Now showing items 21-40 of 4802

    • Otherlings

      Bartram, Angela; McCloskey, Paula; University of Derby; Artcore (University of Derby, 2019-10-18)
      Otherlings is an exhibition featuring work from Ang Bartram, Steve Baker, Huw Davies and Philip Ranjit Basi, Craig Fisher, Paula McCloskey and Sam Vardy, Stephanie Rushton and Mally Mallinson, and Christine Parker. The overarching theme of the artworks within the exhibition suggests something beyond the parameters of dominancy and its cultural representation. The work in many ways offers explicit or implicit ways to connect us to other perspectives, and experiences through different and often unseen and discussed encounters. It thus opens up new paradigms for debate, for how we might live with care and compassion and function with others, as part of a world shared by many.
    • The use of simulation and moulage in undergraduate diagnostic radiography education: A burns scenario

      Shiner, Naomi; University of Derby (Elsevier, 2019-01-08)
      There is a national drive to increase allied health professions simulation training. However, there is a paucity of literature within diagnostic radiography in relation to clinical simulation. No research could be found regarding the impact of simulation in radiography with complex clinical burns scenarios.This research aims to explore the perceptions of radiography undergraduate students regarding their preparedness for the complex care requirements in imaging examinations of clinical burns cases using a mixed methods approach. A small-scale simulation-based teaching session was developed in a Scottish HEI, using role play and moulage to create realism. Twenty-eight undergraduate student radiographers participated in the scenario. Students completed pre- and post-scenario questionnaires using Likert scale and free response data. Focus groups were undertaken three months after the simulation to obtain rich qualitative data. Common themes were identified via a process of initial coding and a 6-phase thematic analysis. Thematic analysis demonstrated a marked increased perception of preparedness post-scenario; students felt more prepared to undertake their role in the imaging of complex care patients (Likert scoring increased with both mode and median post-scenario). Common themes that were identified were patient centeredness, realism and learning. Within this limited pilot project, the use of simulation was an effective means of preparing students to understand their role within the complex care setting (with respect to the traumatic realism of burns) in preparedness for professional practice. Additionally, students related to the practical understanding of the complexity of human factors that exist within clinical practice.
    • Can simulation impact on first year diagnostic radiography students' emotional preparedness to encounter open wounds on their first clinical placement: A pilot study

      Shiner, Naomi; University of Derby (Elsevier, 2019-05-11)
      This study reports on the use of moulage within a simulation to introduce first year diagnostic radiography students to open wounds in preparation for clinical practice. A mixed-method quasi-experimental design was used. Visual Analogue Scales were used to capture state feelings at the point of seeing open wounds. Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis was used to draw themes from focus groups and an interview following clinical placement. The simulation reduced negative feelings whilst emotional preparedness, distraction and excitement increased. Five major themes were identified including emotional engagement, engagement with wound, building relationships, developing professional self and simulation impact. The use of moulage and a simulation provides an opportunity to explore initial reactions. Students actively reflect on this experience during clinical practice changing practice. The impact of open wounds can be long lasting and support from radiographers should allow these new experiences to be processed reducing the risk of burnout.
    • Is there a role for simulation based education within conventional diagnostic radiography? A literature review

      Shiner, Naomi; University of Derby (Elsevier, 2018-02-07)
      Simulation based education is advancing, but is there a role for it in Diagnostic Radiography? The aim of this literature review was to understand the use of simulation within conventional diagnostic radiography education to raise awareness of this pedagogical approach. Objectives were to identify the prevalence and stage of delivery in education; understand the variation of simulation and learning objectives informing its use; and review the perceptions of those using simulation in education and practice. The literature review used a systematic search strategy. Library Plus, CINAHL, ScienceDirect, Medline and Google Scholar were reviewed resulting in 703 articles. Inclusion and exclusion criteria were applied with initial review of title and abstract resulting in 22 articles. Fifteen articles were selected following full text review. Simulation was used for both pre-and post-registration education. Themes included inter-professional education, use of computer software and improving patient/practitioner interactions. Increased confidence and understanding of professional roles were common outcomes. Simulation is a valuable pedagogical approach for diagnostic radiography education. Staff training and careful implementation of each stage is required to achieve desired learning outcomes.
    • An overview of the types and applications of simulation-based education within diagnostic radiography and ultrasound at two higher education institutions

      Shiner, Naomi; Pantic, V; University of Derby; University of Leeds (The Society of Radiographers: Deeson Publishing, 2019-06-02)
      The aim of this research was to explore the use of SBE across two HEIs delivering diagnostic radiography and ultrasound programmes; to inform, inspire and encourage educators across HEIs and in clinical practice to implement the use of SBE to support students in their learning.
    • Holocaust education and contemporary antisemitism

      Allwork Larissa; The University of Derby (History and Policy, 2019-11-29)
      This working paper explores the relationship between Holocaust education and efforts to combat antisemitism across Europe. It synthesizes a diverse evidence base for policy-makers, which illustrates both the strengths and limitations of Holocaust education as a method for sensitizing young people to antisemitism. It concludes with recommendations for future action in Holocaust education. This working paper was researched and written for CEJI - A Jewish Contribution to an Inclusive Europe in August 2019. It is under consideration for publication with 'History and Policy'.
    • Elemental ratios link environmental change and human health

      Paseka, Rachel E.; Bratt, Anika R.; MacNeill, Keeley L.; Burian, Alfred; See, Craig R.; University of Derby (Frontiers, 2019-10-10)
      Humans have fundamentally altered the cycling of multiple elements on a global scale. These changes impact the structure and function of terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems, with many implications for human health. Most prior studies linking biogeochemical changes to human health have evaluated the effects of single elements in isolation. However, the relative availability of multiple elements often determines the biological impact of shifts in the concentration of a single element. The balance of multiple elements is the focus of ecological stoichiometry, which highlights the importance of elemental ratios in biological function across all systems and scales of organization. Consequently, ecological stoichiometry is a promising framework to inform research on the links between global changes to elemental cycles and human health. We synthesize evidence that elemental ratios link global change with human health through biological processes occurring at two scales: in the environment (natural ecosystems and food systems) and within the human body. Elemental ratios in the environment impact the key ecosystem processes of productivity and biodiversity, both of which contribute to the production of food, toxins, allergens, and parasites. Elemental ratios in diet impact processes within the human body, including the function and interactions of the immune system, parasites, and the non-pathogenic microbiome. Collectively, these stoichiometric effects contribute to a wide range of non-infectious and infectious diseases. By describing stoichiometric mechanisms linking global change, ecological processes, and human health, we hope to inspire future empirical and theoretical research on this theme.
    • A community-based evaluation of population growth and agro-pastoralist resilience in Sub-Saharan drylands

      Karaya, Rebecca; Wernersson, Julia E.V.; Egberth, Mikael; Lokorwa, Benjamin; Nyberg, Gert; Alfred, Burian; University of Derby (Elsevier, 2018-12-14)
      Human population growth is considered together with climate warming as major driver of change in Sub-Saharan Africa. Research on the implications of increased population densities often utilises community knowledge but without incorporating the view of local stakeholders. In this study, we applied a community-centred approach to assess direct and indirect consequences of population growth in drylands of north-western Kenya. Combined social, agricultural and geo-spatial analyses allowed us to identify major system transitions, determine their linkage to population growth and deduce consequences for local livelihoods and community resilience.Community-members reported positive and negative consequences of fourfold population growth since 1974 but evaluated its overall effect as clearly beneficial. This overall positive effect was based on both, positive developments and the successful mitigation of potential system stressors. First, food security was maintained despite high growth rates because a shift from migratory pastoralism to a more labour-intensive agro-pastoralist system helped to increase agricultural productivity. Additionally, land-use changes were linked to land privatisation and improved erosion protection on private land, decoupling population growth from environmental degradation.We detected, however also early warning signs of reduced community resilience as households were unable to fully recover livestock densities after catastrophic events. A population-growth driven reduction in household land-sizes and the decreased monetary value of agricultural production were identified as drivers of this development. The extrapolation of our results to establish a general relationship between population densities, land-use and household resilience in Sub-Saharan drylands suggest that further system transformations will be required to ensure regional food-security.
    • Nutrient deficiencies and the restriction of compensatory mechanisms in copepods

      Burian, Alfred; Grosse, Julia; Winder, Monika; Boschker, Henricus T.S.; Stockholm University; Utrecht University (British Ecological Society, 2017-11-14)
      The flexible regulation of feeding behaviour and nutrient metabolism is a prerequisite for consumers to grow and survive under variable food conditions. Thus, it is essential to understand the ecological trade-offs that restrict regulatory mechanisms in consumers to evaluate the consequences of nutrient limitations for trophic interactions. Here, we assessed behavioural and physiological adjustments to nutrient deficiencies in copepods and examined whether energy limitation, food digestibility or co-limitation with a second nutrient restricted compensatory mechanisms. A combination of C-13-labelling and compound-specific stable isotope measurements revealed that copepods compensated nitrogen deficiencies by raising retention efficiencies of amino acids (AA). The costs of higher retention efficiencies were reflected in the doubling of structural fatty acids (FA), probably required for morphological adaptations of the gut. A depletion of highly unsaturated FA in storage lipids and their selective retention suggested that these FA became co-limiting and restricted a further increase in AA retention efficiencies. Copepods feeding on phosphorus-limited algae showed a marked increase in ingestion rates but were not fully able to compensate dietary deficiencies. The increase in ingestion rates was thereby not restricted by higher foraging costs because energy storage in copepods increased. Instead, thicker cell walls of nutrient-limited algae indicated that algal digestion resistance restricted the extent of surplus feeding. The strongly nutrient-specific response of copepods had large implications for recycling rates, growth efficiencies and the potential top-down control at the plant-animal interface. Compensatory mechanisms to mitigate nutrient deficiencies are therefore an essential aspect of trophic interactions and have the potential to alter the structure of food web.
    • The impacts and benefits of employing a progressive and sustained approach to outreach programmes for universities: a case study – the progress to success framework

      Bainham, Krisha; University of Derby (FACE: Forum for Access and Continuing Education, 2019-07)
      The East Midlands is a social mobility cold spot with limited life chances and GCSE attainment well below the national average. The University of Derby’s Progress to Success Framework - targeting secondary schools in disadvantaged areas of Derby city and Derbyshire - has been developed in response to government concerns around widening the participation in higher education (HE) of under-represented learners. It is a long-term outreach initiative aimed at raising the aspiration, awareness and attainment cohorts of learners through a multi-intervention approach creating ‘drip feed’ touchpoints from Year 7 through to Year 11. Initiatives such as the National Collaborative Outreach Programme (NCOP) and Derby Opportunity Area (OA), plus research into sector best practice and ‘what works’ inform the framework, through which we offer activity which is engaging, interactive and informative. Robust evaluation and reflection is embedded throughout the framework using a logic model to map out success and impact measures to ensure effectiveness. A mixed methodology is employed, including individual activity feedback; teacher evaluation; multi-point surveys; focus groups; and tracking progress against predicted grades. This paper explores the benefits and challenges of delivering sustained outreach, and measuring the longitudinal impact on learners, in a rapidly changing political landscape, which is often times characterised by short-term funding streams and responding to continuous change in government measures. It puts forward an often overlooked practitioner viewpoint and illustrates how outreach professionals can ensure programmes encompass activity that is ultimately deliverable, whilst also being reactive to policy and creating a valid body of impact evidence.
    • A case study on sound level monitoring and management at large-scale music festivals

      Hill, Adam J.; Kok, Marcel; Mulder, Johannes; Burton, Jon; Kociper, Alex; Berrios, Anthony; University of Derby; Murdoch University; dBcontrol; Gand Concert Sound (Institute of Acoustics, 2019-11)
      Sound level management at live events has been made immeasurably easier over the past decade or so through use of commercially-available sound level monitoring software. This paper details a study conducted at a large-scale multi-day music festival in Chicago, USA. The focus was twofold: first to explore how the use of noise monitoring software affects the mix level from sound engineers and second on how crowd size, density and distribution affect the mix level. Additionally, sound levels at various points in the audience were monitored to indicate audience sound exposure over the duration of the festival. Results are presented in relation to those from previous studies with key findings pointing towards recommendations for best practice.
    • Use of environmental management systems to mitigate urban pollution

      Horry, Rosemary; University of Derby; University of West of England (Wiley, 2018-10-16)
      An environmental management system (EMS) is an instrument that can help organizations to manage and positively improve their level of impact on the environment. This chapter provides an overview of the importance for organizations to have an established EMS in place. It employs a series of infamous case studies to highlight where an EMS could have served as a useful means of mitigating pollution events. The chapter identifies a number of organizational benefits of implementing an EMS. All businesses face a challenge in terms of their environmental impacts; environmental work is not just a concern for multinational organizations, which is sometimes how it is viewed. The chapter describes some of the well known pollution incidents and how they were managed. Some of these impacts were mitigated through the use of legislation.
    • Staff reports of bullying and intervention strategies in Croatian care and correctional institutions for youth

      Sekol, Ivana; Farrington, David; Department of Criminology and Social Sciences, University of Derby; University of Cambridge (Sage, 2020-10-21)
      This study compares staff reports of bullying amongst institutionalized youth with residents’ own self-reported prevalence of bullying and victimization collected in the previous study (hereafter the Self-Report Study on Bullying in Croatian Residential Care (SSBCRC)) and staff reports of reduction strategies are compared with evidence-based proposed policy solutions arising from residents’ reports. The study also compares reduction strategies used by staff with evidence-based proposed policy solutions arising from residents’ reports arising from the SSBCRC. One hundred and forty staff from 20 Croatian youth facilities completed an anonymous questionnaire. The results revealed that staff estimates of the prevalence of bullying and victimization were significantly lower than resident reports. Staff were better aware of the prevalence of certain types of bullying, but they held stereotypical views of bullies and victims and had difficulties in recognizing the true times and places of bullying. Staff described their anti-bullying policies as being predominantly reactive, rather than proactive and evidence-based. It is concluded that more effort needs to be made in order to change the current anti-bullying policies used by staff.
    • Patient involvement in pressure ulcer prevention and adherence to prevention strategies: An integrative review

      Ledger, Lisa; Worsley, Peter; Hope, Jo; Schoonhoven, Lisette; University of Derby; University of Southampton; Utrecht University (Elsevier, 2019-10-14)
      Chronic wounds including pressure ulcers represent a significant burden to patients and healthcare providers. Increasingly patients are required to self-manage their care but patient adherence to prevention strategies is a significant clinical challenge. It is important to increase understanding of the factors affecting patients’ ability and willingness to follow pressure ulcer prevention interventions. To investigate from a patient perspective the factors affecting adherence to pressure ulcer prevention strategies. Integrative Literature Review Data Sources: A systematic search of electronic databases (Athens, Pub Med, Web of Science, Science Direct, AMED, CINAHL, Cochrane Library, PsychInfo, Google Scholar, Delphis) was initially conducted in May 2017 (repeated August 2018). The methodological quality was assessed using the Critical Appraisal Skills Programme (CASP) principles. The Noticing, Collecting, Thinking (NCT) model of qualitative data analysis was used to identify key themes. A total of twelve studies met the inclusion criteria and were included in the review. The majority of studies were qualitative and three key themes were identified: i) individual/daily lifestyle considerations, ii) patient involvement in the decision-making process, and iii) pain and/or discomfort. There is limited research that focuses on the patient view of factors affecting adherence to prevention measures, particularly in community settings. Individual and daily lifestyle considerations and involvement in decision-making around pressure ulcer care are important aspects from the patient perspective. Further research is necessary to explore which factors affect patient adherence in order to improve clinical practice and support patient involvement in preventative strategies.
    • The transparency of binaural auralisation using very high order circular harmonics

      Dring, Mark; Wiggins, Bruce; University of Derby (Institute of Acoustics, 2019-11)
      Ambisonics to binaural rendering has become the de facto format for processing and reproducing spatial sound scenes, but direct capture and software generated output is limited to low orders; limiting the accuracy of psycho-acoustic cues and therefore the illusion of a ‘real-world’ experience. Applying a practical method through the use of acoustic modelling software, this study examines the potential of using very high horizontal only Ambisonic orders (up to 31st) to binaural rendering. A novel approach to the scene capturing process is implemented to realise these very high orders for a reverberant space with head-tracking capabilities. A headphone based subjective test is conducted, evaluating specific attributes of a presented auditory scene to determine when a limit to the perceived auditory differences of varying orders has been reached.
    • Nurses' knowledge and practice of pressure ulcer prevention and treatment: an observational study

      Saleh, Mohammad; Papanikolaou, Panos; Nassar, Omayyah; Shaheen, Abeer; Anthony, Denis; The University of Jordan; University of Leeds (Elsevier, 2019-10-25)
      To assess nurses’ knowledge on pressure ulcer (PU) prevention and treatment in Jordan, and the frequency of and factors influencing nurses’ implementation of PU prevention and treatment interventions. Highly educated and experienced nurses can provide effective PU care; however, previous studies highlighted poor knowledge and implementation of PU care. Design: A correlational study examining nurses’ knowledge of PU prevention and frequency of PU preventive actions in Jordanian hospitals. Participants were 377 nurses and 318 patients from 11 hospitals. Data were collected to quantify the frequency of nurses’ implementation of pressure ulcer prevention and treatment interventions for patients suffering from PUs and/or at risk of PU development using a self-reported cross-sectional survey and prospective 8-hour observation. For observed PU prevention while type of hospital and number of beds in units were significant it is not known without further work if this is replicable. For observed PU treatment, linear regression analysis revealed significant negative beta values for more than 50 beds in clinical unit (β=-2.49). The study addressed new factors, facilitating the provision of prevention and treatment strategies to PU development, including type of clinical institution and number of beds in clinical unit.
    • Analysis and optimal design of a vibration isolation system combined with electromagnetic energy harvester

      Diala, Uchenna; Mofidian, SM Mahdi; Lang, Zi-Qiang; Bardaweel, Hamzeh; University of Sheffield (SAGE Publications, 2019-07-17)
      This work investigates a vibration isolation energy harvesting system and studies its design to achieve an optimal performance. The system uses a combination of elastic and magnetic components to facilitate its dual functionality. A prototype of the vibration isolation energy harvesting device is fabricated and examined experimentally. A mathematical model is developed using first principle and analyzed using the output frequency response function method. Results from model analysis show an excellent agreement with experiment. Since any vibration isolation energy harvesting system is required to perform two functions simultaneously, optimization of the system is carried out to maximize energy conversion efficiency without jeopardizing the system’s vibration isolation performance. To the knowledge of the authors, this work is the first effort to tackle the issue of simultaneous vibration isolation energy harvesting using an analytical approach. Explicit analytical relationships describing the vibration isolation energy harvesting system transmissibility and energy conversion efficiency are developed. Results exhibit a maximum attainable energy conversion efficiency in the order of 1%. Results suggest that for low acceleration levels, lower damping values are favorable and yield higher conversion efficiencies and improved vibration isolation characteristics. At higher acceleration, there is a trade-off where lower damping values worsen vibration isolation but yield higher conversion efficiencies.
    • Celebrity Science Culture: Young people's inspiration or entertainment?

      Radford, Neil; Forman, Dawn; Dent, Maria Fay (University of Derby, 2019-11-07)
      This thesis explores the influence of celebrity scientists on the uptake of science by young people, post-GCSE; the phenomenon is based upon media assertions that young people were continuing with science as a result of the increased media presence of scientists: the ‘Brian Cox effect’. Research design is set within a constructivist-interpretivist paradigm and case study framework, employing a narrative, story-telling approach to data collection and presentation. Narratives require ‘actors’, and as such the ‘lead actors’ in this research are: the conceptual framework; a narrative approach to data presentation; and the sociological perspectives of science capital and habitus. Together they guide development of the ‘bricolaged’ methodology, underpin the innovative script-writing approach to data presentation, which are used to illuminate the phenomenon of celebrity science culture. Data collection includes two participant groups: eighteen science students (‘A’ Level, undergraduate, and postgraduate), and five celebrity scientists (Sir David Attenborough, Baroness Susan Greenfield, Professor Steve Jones, Professor Mark Miodownik MBE, and Roma Agrawal MBE). Interviews explore science memories and influences, as well as perceptions of the role of celebrity science and scientists. The rationale and significance of this research lies within two strands: knowledge-based and methodological. It offers new knowledge to the field of celebrity science influence, with the potential to inform science education policy makers, and the methodological bricolage of conceptual framework development and creative narrative practices offer new dimensions to narrative research. An intrinsic, long-standing ‘passion’ for science was found to be the most influential factor. Advanced subject knowledge of teachers and lecturers, alongside opportunities to work within authentic and meaningful contexts, were highlighted as important in raising aspirations, and building science capital. Celebrity scientists were perceived as having the potential to influence young people, with authentic, inspiring contexts, presented in an entertaining format potentially optimising this influence. Science per se, rather than the ‘scientist’ him/herself, was more influential, contrasting with the traditional view of celebrity influence. The perceptions of science students are reflected in the findings from celebrity scientists. Engagement with children and young people was considered part of their role, not only to raise aspirations, but also to increasingly embed science culturally; their own passion for science the impetus for involvement. Partnership with other stakeholders was recognised as key, especially teachers and parents. ‘Personification’ was also recognised as important, acknowledging the responsibility that brings for their work to be truthful and credible. The thesis concludes with recommendations for future policy and practice, offering a theoretical framework and bespoke checklist, derived from the data, to support dialogue between stakeholders. This includes exploring use of the narratives as a tool to engage pupils with their own science journeys, with the intention of enhancing their science capital. The concept of “message to a name” is introduced, in contrast to the “name to a message” phenomenon of celebrity influence.
    • Determining the factors which positively affect the intra-family chief executive officer succession of UK small and medium-sized companies

      Jones, Christine; Poultney, Val; Jones, Richard (University of Derby, 2019-10-02)
      A change in Chief Executive Officer (CEO) is a critical event in the life of any business. For family businesses the stakes can be higher, as failure may lead to the dual issues of business collapse and significant family harm. Intra-family business CEO succession is the transfer of leadership to a different member of the family and is a strategic direction family businesses take, even if sacrificing performance across generations to secure long-term control benefits. The research aims to determine the factors which positively affect the intra-family CEO succession of UK Small and Medium companies as gaps were identified in the research of businesses that had been through a succession across a range of areas. This research uses a deductive research design to test the existing theory and combines theoretical conceptualisations developed within the literature review with the aim of providing new theory and insight into the issues. Quantitative data was collected from primary and secondary sources from 230 UK Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs) which identified as family businesses and had been through a succession. The questionnaires were completed by company directors and the questions consisted of measures relating to the succession event, processes and outcomes. The data collected was tested empirically using process tracing and regression analysis. Findings show that disagreements relating to the initial planning made an intra-family CEO more likely as did a discussion of passing control to a professional manager. It was found that a family business with higher proportions of senior management, higher levels of generational involvement and higher levels of experience led to an increasingly likely succession to an intra-family CEO. This finding took an additional step in the understanding of elements of the Family Influence on Power, Experience and Culture model. The thesis also found, empirically, that satisfaction with the succession process increased with the presence of advisors and that there was a positive relationship between director stability and profit and a negative relationship with management stability and profit. The findings indicated that a degree of externality in the succession contributes to a positive intra-family CEO succession outcome.
    • The effect of accounting for biarticularity in hip flexor and hip extensor joint torque representations

      Lewis, Martin; Yeadon, M.R.; King, M.A.; Nottingham Trent University (Elsevier, 2017-10-07)
      Subject-specific torque-driven models have ignored biarticular effects at the hip. The aim of this study was to establish the contribution of monoarticular hip flexors and hip extensors to total hip flexor and total hip extensor joint torques for an individual and to investigate whether torque-driven simulation models should consider incorporating biarticular effects at the hip joint. Maximum voluntary isometric and isovelocity hip flexion and hip extension joint torques were measured for a single participant together with surface electromyography. Single-joint and two-joint representations were fitted to the collected torque data and used to determine the maximum voluntary joint torque capacity. When comparing two-joint and single-joint representations, the single-joint representation had the capacity to produce larger maximum voluntary hip flexion torque (larger by around 9% of maximum torque) and smaller maximum voluntary hip extension torque (smaller by around 33% of maximum torque) with the knee extended. Considering the range of kinematics found for jumping movements, the single-joint hip flexors had the capacity to produce around 10% additional torque, while the single joint hip extensors had about 70% of the capacity of the two-joint representation. Two-joint representations may overcome an over-simplification of single-joint representations by accounting for biarticular effects, while building on the strength of determining subject-specific parameters from measurements on the participant.