Now showing items 21-40 of 5441

    • Involving users in the evaluation of apps for specific health conditions

      Powell, L; Joddrell, P; Parker, Jack; University of Sheffield (IOS Press, 2017-09-30)
      With rapid growth of Internet accessibility over recent years, the way in which we engage with healthcare services and make decisions about our own healthcare has changed. One form of engagement with the Internet is through the use of mobile applications (apps) via mobile devices such as smartphones and tablets. As a result of this, many apps have been developed to target people with varying long term conditions. These apps may aim to help educate individuals about their condition or help them to manage it. Assessing the quality of these apps is crucial especially when considering the risks associated with providing misleading information or unsubstantiated claims. This has led to a growing body of research assessing the quality of apps aimed at people living with varying long term conditions. These attempts have not involved service users to address the suitability of apps for their intended target audiences. This paper presents two examples of how service users and associated healthcare professionals can be involved in the suitability assessment of mobile apps for children and young people with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder and those living with dementia.
    • Using the theoretical domains framework to improve access to cervical screening for women with intellectual disabilities

      Whitelegg, Victoria; Elander, James; University of Derby (British Psychological Society, 2020-07-03)
      Regular attendance for screening can prevent most cervical cancers, but women with learning disabilities are potentially at greater risk of developing and dying from cervical cancer because current screening processes and practices create inequitable barriers, restricting their access to screening. In response, an objective of Public Health England’s 2018 ‘Screening Inequalities Strategy’ was to reduce inequalities through ‘evidence-based contributions’ to policy and best practice (Public Health England, 2018b). Health psychologists could contribute to this objective by facilitating collaborative work with cervical screening practitioners using the Theoretical Domains Framework. This enables health psychology evidence and theory, combined with the perceptions and experiences of screening practitioners, to identify relevant barriers and enablers to access, and this information can inform interventions and policy changes to make cervical screening programmes more open and effective for women with learning disabilities.
    • Convergence in cryptocurrency prices? The role of market microstructure

      Apergis, Nicholas; Koutmos, Dimitrios; Payne, James; University of Derby; Worcester Polytechnic Institute; University of Texas, El Paso (Elsevier, 2020-07-04)
      Do we observe convergence between cryptocurrencies over time? This study explores this question with eight major cryptocurrencies in circulation and posits a framework to evaluate whether shifts in their market microstructures drive convergence. Three main findings emerge. First, convergence can emerge between cryptocurrencies with distinct technological functions and classifications. Second, market microstructure behavior drives convergence. Third, estimated transition paths show tighter convergence for half of our sampled cryptocurrencies during the time when the Chicago Board of Exchange (CBOE) introduced bitcoin futures contracts.
    • Built environment attributes and crime: an automated machine learning approach

      Dakin, Kyle; Parkinson, Simon; Saad, Kahn; Monchuck, Leanne; Pease, Ken; University of Huddersfield; University of Derby (BMC, 2020-07-08)
      This paper presents the development of an automated machine learning approach to gain an understanding of the built environment and its relationship to crime. This involves the automatic capture of street-level photographs using Google Street View (GSV), followed by the use of supervised machine learning techniques (specifically image feature recognition) to recognise features of the built environment. In this exploratory proof-of-concept work, 8 key features (building, door, fence, streetlight, tree, window, hedge, and garage) are considered and a worked case-study is demonstrated for a small geographical area (8300 square kilometres) in Northern England. A total of 60,100 images were automatically collected and analysed across the area where 5288 crime incidents were reported over a twelve- month period. Dependency between features and crime incidents are measured; however, no strong correlation has been identified. This is unsurprisingly considering the high number of crime incidents in a small geographic region (8300 square kilometres), resulting in an overlap between specific features and multiple crime incidents. Further- more, due to the unknown precise location of crime instances, an approximation technique is developed to survey a crime’s local proximity. Despite the absence of a strong correlation, this paper presents a first-of-a-kind cross-disci- pline approach to attempt and use computation techniques to produce new empirical knowledge. There are many avenues of future research in this fertile and important area.
    • Beauty and elegance: value co-creation in cosmetic surgery tourism

      Majeed, Salman; Zhou, Zhimin; Ramkissoon, Haywantee; University of Derby; UiT, The Arctic University of Norway; University of Johannesburg, South Africa (SAGE Publications, 2020-06-16)
      This study presents an emerging trend in medical tourism, cosmetic surgery tourism (CST). We explore tourists’ perceptions of CST for medical service quality as an antecedent to tourists’ emotional attachment, trust, and intentions to visit, which is underexplored in CST. This study examines the mediating role of value co-creation in influencing behaviors of CST-seeking tourists to experience a better quality of life. Using a sample drawn from 279 tourists, comprised of Australian, Japanese, and Chinese nationalities at two international airports in China, findings show that perceived medical service quality positively influences tourists’ emotional attachment, trust, and intentions to visit directly and through the mediating role of value co-creation across the three nationalities. CST-seeking tourists’ inputs in value co-creation may positively influence their behaviors, which are vital antecedents to promoting CST business. Implications for future research are discussed.
    • Synthesis of single-walled carbon nanotubes in rich hydrogen/air flames

      Zhang, Cen; Tian, Bo; Chong, Cheng Tung; Ding, Boning; Fan, Luming; Chang, Xin; Simone, Hochgreb; University of Cambridge; University of Derby; Shanghai Jiao Tong University (Elsevier, 2020-06-27)
      We explore the production of single-walled carbon nanotubes (CNTs) in a stream surrounded by rich premixedlaminar H2/air flames using a feedstock containing ethanol and ferrocene. The as-produced nanomaterialswere characterised by Raman spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, scanning electron microscopyand X-ray diffraction. A formation window of equivalence ratios of 1.00–1.20 was identified, and single-walledCNT bundles with individual CNTs of an average diameter of 1 nm were observed. The formation of CNTswas accompanied by the production of highly crystalline Fe3O4nanoparticles of a size of 20–100 nm. Theinvestigation of the limiting factors for the CNT synthesis was carried out systematically, assisted by numericalmodelling. We conclude that the key factors affecting CNT synthesis are the surrounding flame temperatures and the concentration of carbon available for CNT nucleation.
    • Energy performance and life cycle cost assessments of a photovoltaic/thermal assisted heat pump system

      Cui, Yuanlong; Zhu, Jie; Zoras, Stamatis; Qiao, Yaning; Zhang, Xin; University of Derby; University of Nottingham; China University of Mining and Technology; Cranfield University (Elsevier, 2020-06-26)
      A photovoltaic/thermal module assisted heat pump system is investigated in this paper, which provides electrical and thermal energy for a domestic building. In-depth evaluation on the system energy production is conducted based on the finite difference method for a long-term operating period. The 25 years’ system life cycle cost is assessed via the Monte Carlo simulation under the Feed-in Tariff (FiT) and Renewable Heat Incentive schemes, the annual energy savings, income and payback period (PBP) are compared for the FiT and Smart Export Guarantee (SEG) schemes. The technical analysis results illustrate that the system is able to fulfil the building thermal and electrical energy demands from April to October and from May to August, respectively, and the extra electricity of 229.47 kWh is fed into the grid. The economic assessment results clarify that the system achieves a net present value (NPV) of £38,990 and has a PBP of 4.15 years. Meanwhile, the economic sensitive analyses reveal that the high discount rate reduces the system NPV whereas the high investment cost causes a long PBP to realize the positive NPV. Compared with the SEG scheme, the FiT is the most cost-effective method for renewable electricity generation and has the shortest PBP.
    • Border fictioning (Eile project)

      McCloskey, Paula; Vardy, Sam; University of Derby; Sheffield Hallam University (2019-06-09)
      This paper will explore how the Eile Project (20916- ongoing), an art and spatial research practice, seeks to invent new ways of conceptualising and intervening in borders, as a mode of ecosophical art practice in what Haraway calls the chthulucene. The Eile Project takes form as an investigation of borders using art research methods with the aim to queer the notion of borders, through border-fictioning, border- linking/making; territorial myth-fictioning. It uses multimedia visual art methods, which include the development of experiments (site-specific performances, rituals, audio-visual digital film). The fictional character ‘Eile’ weaves through the experiments. Eile is a changling; a gorgon; a transmuter; a creature, an outside of time, an indeterminate flow. Eile makes and unmakes the UK/Irish borderlands; passing through them as they pass through her. Through performative gestures on the border using a range of materials Eile intervenes into this geopolitical border scene to develop border-fictioning and creating a new ethics and aesthetics of the border. Eile intra-acts with buildings, different species, the bogs, rivers, flora and fauna, caves, mountains, as well as introducing new materials (glitter, smoke, wire) and discourse (legal, historical, political, and cultural etc) in a re-working of current border material-discursive phenomena. The Eile Project investigates the complex intra-relations between human and non-humans; between the matter and discourses of the UK/Irish border in continual entanglement. The presentation will include a presentation of the research, including showing extracts from the Eile films.
    • Territories of Eile, film screening

      McCloskey, Paula; Vardy, Sam; University of Derby; Sheffield Hallam University (2019-07-20)
      Territories of Eile in a short film from the Eile Project. Eile Project (2016-ongoing) is a transdisciplinary investigation of the UK/Irish border and its complex entanglement of colonialism, migration, border-imperialism and geopolitics. The project creates site-responsive performances on the border, from which sculptures, soundscapes, films, texts develop that enact ‘border-fictioning’: a resistant practice to oppressive manifestations of nation-state borders. These live performances capitalise on the forces of the earth to enact what Grosz, Povinelli and others refer to as ‘geopower’ as a form of resistance to colonial practices.
    • Examining adherence to medication in patients with persistent atrial fibrillation: The role of medication beliefs, attitudes and depression.

      Taylor, Elaina C.; Hughes, Lyndsay D; O'Neill, Mark; Bennett, Peter; King's College London (Wolters Kluwer, 2020-08-07)
      This study examined whether beliefs about medicines, drug attitudes, and depression independently predicted anticoagulant and antiarrhythmic adherence (focusing on the implementation phase of nonadherence) in patients with atrial fibrillation(AF). This cross-sectional study was part of a larger longitudinal study. Patients with AF (N = 118) completed the Patient Health Questionnaire-8. The Beliefs about Medicines Questionnaire, Drug Attitude Inventory, and Morisky-Green-Levine Medication Adherence Scale (self-report adherence measure), related to anticoagulants and antiarrhythmics, were also completed. Correlation and logistic regression analyses were conducted. There were no significant differences in non-adherence to anticoagulants or antiarrhythmics. Greater concerns (r = 0.23, P = .01) were significantly, positively associated with anticoagulant nonadherence only. Depression and drug attitudes were not significantly associated with anticoagulant/antiarrhythmic adherence. Predictors reliably distinguished adherers and non-adherers to anticoagulant medication in the regression model, explaining 14% of the variance, but only concern beliefs (odds ratio, 1.20) made a significant independent contribution to prediction (χ2 =11.40, P=.02,with df = 4). When entered independently into a regression model, concerns (odds ratio, 1.24) significantly explained 10.3% of the variance (χ2 = 7.97, P = .01, with df = 1). Regressions were not significant for antiarrhythmic medication (P = .30). Specifying medication type is important when examining nonadherence in chronic conditions. Concerns about anticoagulants, rather than depression, were significantly associated with non-adherence to anticoagulants but not antiarrhythmics. Anticoagulant concerns should be targeted at AF clinics, with an aim to reduce nonadherence and potentially modifiable adverse outcomes such as stroke.
    • A preceptorship toolkit for nurse managers, teams and healthcare organisations

      Owen, Patricia; Whitehead, Bill; Beddingham, Elaine; Simmons, Maxine; University of Derby; Chesterfield Royal Hospital NHS Foundation Trust (RCNI, 2020-07-08)
      The transition from student to newly qualified nurse can be challenging. A period of preceptorship is recommended to support newly qualified nurses in their new work environment, and to give them time to adapt and gain confidence. Researchers have developed a toolkit based on previous research that contains several resources that nurse managers, teams and organisations can use to develop and improve preceptorship for newly qualified nurses. The toolkit includes an organisational support tool, a managerial support framework, a supernumerary time tool and a local culture of support tool. This article describes these resources and gives an example of how the toolkit can be adapted locally.
    • Exploring informal weak tie bonded social networks through a multi-level theoretical lens

      Weir, David; Ali, Sa'ad; York St John's University; University of Derby (2020-07-03)
      In this paper we are chiefly concerned with a desired focus on “co-evolution of networks and organizational attributes, such as innovation introduce a third type of approach to network dynamics that deals with existing networks that are self-regulating, , self-balancing, tend to be self-reproducing and can handle issues of uncertainty and complexity: for instance informal social networks of the type covered Wasta in the Arab Middle East ,Guanxi in the Chinese world and Blat in Russia (Ali and Weir, 2019). In Arab countries “Wasta” describes networks rooted in family and kinship ties, used to bypass formal bureaucratic procedures easing the process of achieving a goal through connections (Cunningham and Sarayrah, 1993; Hutchings and Weir, 2006a; Hutchings and Weir, 2006b; Smith et al., 2012). Wasta is also known as Ma’arifa or Piston, in North African nations such as Tunisia, Algeria, and Morocco (Iles, 2012; Smith et al., 2012b). While these phenomena have been increasingly written about over the past decade (Smith et al., 2012a; Smith et al., 2012b; Velez-Calle et al., 2015; Horak and Taube, 2016; Weir et al., 2016; Ali and Weir, 2019), the emphasis of Western researchers has tended to be critical even dismissive characterising these phenomena as at best stages in the evolution of developing business systems of interest only in the Third World of underdeveloped societies (Loewe et al., 2008) or more pejoratively as inadequate or deviant versions of other approaches to Network Dynamics that derive from the received wisdoms of the classical approaches central to liberal market, rational economic actor paradigms at the heart of western business analysis. The results of these framings are a consensual depiction in some writings of Wasta processes as “favouritism”, “pull”, “corruption” and similar negative portrayals (Ali, 2016; Ali, Weir et al., 2016; Ali and Weir, 2019). The default possibility that these negative emergences are also to be found in other cultures for example of the USA, Europe and the UK tends not to be seriously examined as nor does the implication that the actual experienced present in all its imperfectabilities may be a safer place to start the analysis than deductive essays based on a perfect but unattainable social order as represented by the mainstream rational actor framings. As such, this paper focuses on Wasta as an case study to explore how studying such informal social networks using a multi theoretical lens can expand our understanding of this phenomena and informal social networks in general enabling us to achieve a holistic view of the network linking the structural aspects with the actors of the network which this track calls for.
    • Exposure to contact sports results in maintained performance during experimental pain

      Thornton, C; Sheffield, D; Baird, A; Northumbria University; University of Derby (Elsevier, 2020-06-26)
      During pain, motor performance tends to decline. However, athletes who engage in contact sports are able to maintain performance despite the inherent pain that accompanies participation. This may be the result of being challenged rather than threatened by pain; adaptive coping strategies; habituation to pain; or finding pain less bothersome. This study aimed to measure performance of a novel motor task both in pain and not in pain within experienced contact athletes (n = 40), novice contact athletes (n = 40) and non-contact athletes (n = 40). Challenge and threat perceptions were manipulated during the pain condition and measures of pain tolerance, perception, coping styles and bothersomeness were taken. Results indicated that contact athletes, regardless of experience, were able to maintain their performance during painful stimulation. Non-contact athletes, conversely, performed significantly worse during pain stimulation. In addition, contact athletes tended to be more challenged and the non-contact athletes more threatened within the pain condition. Experienced contact athletes demonstrated higher levels of pain tolerance and direct coping, and reported lower levels of pain bothersomeness and intensity than the other groups. The results suggest that even relatively brief exposure to contact sports may be enough to help maintain performance in pain. Being in a challenged state appears to be an important factor during performance in pain. Moreover, pain tolerance, intensity and bothersomeness may differentiate novice and experienced athletes.PerspectiveExposure to voluntary pain and challenge states are associated with adaptive responses to pain. Motor task performance may be maintained in individuals with more experience of sports-related pain.
    • A theory of challenge and threat states in athletes: a revised conceptualization

      Meijen, Carla; Turner, Martin; Jones, Marc V; Sheffield, David; McCarthy, Paul; St Mary’s University, Twickenham, London; Manchester Metropolitan University; University of Derby; Glasgow Caledonian University (Frontiers, 2020-02-06)
      The Theory of Challenge and Threat States in Athletes (TCTSA) provides a psychophysiological framework for how athletes anticipate motivated performance situations. The purpose of this review is to discuss how research has addressed the 15 predictions made by the TCTSA, to evaluate the mechanisms underpinning the TCTSA in light of the research that has emerged in the last ten years, and to inform a revised TCTSA (TCTSA-R). There was support for many of the 15 predictions in the TCTSA, with two main areas for reflection identified; to understand the physiology of challenge and to re-evaluate the concept of resource appraisals. This re-evaluation informs the TCTSA-R which elucidates the physiological changes, predispositions, and cognitive appraisals that mark challenge and threat states. First, the relative strength of the sympathetic nervous system response is outlined as a determinant of challenge and threat patterns of reactivity and we suggest that oxytocin and neuropeptide Y are also key indicators of an adaptive approach to motivated performance situations and can facilitate a challenge state. Second, although predispositions were acknowledged within the TCTSA, how these may influence challenge and threat states was not specified. In the TCTSA-R it is proposed that one’s propensity to appraise stressors as a challenge that most strongly dictates acute cognitive appraisals. Third, in the TCTSA-R a more parsimonious integration of Lazarusian ideas of cognitive appraisal and challenge and threat is proposed. Given that an athlete can make both challenge and threat primary appraisals and can have both high or low resources compared to perceived demands, a 2x2 bifurcation theory of challenge and threat is proposed. This reflects polychotomy of four parts; high challenge, low challenge, low threat, and high threat. For example, in low threat, an athlete can evince a threat state but still perform well so long as they perceive high resources. Consequently, we propose suggestions for research concerning measurement tools and a reconsideration of resources to include social support. Finally, applied recommendations are made based on adjusting demands and enhancing resources.
    • Does a natural environment enhance the effectiveness of Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction (MBSR)? Examining the mental health and wellbeing, and nature connectedness benefits

      Jorgensen, Anna; Sheffield, David; Choe, Eun Yeong; University of Sheffield; University of Derby (Elsevier, 2020-06-24)
      This study investigated whether the impacts of a commonly used wellbeing intervention, Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction (MBSR), are enhanced when combined with the benefits of exposure to a natural environment. Participants (n = 99) were randomly assigned to a weekly one-hour MBSR in one of three different environments (i.e. natural outdoor, built outdoor and indoor environments) over a six-week period. Participants’ wellbeing outcomes and nature connectedness were measured at baseline, during the intervention and at one-week and one-month follow up. The results show that the mental health and wellbeing outcomes of MBSR are greater when it carried out in a natural outdoor environment compared with indoor or built environments. Moreover, participants in the natural outdoor environment showed sustained improvements even after one month from completion of the intervention. This study supports the potential value of natural environments as settings for the enhancement of health care delivery and therapeutic interventions.
    • Simulated natural environments bolster the effectiveness of a mindfulness programme: A comparison with a relaxation-based intervention

      Choe, Eun Yeong; Jorgensen, Anna; Sheffield, David; University of Sheffield; University of Derby (Elsevier, 2019-12-14)
      This study assesses the effectiveness of incorporating the beneficial effects of exposure to nature in a 3-week mindfulness programme. Participants (n = 122) were randomly assigned to one of two intervention groups (mindfulness, relaxation group) under different simulated environmental conditions (two natural, two non-natural environments) during an intervention lasting three weeks. The participants in the mindfulness group were asked to attend a weekly 1-h mindfulness programme. The relaxation group also spent 1 h per week on relaxation activities of their choice (e.g. reading books or magazines). Participants’ wellbeing outcomes and nature connectedness were measured before and after the three-week intervention, and at one-week follow-up. The findings show that the mindfulness programme was more effective when carried out in a natural environment. In addition, the mindfulness group in natural environments continued to improve even after the intervention was completed. This study offers valuable insights into the benefits of combining a wellbeing intervention with exposure to nature.
    • Numerical study of the coupling between the instantaneous blade loading/power of an axial wind turbine and upstream turbulence at high Reynolds numbers

      Ahmadi, Mohammad H.B.; Yang, Zhiyin; University of Derby (Elsevier BV, 2020-07-06)
      Little is known about how the range of scales in the approaching turbulent flow can interact dynamically with wind turbines and influence its ability to produce power. Here, a numerical study of a horizontal-axis wind turbine at different Reynolds numbers (corresponding to different tip speed ratios) has been conducted to investigate the instantaneous turbine response to upstream turbulence. A computational approach, combining large eddy simulation with actuator line modelling, is adopted. Comparison between Power Spectral Density (PSD) of the turbine thrust/power and PSD of the velocity at the rotor plane and one rotor diameter upstream of it confirms that there is a coupling between the instantaneous turbine thrust/power and the upstream turbulence (one diameter upstream of the turbine) for frequencies below a critical frequency. Furthermore, it has been shown for the first time, that PSD of the turbine thrust/power and the velocity PSD at the rotor plane are very similar, indicating that the instantaneous turbine thrust/power and the velocity at the rotor plane are coupled for all frequencies. This means that the PSD of velocity at the rotor plane or shortly behind it can provide interesting information for the instantaneous turbine loads that are very important for the turbine operational life.
    • Social ecological interventions to increase physical activity in children and young people living with and beyond cancer: a systematic review

      Cross, Ainslea; Howlett, Neil; Sheffield, David; University of Derby; University of Hertfordshire (Taylor & Francis, 2020-05-29)
      To identify the behaviour change techniques and intervention components associated with the promotion of physical activity (PA) for children and young people living with and beyond cancer. A systematic review and narrative synthesis was conducted on the evidence on PA interventions for children and young people (up to 30 years of age) living with and beyond cancer using a social ecological framework. Out of 12 studies, 8 were shown to change PA. Intervention components included (1) behavioural (Instruction on how to perform the behaviour, credible source, behavioural demonstration and rehearsal), (2) cognitive-emotional (targeting attitude, perceived behavioural control, intentions, resilience and achievement) (3) socio-cultural (family and peer support for PA), (4) environmental (providing access to resources, environmental restructuring, safety), (5) demographic (child, adolescent, young adult or mixed) and (6) medical (tailored exercise depending on age and cancer stage). Conclusions: Interventions designed to increase physical activity participation and adherence during and beyond cancer treatment for young people should integrate psychosocial (behavioural, cognitive-emotional, social), environmental and medical intervention components. Our conceptual model can be used to inform the development of interventions and guides future research objectives and priorities.
    • 'It's like a frog leaping leaping about in your chest': Illness and treatment perceptions in patients with persistent atrial fibrillation

      Taylor, Elaina C; O'Neill, Mark; Carroll, Susan; Hughes, Lyndsay D; Moss-Morris, Rona; King's College London (Wiley, 2017-09-05)
      Persistent atrial fibrillation (AF) is an abnormal heart rhythm associated with low quality of life (QoL) and significant health-related costs. The purpose of the study was to examine patients’ illness and treatment beliefs and ways of coping with AF symptoms, to provide insight into promoting better QoL and treatment-specific management. Beliefs were explored across three procedural treatment-groups using a qualitative cross-sectional design. 30 semi-structured interviews were carried out with patients undertaking cardioversion (n=10), catheter ablation (n=11) and atrioventricular node ablation (n=9). Interviews were transcribed and analysed using inductive thematic analysis with elements of grounded theory. An overarching theme of a vicious cycle was evident, which related to perceived lack of knowledge and understanding of AF, attempts to control symptoms and negative emotional reactions to failed control attempts. This vicious cycle related to three subordinate themes (i) Unpredictability and uncertainty of AF and symptoms; (ii) Coping with symptoms through (a) avoidance (b) all-or-nothing- (c) slowing down behaviours; and (iii) Concerns and expectations about treatment. Patients outlined a need to gain control of unpredictable symptoms by monitoring and varying activity levels. These behaviours were often appraised as ineffective at controlling symptoms, leading to heightened uncertainty and increased activity-avoidance. Treatment concerns escalated with increasing number and invasiveness of procedures. Improving AF patients’ perceived understanding of their illness and treatment and promoting more effective symptom-management strategies may alleviate psychological distress and improve QoL. Themes elaborated on the Common-Sense-Model whereby patients’ beliefs about illness and treatment interact with coping behaviours.
    • Self-compassion, social rank, and psychological distress in athletes of varying competitive levels

      Walton, Courtney C.; Baranoff, John; Gilbert, Paul; Kirby, James; The University of Queensland, Brisbane; University of Derby (Elsevier BV, 2020-05-29)
      Self-Compassion may be seen as a concept contrary to the aims of athletes engaged in competitive sport. This could be accentuated at more elite levels, where athletes may view concepts like self-criticism and self-judgement as more important for improvement. The current study aimed to better understand how athletes of different competitive levels (from social to international) relate to concepts of self-compassion. Further, we aimed to explore how factors relating to social rank and self-compassion contribute to psychological distress. Cross-sectional online survey. An online survey was distributed, including the following validated questionnaires: Depression Anxiety and Stress Scales, the Self-Compassion Scale, Fears of Compassion Scales, Social Comparison Scale, Forms of Self-Criticising/Attacking & Self-Reassuring Scale, and the Striving to Avoid Inferiority Scale. Two hundred and fifty-three participants responded to the survey, including 115 recreational and 79 competitive athletes. There were no differences between groups on any measure of compassion or social rank. In a multiple linear regression model, lower self-compassion, higher fears of compassion (for self), and higher feelings of inadequacy predicted more pronounced psychological distress in athletes. Contrary to expectation, the results suggest that even highly elite athletes may be open to using self-compassion. Given that reduced self-compassion and sense of social rank contributed to psychological distress in athletes, the results suggest that compassion-based approaches to treating psychological distress in this population may be valid.