality (TFA) can have significant psychological repercussions, but little is known about the coping strategies involved in dealing with TFA. This study examined the relationships between women's coping strategies and perinatal grief. A total of 166 women completed a survey online. Coping and perinatal grief were measured using the Brief COPE and Short Perinatal Grief Scales. Data were analysed through multiple regression analyses. Despite using mostly adaptive coping strategies, women's levels of grief were high and varied according to obstetric and termination variables. Grief was predicted by behavioural disengagement, venting, planning, religion, self‐blame, being recently bereaved, being childless at the time of TFA, not having had children/being pregnant since TFA and uncertainty about the decision to terminate the pregnancy. Acceptance and positive reframing negatively predicted grief. Identifying women vulnerable to poor psychological adjustment and promoting coping strategies associated with lower levels of grief may be beneficial. This could be addressed through information provision and interventions such as Cognitive Behavioural Therapy or Acceptance and Commitment Therapy.
    • An exploration of formal and informal mindfulness practice and associations with wellbeing.

      Birtwell, Kelly; Williams, Kate; van Marwijk, Harm; Armitage, Christopher J.; Sheffield, David; University of Derby; University of Manchester; NIHR School for Primary Care Research Manchester England; Brighton and Sussex Medical School University of Brighton; NIHR Greater Manchester Patient Safety Translational Research Centre (Springer., 2018-05-21)
      Mindfulness has transdiagnostic applicability, but little is known about how people first begin to practice mindfulness and what sustains practice in the long term. The aim of the present research was to explore the experiences of a large sample of people practicing mindfulness, including difficulties with practice and associations between formal and informal mindfulness practice and wellbeing. In this cross-sectional study, 218 participants who were practicing mindfulness or had practiced in the past completed an online survey about how they first began to practice mindfulness, difficulties and supportive factors for continuing to practice, current wellbeing, and psychological flexibility. Participants had practiced mindfulness from under a year up to 43 years. There was no significant difference in the frequency of formal mindfulness practice between those who had attended a face-to-face taught course and those who had not. Common difficulties included finding time to practice formally and falling asleep during formal practice. Content analysis revealed “practical resources,” “time/routine,” “support from others,” and “attitudes and beliefs,” which were supportive factors for maintaining mindfulness practice. Informal mindfulness practice was related to positive wellbeing and psychological flexibility. Frequency (but not duration) of formal mindfulness practice was associated with positive wellbeing; however, neither frequency nor duration of formal mindfulness practice was significantly associated with psychological flexibility. Mindfulness teachers will be able to use the present findings to further support their students by reminding them of the benefits as well as normalising some of the challenges of mindfulness practice including falling asleep.
    • Involving recreational snorkelers in inventory improvement or creation: a case study in the Indian Ocean.

      Bourjon, Philippe; Ducarme, Frédéric; Quod, Jean-Pascal; Sweet, Michael J.; University of Derby (CNRS - Station Biologique de Roscoff., 2018-03)
      Four amateur naturalists and underwater photographers established sixty first records and discovered three species probably new to science at Reunion Island (Indian Ocean) between January 2010 and January 2016, although the marine environment of this island has been studied for some forty years by professional scientists. These results were achieved after snorkeling in coastal areas at a maximum depth of 2 m. All records were validated by professional experts of the relevant groups, with appropriate reservations for photograph-based identifications. The analysis of the methodology used by this group of reef observers highlights three central elements: individual initiative, regular random-path snorkeling practice by local observers, and availability of correspondent observers with sufficient naturalist skills to select accurate data and manage an optimal link with professional scientists. Such achievement emphasizes the efficiency of a citizen- based approach aimed at creating or improving local fauna inventories and discovering new species. Considering that ecological data can be collected during observers' random-path snorkeling sessions, such a project is also of interest for local conservationists and marine ecosystems managers. We therefore recommend the inclusion of these practices in the process of designing standardised observation programs aimed at non-professionals everywhere snorkeling can be practiced, especially in under-studied regions.
    • Penal populism and the public thermostat: crime, public punitiveness, and public policy.

      Jennings, Will; Farrall, Stephen; Gray, Emily; Hay, Colin; University of Sheffield; Department of Politics & International Relations; University of Southampton; Centre for Criminological Research; University of Sheffield; Centre for Criminological Research; University of Sheffield; Sciences Po; Paris (Wiley, 2016-06-02)
      This article makes the case that feedback processes in democratic politics—between crime rates, public opinion, and public policy—can account for the growth of penal populism in Britain. It argues that the public recognize and respond to rising (and falling) levels of crime, and that in turn public support for being tough on crime is translated into patterns of imprisonment. This contributes to debates over the crime–opinion–policy connection, unpacking the dynamic processes by which these relationships unfold at the aggregate level. This uses the most extensive data set ever assembled on aggregate opinion on crime in Britain to construct a new over‐time measure of punitive attitudes. The analysis first tests the thermostatic responsiveness of punitive attitudes to changes in recorded crime rates as well as self‐reported victimization, and then examines the degree to which changes in mass opinion impact on criminal justice policy.
    • Mindfulness in schools: a health promotion approach to improving adolescent mental health.

      Sapthiang, Supakyada; Van Gordon, William; Shonin, Edo; University of Derby (Springer., 2018-10-16)
      Between 10 and 20% of adolescents worldwide experience a mental health problem within a given 12-month period. Mental health problems impact on an adolescent’s potential to live a fulfilling and productive life and lead to challenges such as stigma, isolation and discrimination. To address this need, in recent years, there has been growing interest into broad-based school-integrated health promotion interventions that seek to build resilience and augment protective factors in adolescents. Mindfulness-based interventions (MBIs) reflect one such approach that have been administered to adolescent populations in both resilience building and treatment contexts. This paper discusses the utility of school-based MBIs as an adolescent health promotion approach and makes recommendations for intervention design, delivery and evaluation. Emerging evidence indicates that school-integrated MBIs may be a cost-effective means of not only meeting government objectives relating to adolescent mental health, but also for improving the wellbeing of teachers and parents. Furthermore, there is growing evidence indicating that mindfulness can elicit improvements in student learning performance and general classroom behaviour. However, notwithstanding these beneficial properties, there remains a need to conduct large-scale empirical investigations that seek to evaluate the effectiveness of school-integrated MBIs at a regional or national level. A further challenge is the need to ensure that mindfulness instructors are able to impart to adolescents an experiential understanding of this ancient contemplative technique.
    • Comparison of two novel MRAS based strategies for identifying parameters in permanent magnet synchronous motors.

      Liu, Kan; Zhang, Qiao; Zhu, Zi-Qiang; Zhang, Jing; Shen, An-Wen; Stewart, Paul; University of Lincoln UK (Springer., 2010-11-11)
      Two Model Reference Adaptive System (MRAS) estimators are developed for identifying the parameters of permanent magnet synchronous motors (PMSM) based on Lyapunov stability theorem and Popov stability criterion, respectively. The proposed estimators only need online detection of currents, voltages and rotor rotation speed, and are effective in the estimation of stator resistance, inductance and rotor flux-linkage simultaneously. Their performances are compared and verified through simulations and experiments. It shows that the two estimators are simple and have good robustness against parameter variation and are accurate in parameter tracking. However, the estimator based on Popov stability criterion, which can overcome the parameter variation in a practical system, is superior in terms of response speed and convergence speed since there are both proportional and integral units in the estimator in contrast to only one integral unit in the estimator based on Lyapunov stability theorem. In addition, there is no need of the expert experience which is required in designing a Lyapunov function
    • Reducing avoidable pressure ulcers.

      Anthony, Denis; HODGSON, Heather; HORNER, Joanna; University of Leeds (Wounds UK., 2017-04-24)
      Risk assessment scales for pressure ulcers have been in use for over 50 years but there is no evidence that such scales reduce pressure ulcer incidence. Pressure ulcer interventions have been shown to be effective, sometimes alongside risk assessment scales. Care bundles are an example of multifaceted approaches that have been successfully used in a variety of clinical areas including for pressure ulcers. Pressure ulcers were monitored before and after implementation of a new scheme based on an existing care bundle. Avoidable pressure ulcers were significantly reduced following implementation of the scheme.
    • Twofoldness/threefoldness: Marc Lüders' photopicturen.

      Robinson, Carl; University of Derby (Levy Gallery Hamburg and VG Bild-Kunst, Bonn., 2018-11)
      My essay 'Twofoldness/Threefoldness: Marc Lüders' Photopicturen' used as the text accompanying Marc Lüders' exhibition - 'Marc Lüders/Twofoldness' at the Levy Gallery, Hamburg in November 2018.
    • The archaea (2017).

      Rushton, Stephanie; University of Derby (2017-03-24)
      The Archaea’ features a series of constructed photographic tableaux of tangled, botanical phantasmagoria, which refer to the landscape with a suggestion of figuration. Inspired by the ‘Jungle paintings’ of Max Ernst and alluding to Ballardian themes of Nature’s retribution, the resulting images succeed in being both menacing and simultaneously humorous. The high-contrast, backlit, large scale photographs are created in the studio and subsequently manipulated with a digital technique; used here to denote an underlying molecular structure redolent of microscopic photography. This serves to enforce a link between animal and vegetable but also lends the work a painterly quality, paradoxically at odds with the photographic medium. The resulting imagery emits a dreamlike quality that induces the pareidolic illusion latent in the human Psyche, this anthropomorphism further reinforcing the Archean molecular link between everything that exists. All plants, animals and humans, are biologically connected and this genetic inheritance can be traced back to the human brain and spinal column. The split between animals and plants on the Phylogenetic tree occurred around 1.6 million years ago, however with some plant species we still share as much as 75% genetic similarity.
    • The archaea (2015).

      Rushton, Stephanie; University of Derby (2015-09-15)
      Archaea’ refers to the kingdom of single celled organisms with the simplest known molecular structure, thought to be the closest living ancestor to the origin of all life on earth. ‘The Archaea’ features a series of constructed photographic tableaux of tangled, botanical phantasmagoria, which refer to the landscape with a suggestion of figuration. Inspired by the ‘Jungle paintings’ of Max Ernst and alluding to Ballardian themes of Nature’s retribution, the resulting images succeed in being both menacing and simultaneously humorous. The high-contrast, backlit, large scale photographs are created in the studio and subsequently manipulated with a digital technique; used here to denote an underlying molecular structure redolent of microscopic photography. This serves to enforce a link between animal and vegetable but also lends the work a painterly quality, paradoxically at odds with the photographic medium. The resulting imagery emits a dreamlike quality that induces the pareidolic illusion latent in the human Psyche, this anthropomorphism further reinforcing the Archean molecular link between everything that exists. All plants, animals and humans, are biologically connected and this genetic inheritance can be traced back to the human brain and spinal column. The split between animals and plants on the Phylogenetic tree occurred around 1.6 million years ago, however with some plant species we still share as much as 75% genetic similarity.
    • The archaea: painting digital photography.

      Rushton, Stephanie; University of Derby (Cambridge Scholars Publishing., 2018-09-01)
      How does one make a photographic body of work about Deep Ecology; the philosophy that considers humans to be equal to and no more important than any other species, advocating a radical re-adjustment of the relationship between humans and nature? This was the question I asked myself when I began a photographic project in 2014 entitled The Archaea. My interest stems from exploring the ecological relationship between humanity and the earth, and there are many sub-fields of psychology emerging to study these effects, such as eco-psychology or conservation psychology.
    • Surfaces.

      Robinson, Carl; University of Derby (2017-04)
      'Surfaces' - A solo exhibition of recent work at the New Court gallery Repton. Exploring aspects of perception related to viewing painted-on-photographs.
    • Improved decision support for engine-in-the-loop experimental design optimization.

      Gladwin, D; Stewart, P; Stewart, J; Chen, R; Winward, E; University of Sheffield; University of Lincoln.; Loughborough university (Sage., 2009-09-25)
      Experimental optimization with hardware in the loop is a common procedure in engineering and has been the subject of intense development, particularly when it is applied to relatively complex combinatorial systems that are not completely understood, or where accurate modelling is not possible owing to the dimensions of the search space. A common source of difficulty arises because of the level of noise associated with experimental measurements, a combination of limited instrument precision, and extraneous factors. When a series of experiments is conducted to search for a combination of input parameters that results in a minimum or maximum response, under the imposition of noise, the underlying shape of the function being optimized can become very difficult to discern or even lost. A common methodology to support experimental search for optimal or suboptimal values is to use one of the many gradient descent methods. However, even sophisticated and proven methodologies, such as simulated annealing, can be significantly challenged in the presence of noise, since approximating the gradient at any point becomes highly unreliable. Often, experiments are accepted as a result of random noise which should be rejected, and vice versa. This is also true for other sampling techniques, including tabu and evolutionary algorithms. After the general introduction, this paper is divided into two main sections (sections 2 and 3), which are followed by the conclusion. Section 2 introduces a decision support methodology based upon response surfaces, which supplements experimental management based on a variable neighbourhood search and is shown to be highly effective in directing experiments in the presence of a significant signal-to-noise ratio and complex combinatorial functions. The methodology is developed on a three-dimensional surface with multiple local minima, a large basin of attraction, and a high signal-to-noise ratio. In section 2, the methodology is applied to an automotive combinatorial search in the laboratory, on a real-time engine-in-the-loop application. In this application, it is desired to find the maximum power output of an experimental single-cylinder spark ignition engine operating under a quasi-constant-volume operating regime. Under this regime, the piston is slowed at top dead centre to achieve combustion in close to constant volume conditions. As part of the further development of the engine to incorporate a linear generator to investigate free-piston operation, it is necessary to perform a series of experiments with combinatorial parameters. The objective is to identify the maximum power point in the least number of experiments in order to minimize costs. This test programme provides peak power data in order to achieve optimal electrical machine design. The decision support methodology is combined with standard optimization and search methods — namely gradient descent and simulated annealing— in order to study the reductions possible in experimental iterations. It is shown that the decision support methodology significantly reduces the number of experiments necessary to find the maximum power solution and thus offers a potentially significant cost saving to hardware-in-the-loop experimentation.
    • Mathematical model of a constructional coanda effect nozzle.

      Trancossi, Michele; Stewart, Jill; Subhash, M; Angeli, Diego; Sheffield Hallam University (Physics Society of Iran., 2016)
      This paper analyses the ACHEON Coanda effect nozzle for aircraft propulsion, based on the dynamic equilibrium of two jet streams. The ACHEON concept, and, in particular, the HOMER nozzle, which is its main component, are presented, together with the literature milestones from which the idea originally stems. A subsystem analysis inspired by the principles of Constructal Theory is presented for the current architecture. A mathematical model of a 2D case of the system is developed, focusing on the combined effect of the mixing of the two streams and the Coanda adhesion over a convex surface. A validation of the model is also reported, based on 2D CFD analyses, under the hypothesis of incompressible flow. Results highlight that, in spite of its relative simplicity, the model produces accurate results.
    • Constructal design of an entropic wall With circulating water inside.

      Trancossi, Michele; Stewart, Jill; Dumas, Antonio; Madonia, Mauro; Marques, Jose Pascoa; Sheffield Hallam University (ASME, 2016-04-26)
      An entropic wall with circulating water inside could be a solution for acclimatizing a new building with high-energy efficiency and high levels of internal comfort. If circulating water is thermally stabilized by exchanging in the ground such has it happens in geothermal plants, a thermal shield could be realized keeping walls in comfort conditions and minimizing energy needs for further temperature regulations. This paper presents optimization guidelines of such a wall with the objective of maximizing the performances of the wall for reaching optimal internal wellness conditions. Optimization has been realized by a constructal law based method, which has been personalized by a step-by-step process and has been named constructal design for efficiency (CDE). The optimization of the system has been produced at different levels. It starts from a preliminary analysis at system levels, which allow defining the best objectives that could be reached. After this preliminary process, the system has been divided into modules, and the critical ones which have higher influence on the performances of the system have been evaluated. This analysis has been coupled also with an industrial analysis with the goal of defining an effective layout, which could be also manufactured with acceptable costs. The result has produced a final solution with a very good compromise between energetic performances and minimization of costs at industrial level. The results open interesting perspectives for the constructal law to become the core of an effective methodology of an industrial design which can couple perfectly with the modular approach which is currently the major part of industrial companies.
    • Across the decades (60 years).

      Basi, Philip Ranjit; University Of Derby (2016-08)
      2015 was the 60th year that the Derby West Indian Community Association (DWICA) has been delivering services to the Black and Culturally Diverse Community. DWICA acknowledged that the “DIAMOND” anniversary this was a milestone that should be celebrated. Through a funding application process DWICA successfully secured project financial resources from Heritage Lottery Fund to deliver a project called “Across the Decades” which showcased the achievements made by DWICA over the past sixty (60) years. This project was the foundation for the organisation to collated and document it’s’ legacy detailing the contributions made by the pioneering African Caribbean community coming to the city Derby, in the main from the Caribbean. In addition document the following (2nd & 3rd) generation’s contribution towards community development in Derby.
    • Political socialization, worry about crime and antisocial behaviour: an analysis of age, period and cohort effects.

      Gray, Emily; Grasso, Maria; Farrall, Stephen; Jennings, Will; Hay, Colin; University of Sheffield; Centre for Criminological Research, School of Law, University of Sheffield, Winter Street, Sheffield, UK; Department of Politics, University of Sheffield, Northumberland Road, Sheffield, UK; Centre for Criminological Research, School of Law, University of Sheffield, Winter Street, Sheffield, UK; Department of Politics and International Relations, University of Southampton, University Road, Southampton, UK; Centre d’Études Européennes, Sciences Po, Paris, France (Oxford University Presss, 2018-08-07)
      Fear of crime occupies a substantial area of research and theorizing in criminology. Yet, it has not been examined within a longitudinal framework of political socialization. Using insights from generational modelling, we explore how political cohorts influence the fear of crime and perceptions of antisocial behaviour. This ‘age, period and cohort’ (APC) approach recognizes the distinct temporal processes of (1) individual ageing, (2) current contexts and (3) generational membership and is crucial to understanding the origins and shape of social change. We employ repeated cross-sectional data from the British Crime Survey in an APC analysis to explore how worry about crime and perceptions of antisocial behaviour were impacted by the sociopolitical environment in which respondents spent their ‘formative years’. Our results underline the theoretical significance of political socialization and the methodological consequence of longitudinal analyses when exploring public perceptions of crime. We find that political socialization can have a distinctive and enduring impression on public perceptions of crime from childhood into middle age.
    • Exploring new voices in applied theatre.

      Jones, Rhiannon; Connelly, Heather; University of Derby (2019-01)
      Exploring New Voices: Future Practice in Applied Theatre Conference. Extend and refresh your practice among a creative community of theatre-makers, academics and world-class practitioners. We’ll be asking questions, addressing challenges, and sharing ideas as we explore how Applied Theatre can bring ‘New Voices’ into our work and revolutionise the way we co-create with diverse communities. Teachers, academics, students, and theatre-makers will all find new ways of developing and exploring their practice. You will exchange invaluable insights with practitioners working in a variety of fields within Applied Theatre, and participate in workshops led by the nation’s leading Applied Theatre specialists, each of whom will guide participants on a different area of practice under the umbrella concept of shared agency with communities. As part of the event InDialogue, (2019) Dr Rhiannon Jones (University of Derby) and Dr Heather Connelly (University of Lincoln) - Co Founders of InDialogue presented their artistic research & collaboration which focuses on the use of dialogue to generate practice across all creative disciplines. They also announced the call for participation for InDialogue 2019; the international symposium hosted by Derby Theatre.
    • 100 years of Bollywood part 1 & 2: queens of melody.

      Basi, Philip Ranjit; University Of Derby (BBC Red Button., 2014-01)
      BBC Asian Network curated a season of Bollywood-related content to mark the 100th Anniversary of the Indian Film Industry with an exciting offering of star interviews, Red Button specials and major BBC collaborations focused at providing a lasting legacy of this important anniversary. As the producer director of Asian Network’s successful Red Button TV offering I was tasked bringing the rich heritage of the Indian film industry to life through BBC archive and reflecting the work of community organisations right across the UK celebrating the wonder of Bollywood. Celebrating 100 years of Indian Cinema with the biggest stars who have featured on the BBC since the 70's. BBC Asian Network charted the journey of how Bollywood became the largest film industry in the world from the first ever film in shown in 1913. This special programme, featured interviews from Bollywood’s leading stars over the decades from legends including Rajesh Khanna, Raj Kapoor and Dilip Kumar right through to recent times where actors such as Shah Rukh Khan, Madhuri Dixit, Sri Devi, Anil Kapoor and Salman Khan took the industry global. This special programme was available on the Red Button and featured interviews from Bollywood's leading stars over the decades and had an audience of 850,00. Part 2 featured films start that had been performed and been on the BBC Asian Network and had special features from the Indian Film Awards and Bollywood Carmen, this show had an audience of 650,00. Queens Of Melody – The BBC Philharmonic and Asian Network collaborated for the first time ever in a celebration of the life and songs of Pakistani singer Noor Jehan and other legendary singers. International artists Shazia Manzoor and Qurat-ul-ain Balouch perform alongside the BBC Philharmonic in Bradford in front of a live audience for this unique event.