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      Townend, Michael; Montague, Jane; Stoneley, Helen; Gilbert, Paul; Wood, Wendy (University of DerbyCollege Of Health and Social Care University of Derby, 2021)
      This research examined the personal and professional experiences of counsellors and psychotherapists who employ the principles and practices of Compassion Focused Therapy (CFT). The research was developed due to anecdotal accounts from counsellors and psychotherapists (and personal experience) that suggested that working with CFT significantly influenced their personal and professional lives. This research focused on a holistic understanding, examining how therapists made sense of CFT in their personal and professional life. The holistic focus is based on systemic theories. However, in this case, rather than looking at systems from a family therapy perspective, the focus here is on what happens in the therapy room is an interweaving of both the client/patient and therapists' experiences, including physiological, cognitive, emotional, organisational, and socio-political influences. Current research in counselling and psychotherapy is focused on patient/client outcomes; it is argued that understanding therapists is just as important as understanding the clients/patients since therapists are a significant part of the therapeutic intervention. Since CFT is a relatively recent psychotherapeutic intervention, the aim is for the research into therapists can develop at the same time as research into clients/patients. The research used Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis (IPA). The sample was 10 counsellors/psychotherapists who use the principles and practice of CFT in their personal and professional lives. The method of data collection was the diary/interview method. Thematic analysis was also used to analyse specific questions at the end of the diary and interview. Seven themes were discussed: Experience of using the principles and practices of CFT in professional life; Using CFT to engage with disempowerment, injustice, and abuse; blocks to compassion in clinical work; CBT CFT and other approaches; Experience of using the principles and practices of CFT in personal life; personal blocks to compassion and the importance of time as a block or support to compassion. This research found that psychotherapists' personal and professional experiences are complex and multi-dimensional. They include complex interactions and awareness that are internal to the therapist involving physiological, cognitive, and emotional responses that are ever-changing in response to environmental factors. Experiences also involve external interactions with patients/clients, supervisors, colleagues, other professionals, and the socio-political influences that shape personal and professional life. This research identifies several implications for practice, policy, education, and research. Time was a significant theme. The importance of sufficient time to reflect on practice, personal and professional development impacts the quality of service development and delivery. The importance of developing organisational and practice cultures of equity diversity and inclusion to facilitate the development of compassion was another significant implication. Concerning therapists’ education, explicit focus on the debates around integration and writing to enhance reflective practice. The implications for future research reflect the need to move away from methodological tribalism.
    • An integrative epi-transcriptomic approach identifies the human cartilage chitinase 3-like protein 2 (CHI3L2) as a potential mediator of B12 deficiency in adipocytes

      Ogunkolade, B. William; Adaikalakoteswari, Antonysunil; Cardoso, Shirleny Romualdo; Lowe, Rob; Patel, Nisha; Rakyan, Vardhman; Finer, Sarah; Wabitsch, Martin; Saravanan, Ponnusamy; Tripathi, Gyanendra; et al. (Informa UK Limited, 2021-11-25)
      Vitamin B12 has multiple biochemical functions including in the one-carbon cycle generating a methyl group for DNA methylation, and metabolism of fatty acids and amino acids to generate energy via the citric acid cycle. The aim of our study was to use a combined epigenomic and transcriptomic approach to identify novel genes mediating the effect of B12 on adipogenesis. Human pre-adipocytes (CHUB-S7) were treated with a range of B12 (0–500 nM) concentrations from the day of cell seeding until harvesting in discovery and validation experiments prior to genome-wide methylation analysis using the Illumina HumanMethylation 450Beadchip. For transcriptomic analysis, RNA-seq libraries were run on the Illumina HiSeq 2500. To further investigate the expression of any genes on human adipogenesis, a second human preadipocyte strain was studied (SGBS) by real-time quantitative PCR (qRT-PCR). A combined epigenetic and transcriptomic approach in differentiated human pre-adipocyte cell line, CHUB-S7, identified that the Human cartilage chitinase 3-like protein 2 (CHI3L2) gene was hypo-methylated and had increased expression in low B12 conditions. Furthermore, there was an approximately 1000-fold increase in CHI3L2 expression in the early days of adipocyte differentiation, which paralleled an increase of lipid droplets in differentiated SGBS cells and an increased expression level of markers of mature adipocytes. In summary, we have identified a potential role of the human cartilage chitinase 3-like protein 2 (CHI3L2) in adipocyte function in the presence of low B12 levels.
    • Principles and Practice of Nurse Prescribing

      Gould, Jill; Bain, Heather; University of Derby; Robert Gordon University (SAGE, 2022-02)
      Feel prepared to take on nurse prescribing with this short and accessible text. Whether you are pre-registration or undertaking a prescribing course, this book is your perfect introduction to the world of nurse prescribing. Covering the legal, professional and pharmacological considerations as well as core skills such as assessment and teamworking, this accessible text explores all aspects of non-medical prescribing in clear, straightforward terms.
    • Student carer experiences of higher education and support: a scoping review

      Runacres, J.; Herron, D.; Buckless, K.; Worrall, S.; Staffordshire University; University of Derby (Informa UK Limited, 2021-10-30)
      Student carers are students who provide unpaid support to an individual who could not manage without their care. A scoping review was undertaken to determine the themes and concepts which underpin student carers’ experiences within higher education, examine student carers’ experiences of support and identify any gaps in the literature. A comprehensive literature search was conducted between February and May 2020. The search yielded 2,484 items, of which 14 articles were included in the review. Data from each article were extracted, charted and analysed using thematic analysis. The articles revealed that caring responsibilities could have a negative impact on student carers’ physical and mental health, university performance and financial status. Both formal and informal sources of support were referenced. Further, it was noted that universities had rigid rules and policies which did not suit the flexible needs of student carers. A paucity of research examined the impact studying had on student’s ability to provide care. Finally, issues relating to research design were observed, and a lack of demographic information or detail on the caring duties performed was found. A more robust evidence base is required to facilitate the development of interventions to support student carers in education
    • Influence of the printing process on the traces produced by the discharge of 3D-printed Liberators

      Trincat, Théo; Saner, Michel; Schaufelbühl, Stefan; Gorka, Marie; Rhumorbarbe, Damien; Gallusser, Alain; Delémont, Olivier; Werner, Denis; University of Lausanne, Lausanne, Switzerland; University of Derby (Elsevier BV, 2021-12-09)
      Since its introduction in 1986, 3D printing technology is in constant development. 3D printers are becoming more and more performant and accessible. In 2013, the Liberator blueprints are released online. This single-shot pistol can be entirely manufactured using a 3D printer, except for the firing pin and the ammunition. First, this research aims at establishing an overview of all the elements and traces potentially present when a 3D-printed firearm is involved, whether it is fired or not. In the second part, we study these elements for exploitability to obtain information about the manufacture of the firearm (printing processes, 3D printers and polymers). For this purpose, a total of 36 Liberators were manufactured using different printing conditions (i.e., printing processes, printers, polymers and parameters). The tested printing processes were based on the principles of Material Extrusion (ME), Vat Photopolymerization (VP) and Powder Bed Fusion (PBF). All 3D-printed firearms manufactured via ME and PBF were able to fire whereas Liberators manufactured by VP printing could not be fired. This could be explained by the lack of precision of the prints making it impossible to assemble some of the Liberators, or by the fact that the polymer was not suitable to produce the springs. All the barrels were broken by the discharge, projecting polymer pieces or fragments into the environment. These polymer pieces or fragments were examined to determine which printing process was used as well as other elements related to printing parameters and conditions (e.g., layer height, filling pattern and infill density). This information is useful to determine whether a certain command file, slicer or 3D printer could be at the source of a questioned 3D-printed firearm. Melted polymer or polymer particles on elements of ammunition may also be present after the firing process. However, the examination of these particles does not allow inferring other information, except the possible use of a 3D-printed polymer firearm.
    • Bio-vehicles of cytotoxic drugs for delivery to tumor specific targets for cancer precision therapy

      Al-mansoori, Layla; Elsinga, Philip; Goda, Sayed K.; Qatar University, Doha, Qatar; University Medical Center Groningen, the Netherlands; Cairo University, Egypt; University of Derby (Elsevier BV, 2021-10-01)
      Abnormal structural and molecular changes in malignant tissues were thoroughly investigated and utilized to target tumor cells, hence rescuing normal healthy tissues and lowering the unwanted side effects as non-specific cytotoxicity. Various ligands for cancer cell specific markers have been uncovered and inspected for directional delivery of the anti-cancer drug to the tumor site, in addition to diagnostic applications. Over the past few decades research related to the ligand targeted therapy (LTT) increased tremendously aiming to treat various pathologies, mainly cancers with well exclusive markers. Malignant tumors are known to induce elevated levels of a variety of proteins and peptides known as cancer “markers” as certain antigens (e.g., Prostate specific membrane antigen “PSMA”, carcinoembryonic antigen “CEA”), receptors (folate receptor, somatostatin receptor), integrins (Integrin αvβ3) and cluster of differentiation molecules (CD13). The choice of an appropriate marker to be targeted and the design of effective ligand-drug conjugate all has to be carefully selected to generate the required therapeutic effect. Moreover, since some tumors express aberrantly high levels of more than one marker, some approaches investigated targeting cancer cells with more than one ligand (dual or multi targeting). We aim in this review to report an update on the cancer-specific receptors and the vehicles to deliver cytotoxic drugs, including recent advancements on nano delivery systems and their implementation in targeted cancer therapy. We will discuss the advantages and limitations facing this approach and possible solutions to mitigate these obstacles. To achieve the said aim a literature search in electronic data bases (PubMed and others) using keywords “Cancer specific receptors, cancer specific antibody, tumor specific peptide carriers, cancer overexpressed proteins, gold nanotechnology and gold nanoparticles in cancer treatment” was carried out.
    • Parenting Styles, Parenting Stress and Hours Spent Online as Predictors of Child Internet Addiction Among Children with Autism

      Bozoglan, Bahadir; Kumar, Suresh; University of Derby (Springer Science and Business Media LLC, 2021-10-13)
      The current study examined the association between hours spent online (HOS), positive parenting, negative parenting, autism parental stress and Internet addiction among Singapore based boys and girls (aged 6 to 14 years old) with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). The research participants included 59 parents (41 females and 18 males) aged between 28 and 74 years old (mean age 37.95). Results indicated HOS, negative parenting and autism parenting stress predicted 54.8% of the total variance in Child Internet Addiction scores of children with ASD. Autism parental stress was the most significant predictor explaining 25.3% of the total variance with time spent online explaining another 23.5% and negative parenting predicted 6%. Positive parenting was not found to be significant. The findings reinforce the importance of according greater consideration for the role of parents when working with such children.
    • Predicting future default on the Covid-19 bounce back loan scheme: The 46.5 billion question

      Cowling, Marc; Wilson, N; Nightingale, P; Kacer, M; University of Derby; University of Leeds (SAGE, 2022)
      The UK has had a commitment to loan guarantee schemes since 1981 when it introduced the Small Firms Loan Guarantee (SFLG) scheme to address access to debt finance issues for smaller firms. Over the last 40 years its’ support has been unwavering and in the Covid-19 crisis it once again turned to loan guarantees as a means of supporting smaller firms through the crisis induced slump in trading activities. Of its three core Covid-19 guarantee schemes, the Bounce Back Loan scheme was the most numerous with 1,531,095 loans issued amounting to a total of £46.5bn in lending. The BBL scheme provided a 100% capital guarantee on loans between £2,000 and £50,000, and firms were allowed to borrow up to 25% of their trading income, with a fixed interest rate of 2.5% of which the first years interest was paid by the government to the lending bank. Our findings suggest that the government losses may range between £7bn and £12bn depending on the underlying assumptions. But we estimate Covid-19 guarantee schemes may have protected 118,639 businesses and 1,117,849 jobs. Looking to the future we suggest that a new loan guarantee is justified which is more like the former SFLG than the restrictive EFG as more than 1 million small businesses will be heavily indebted and unable to borrow to invest in future growth opportunities. This would support the 'levelling-up' agenda and help prevent a post-Covid-19 low investment - low growth scenario.
    • Has previous loan rejection scarred firms from applying for loans during Covid-19?

      Cowling, Marc; Calabrese, Raffaella; Liu, Weixi; University of Derby; University of Edinburgh; University of Bath (Springer, 2021-12-18)
      The concept of the ‘discouraged’ borrower is well documented. In this paper we consider whether smaller firms in the UK who have been previously rejected for bank loans have been scarred by the experience so badly that even in the presence of two exceptionally generous Covid-19 loan guarantee schemes they still refuse to make an application. Further, we also consider what happens when they do. As banks have either zero or minimal loss exposure, do they still maintain their normal strict lending protocols or do they relax their standards to fulfil the governments’ objective of supporting struggling businesses through the crisis? Our findings show that 72% of previously rejected borrowers are reluctant to request loans. We find some evidence that previously scarred firms faced such severe liquidity problems that they relaxed their distrust of banks during the Covid-19 crisis. However, their share of the governments guaranteed loan portfolio was slightly lower suggesting that banks were treating each new loan application on its merits.
    • Understanding the Dynamics of UK Covid-19 SME Financing

      Calabrese, Raffaella; Cowling, Marc; Liu, Weixi; University of Edinburgh; University of Derby; University of Bath (Wiley, 2021-12-14)
      The scale of the UK government’s response to the Covid-19 crisis after the first lockdown in March 2020 was unprecedented. For the business sector two financing schemes were particularly relevant, the Coronavirus Business Interruption Loan (CBILS) and the Bounce Back Loan (BBLS). Both were designed to support the capitalisation of businesses through this difficult trading period. In this paper we use data covering the first two quarters of the Covid-19 crisis to explore the dynamics of SME financing and in particular the role of government support schemes. Our findings show that 92.1% of all debt funds provided in this period were backed by the UK government which compares to less than 5% under normal circumstances. We find that the demand, supply, and government share of SME lending increased from Covid-19 quarter 1 (April to June 2020) to quarter 2 (July to September 2020), that micro and small businesses had the highest demand for loans, and that better-performing firms were more likely to receive loans. Further, in a world where more loan requests than ever were granted the government share of this pool of loans had a different risk profile than the small pool of non-government backed loans.
    • No Independent or Synergistic Effects of Carbohydrate-Caffeine Mouth Rinse on Repeated Sprint Performance During Simulated Soccer Match Play in Male Recreational Soccer Players

      Gough, Lewis A.; Faghy, Mark; Clarke, Neil; Kelly, Adam L.; Cole, Matthew; Lun Foo, Wee; Birmingham City University; University of Derby; Coventry University (Informa UK Limited, 2021-12-18)
      The study examined the synergistic and independent effects of carbohydrate-caffeine mouth rinse on repeated sprint performance during simulated soccer match play. Nine male soccer players (21 ± 3 years, 1.75 ± 0.05 m, 68.0 ± 9.0 kg) completed four trials with either 6 mg·kg−1 caffeine + 10% maltodextrin (CHO+CAFMR), 6 mg·kg−1 caffeine (CAFMR), 10% maltodextrin (CHOMR), water (PLA) in a block randomised, double-blinded, counterbalanced and crossover manner separated by minimum 96 h. All solutions were taste-matched and a carbohydrate-rich meal (2 g·kg−1body mass) was provided a minimum 2 h before each trial. Each trial consisted of a 90-min soccer specific aerobic field test (SAFT90) and two bouts of repeated sprint ability tests (RSAT; 6 x 6 s sprints with 24 s recovery) completed at 0 min and 75th min of SAFT90. A 25 ml solution of either CHO+CAFMR, CAFMR, CHOMR or PLA was rinsed immediately before the second RSAT (75 min). Mean power output, peak power output (PPO) or fatigue index (FI) was not impacted by any treatment during the 75th min RAST (p > 0.05). These results suggest that carbohydrate and/or caffeine mouth rinses do not have an ergogenic effect during simulated soccer exercise after a high carbohydrate meal.
    • From Whence Cometh My Help? Psychological Distress and Help-Seeking in the Evangelical Christian Church

      Lloyd, Christopher E. M.; Reid, Graham; Kotera, Yasuhiro; University of Derby (Frontiers Media SA, 2021-12-16)
      Seeking professional help for psychological distress is generally associated with improved outcomes and lower levels of distress. Given the saliency of religious teachings, it has been shown that aspects of Christian belief may influence adherents’ attitudes towards mental health help-seeking. Based on existing research on American Evangelicals, it was hypothesised that religious social support would positively predict attitudes towards mental health help-seeking, whilst fundamentalism, mental distress, and the belief that psychopathology is caused by immoral or sinful living would negatively predict participants’ attitudes. On a convenience sample of 252 British Evangelicals, our hypotheses were supported and these variables significantly predicted participants’ attitudes towards seeking mental health help, F(7,243) = 9.64, p < 0.001, R2 = 0.195. These findings together suggest that whilst religious support positively predicts help-seeking attitudes, Evangelical fundamentalism, in addition to beliefs that mental illness has a spiritual cause, as well as experiences of mental distress may be associated with more negative attitudes towards psychotherapeutic intervention. Thus, mental health practitioners should be aware of clients’ religious worldviews and tailor interventions appropriately, acknowledging that working with religious organisations may yield the most positive outcomes for patients.
    • The efficiency of bacterial self-healing concrete inculcated in ground condition

      Esaker, Mohamed (University of DerbyCollege of Science and EngineeringDirect Science, Springer, 2021-12-20)
      The innovative bacterial self-healing concrete is a promising solution to improve the sustainability of concrete structures by sealing the cracks in an autonomous way. Regardless of the types of bacterial-based approach, the provision of a suitable incubation environment is essential for the activation of bacteria and thus for a successful self-healing application. However, the research to date has mainly focused on the self-healing process within humid air or water environment. This research aims to investigate the performance of bacterial self-healing concrete within ground conditions which can potentially benefit the development of more sustainable underground concrete structures such as deep foundations, retaining walls and tunnels. The research method is comprised of a laboratory experimental program with several stages/ phases. In the first stage, control tests were conducted to examine the influence of different delivery techniques of healing agents such as the material of capsules on the healing performance in water. The outputs from this stage were used as a control test to inform the next stages where the fine-grained concrete/mortar specimens were incubated inside the soil. In this stage, three different delivery techniques of the healing agent were examined namely Direct add, Calcium alginate beads and Perlite. The results showed that the crack-healing capacity was significantly improved with using of bacterial agent for all delivery techniques and the maximum healed crack width was about 0.57 mm after 60 days of incubation for specimens incorporated with perlite (set ID: M4). The volume stability of the perlite capsules has made them more compatible with the cement mortar matrix in comparison with the calcium alginate capsule. The results from Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) and Energy Dispersive X-ray (EDX) indicated that the mineral precipitations on crack surfaces were calcium carbonate. The second stage investigates the effect of different ground conditions on the efficiency of bio self-healing concrete. This stage presents a major part of the experimental programme and contains three experimental parts based on the types of soils and their conditions where bio self-healing of cement mortar specimens was examined. The first part investigates the effect of the presence of microbial and organic materials within the soil on the performance of self-healing by incubating cracked mortar specimens into sterilized and non-sterilized soil. This part aims to investigate if the existing bacteria in the soil can produce any self-healing. In the second part, the investigation focused on the bio self-healing in specimens incubated in coarse-grained soil (sand). The soil was subjected to fully and partially saturated cycles and conditioned with different pH and sulphate levels representing industrially recognised classes of exposure (namely, X0, XA1, and XA3). These classes were selected according to BS EN 206:2013+A1:2016 - based on the risk of corrosion and chemical attack from an aggressive ground environment. In the third part, cement mortar specimens were incubated into fully and partially saturated fine-grained soil (clay) with similar aggressive environments as in part 2. The results showed that the indigenous bacteria naturally present within the soil can enhance the mortar self-healing process. For specimens incubated within coarse-grained soil (sand), the reduction in pH of the incubation environment affected the bio self-healing performance. However, for fine-grained soil (clay) the healing ratios of specimens incubated in the same identical exposure conditions were almost similar, with better results observed in the pH neutral condition. The results showed also that the self-healing efficiencies in both the control and bio-mortar specimens were significantly affected by the soil's moisture content. This indicates that the mineral precipitation of calcium carbonate caused by the metabolic conversion of nutrients by bacteria is heavily reliant on the moisture content of the soil. The hydration of un-hydrated cement particles representing the primary source of autogenous healing is also influenced by soil moisture content. The third stage investigated the use of a non-destructive technique utilising the concrete electrical resistivity to monitor the crack healing performance of specimens incubated within the soil. The results showed that the improvement in electrical resistivity of bio-mortar specimens was remarkably higher in comparison with control specimens. This improvement can be used as an indication of the healing performance of bio-mortar specimens in comparison with autogenous healing in control specimens. In general, the study suggests that the bio self-healing process can protect underground concrete structures such as foundations, bridge piers, and tunnels in a range of standard exposure conditions and that this is facilitated by the commonly applied bacterial agent Bacillus subtilis or similar strains. However, as the experimental findings indicated the exposure conditions could affect the healing efficiency. Therefore, future work should consider how formulations, application methods, and ground preparation can be optimised to achieve the best possible incubation environment and thus improved protection for underground concrete structures.
    • Lean Accounting: A structured literature review

      Alves, R.; Vieira Neto, J.; Nascimento, D.L.M.D; de Andrade, F.E; Tortorella, G.L; Garza-Reyes, J.A; Universidade Federal Fluminense, Niterói, Brazil; University of Jaén, Jaén, Spain; Federal University of Santa Catarina, Florianopolis, Brazil; University of Derby (Emerald, 2021-11-14)
      The purpose of this paper is to perform a review and analyze the literature on Lean Accounting (LA), to develop insights into how LA research is developing, offering a critique of the research to date, and underlining future research opportunities. This research uses a structured literature review to categorize and analyze 39 research articles from relevant journals with a publication date from 1996 to 2020 (September) and to answer three research questions. Findings demonstrated that although LA seems to be the most suitable method for lean companies, it still lacks research in terms of the role of accountants in lean organizations as well as how its concepts are integrated with the Generally Accepted Accounting Principles (GAAP). This paper provides both academics and practitioners with valuable insights regarding the role of management accounting and accountants in the pursuit of lean transformation , presenting meaningful themes and a complete analysis of the literature along with research gaps for future research. This paper contributes to lean manufacturing literature by providing a comprehensive structured literature review of articles regarding LA. Also, it serves as a basis for developing future research agendas in management accounting practices for lean organizations.
    • Global Pressures, Household Social Reproduction Strategies and Compound Inequality

      Farrall, Stephen; Gray, Emily; Nunn, Alex; Tepe-Belfrage, Daniela; University of Derby; University of Liverpool (Taylor and Francis, 2021-12-22)
      There is increasing interest in social reproduction and the international political economy of the everyday and the ways that the global economy rests on domestic foundations not just including state institutions but micro-social structures such as households and families. This paper uses data derived from the UK Millennium Cohort Study to explore the way that different types of household (using proxies for social class) one aspect of their social reproduction strategies. It argues that under conditions of increased global competitiveness, the UK state has successfully embedded a politics of competitiveness at the household scale. Households of all types are aspirational for their children and invest parental time in helping their children with educational activities. However, parents in middle class occupations, with higher levels of qualifications and income have advantageous informational, cultural and financial resources and use these in a variety of ways to support their social reproduction strategies. The result is that agential responses to competitiveness result in ‘compound inequalities’. We theorise this as demonstrating variegation across different household social reproduction strategies and embodying the violence of social reproduction, even where there is no violent intent. We speculate that compound inequality may be causing a breakdown in the stable reproduction of society as a whole.
    • A Study Space Analysis of Interpretation Service Needs and Optimisation

      Amurun, Oghene-Ovoh Tyson; University of Derby (Springer Science and Business Media LLC, 2021-12-02)
      The paper reports a study space analysis (SSA) of 117 published investigations of the need for interpretation services and approaches to their optimisation. The study explores literature on the adequacy and ecological validity of interpretation service and interpretation optimisation. Research on rapport building appears to be the most investigated issue. Studies on interpretation services need and planning are infrequently researched, and there exist little or no study investigating police diversity effects on interpretation service needs and the planning effects. Studies investigating cognitive load, language, and gender effects on interpreting accuracy are sparse, with most research effort concentrated in conference interpreting settings.
    • Production of Long-Acting CNGRC–CPG2 Fusion Proteins: New Derivatives to Overcome Drug Immunogenicity of Ligand-Directed Enzyme Prodrug Therapy for Targeted Cancer Treatment

      Al-mansoori, Layla; Al Qahtani, Alanod D.; Elsinga, Philip; Goda, Sayed K.; Qatar University, Doha, Qatar; Anti-Doping Lab-Qatar (ADLQ), Doha, Qatar; University of Groningen, the Netherlands; Cairo University, Giza, Egypt; University of Derby (SAGE Publications, 2021-11-20)
      Aminopeptidase N (APN) is an enzyme highly expressed in metastatic cancers and could be used in targeted cancer therapy. Our previous work showed the successful construction of CNGRC–carboxypeptidase G2 (CPG2) and CNGRC–CPG2–CNGRC fusion proteins. Our conjugates and prodrugs were effective in targeting high APN-expressing cancer cells. In the present study, we aim to produce long-acting fusion proteins to overcome 2 of the main drawbacks of antibody-directed enzyme prodrug therapy. N-terminal and N-, C-terminal fusion CPG2, CNGRC–CPG2, and CNGRC–CPG2–CNGRC, respectively, were PEGylated using polyethylene glycol (PEG) maleimide (40K). We examined the effect of PEGylation on the therapeutic efficacy of the new products. The resulting PEGylated fusion proteins were tested for their stability, ex vivo immunotoxicity, binding capacity to their target on high HT1080, and low A549 APN-expressing cells. The catalytic activity of the resulting PEGylated fusion CPG2 proteins was investigated. Pro-drug “ZD2767P” cytotoxic effect in association with PEG CPG2–CNGRC fusion proteins on cancer cells was studied. Our work demonstrated that the properties of the PEGylated single-fused proteins were significantly improved over that of un-PEGylated fused CPG2, and its kinetic activity and APN-binding affinity were not negatively affected by the PEGylation. Significantly, The PEGylated single-fused CPG2 had lower immunogenicity than the un-PEGylated CPG2. Our results, however, were different in the case of the PEGylated double-fused CPG2. Although its stability in human serum under physiological conditions was not significantly affected, the kinetic activity and its binding affinity to their cellular marker (APN) were substantially reduced. When the study was performed with high and low APN-expressing cancer cell lines, using the prodrug ZD2767p, the PEGylated fusion CPG2 demonstrated cancer cell killing effects. We have successfully produced PEGylated-CNGRC–CPG2, which is bioactive and with lower immunogenicity in ligand-directed enzyme prodrug therapy for cancer treatment.
    • Draw | Breath | Animal

      Bartram, Angela; Deigaard, Lee; University of Derby; Utah State University (Eccles and Tippets Galleries, Logan, Utah, 2021-11)
      The animal and being animal is a proposition and position that invites observational and critical debate. To observe the non-human animal is too often tense and politicised; to take on an understated what-it-is-to-be-animal is a sensitised and sensitive means to understand differing perspectives. Artists Lee Deigaard (USA) and Angela Bartram (UK) critically approach the animal as the animal. Using diverse methods and materials and curious to potentialities, they explore working as humans from an animal-centric perspective. They bring sensitivities to their handling of the animal as both artistic subject and collaborator, of behaving as animal, in order to observe and engage with empathy and openness to the unexpected, to animal insight and revelation. Iterative long term projects in drawing and printmaking foreground proximity and proprioceptive, nearly devotional studio and caretaking practices centering on respiration and companionate movement within a global pandemic. This exhibition explores the socialised and familiar in close observation, directly and indirectly, in their individual yet companion practices and additionally features the artists in conversation and active collaboration on site in the gallery. The exhibition was accompanied by a Commmunitas Lecture in the gallery on Thursday 18th November 2021. Bartram‘s participation was supported through a Distinguished Visiting Professorship at Utah State University.
    • Time wasters? The Dark Tetrad and active procrastination

      Hughes, Sara; Adhikari, Joanna; University of Derby; Sheffield Hallam University (Hogrefe Publishing Group, 2021-12-10)
      The Dark Triad personality traits have previously been linked with dysfunctional types of procrastination (i.e., delaying certain tasks). From an evolutionary perspective, procrastination is recognized for facilitating a fast life history strategy. The present study investigated links between active and passive procrastination and the extended Dark Tetrad personality traits (psychopathy, Machiavellianism, narcissism, sadism). Participants (N = 357) were invited via Prolific data collection platform and Survey Circle research sites to participate in an online survey exploring personality and procrastination. Path analyses revealed that all Dark Tetrad traits positively predicted several aspects of active procrastination only. Narcissism emerged as the only negative predictor of passive procrastination. Rather than linking these traits with dysfunctional procrastination types only, our results highlight the importance of considering the Dark Tetrad about functional forms of procrastination, which may be more beneficial for facilitating a fast life history strategy
    • Mechanical Properties and Failure Mechanisms of Novel Resin-infused Thermoplastic and Conventional Thermoset 3D Fabric Composites

      Shah, Syed Zulfiqar Hussain; Megat-Yusoff, Puteri Sri Melor; Karuppanan, Saravanan; Choudhry, Rizwan Saeed; Ahmad, Faiz; Sajid, Zubair; Universiti Teknologi Petronas, Perak, Malaysia; University of Derby (Springer Science and Business Media LLC, 2021-10-16)
      This paper presents an extensive comparison of the mechanical properties and failure mechanisms of a recently developed thermoplastic (Elium ®) 3D fabric-reinforced composite (3D-FRC) with the conventional thermoset (epoxy) 3D-FRC. Experiments involved tensile tests, compression tests, V-notch shear tests, and short beam shear tests for specimens produced through the vacuum-assisted resin infusion process in each case. These tests were used for the determination of in-plane elastic constants, failure strengths and for investigating the failure mechanisms. A micro-mechanical model validated against these experiments was used to predict the remaining orthotropic elastic constants. This work enhances our understanding of the mechanics of infusible thermoplastic 3D-FRC as a new class of emerging materials and provides useful data which substantiates that this unconventional thermoplastic resin is also easier to recycle, uses similar manufacturing processes and can be a suitable replacement for conventional thermoset resins.