Now showing items 1-20 of 6427

    • Perineal Trauma & Suturing

      Chapman, Vicky; Independent Researcher (Wiley Blackwell, 2018-01-18)
    • Who are we, Where do we come from, Where are we going to? Writing Greek Cypriot Women's Art Histories in Contemporary Cyprus

      Photiou, Maria; University of Derby (Bloomsbury, 2021-03-25)
      This chapter engages with material so far insufficiently examined in art history: the work of Greek Cypriot women artists. The work of these women artists has received little attention and has frequently been marginalised from official art histories. This chapter develops a framework to explain some of the processes and conditions that affected Greek Cypriot women artists’ lives and careers. It is based on research I carried out for my doctoral thesis at Loughborough University entitled Rethinking the History of Cypriot Art: Greek Cypriot Women Artists in Cyprus. In this chapter I begin with reviewing perspectives on writing Greek Cypriot women artists’ histories. I will address the socio-political conditions from which Greek Cypriot artists emerged and their problematic position, which has been associated with patriarchy and nationalism. This matter is explored by a number of contemporary Greek Cypriot feminists: patriarchal society and national politics left no space for women in Cyprus to struggle for women’s rights, to contest patriarchy or to gain public visibility.2Significant to my discussion is how the socio-political conditions affected Greek Cypriot women artists’ lives and careers. Within this context I will use interview material to refine our understanding of how women artists responded to these socio-political conditions. The works of Loukia Nicolaidou At the Fields (c.1933) and Rhea Bailey Memories of the Yard (1979) will be analysed – their work underlines discourses related to gender relations and socio-political conditions in contemporary Cyprus.
    • IT and Well-Being in Travel and Tourism

      Moisa, Delia; Michopoulou, Eleni; University of Derby (Springer, 2022-10-27)
      Accelerating levels of stress and chronic disease have urged travellers to seek products and experiences that promote a holistic healthy living. However, in the context of increasingly integrated online and offline experiences, where technology does not always work in concert with human nature, tourists are facing the challenge of finding about how to best live a connected life. With travel being one of the most stress- inducing experiences we voluntarily subject ourselves to, tourism players are taking advantage of the latest technology to respond to the travellers’ changing needs and values, by designing innovative experiences that promote overall well-being. This chapter provides a review of the existing research on well-being related to the travel and tourism sector, while focusing on the link with technology advancements, especially the dual perspective of unplugging and intense technology use. As in all great technological revolutions, the digital traveller’s life may potentially unveil a dark side. However, the general consensus is that the positives of using technology within the travel and tourism sector will continue to outweigh the negatives. The chapter focuses on highlighting the different types of technology used to support the traveller’s state of well-being, as well as the role and impact of technology in relation to well-being while travelling.
    • Place Affect Interventions during and post the COVID-19 Pandemic

      Ramkissoon, Haywantee; College of Business, Law & Social Sciences, Derby Business School, University of Derby, UK; UiT, School of Business & Economics, The Arctic University of Norway; University of Johanneshburg, Johannesburg Business School, South Africa (Frontiers, 2021-09-14)
      The COVID-19 health and economic crisis has also brought a rise in people being unable to cope with their existing medical conditions and other issues such as domestic violence, drugs, and alcohol among others. Suicidal tendencies have been on the rise. Feelings of isolation causing emotional distress in place-confined settings have put additional pressure on the healthcare systems demanding that we find additional and complementary means of support for those in need. This is important not only in the current pandemic but also in the post-pandemic world. The goal is to collectively contribute and address the recurring calls for actions to maintain global well-being and public health. An important discussion to bring on the table is the need to promote interventions for people to cope with the pandemic and to adjust to the post-pandemic world. Promoting affective attitudes toward place can foster well-being outcomes. This has important benefits and is of relevance to governments, policymakers, and healthcare professionals in delivering better healthcare equipping people with coping mechanisms both throughout the pandemic and in the long run. However, the key challenge is how to foster these place affect attitudes meeting the changing demands in the post-pandemic world. It is in the middle of a crisis that the conversation needs to start about how to strategically plan for the recovery.
    • Exploration and Investigation of Green Lean Six Sigma Adoption Barriers for Manufacturing Sustainability

      Kaswan, Mahender Singh; Rathi, Rajeev; Garza-Reyes, Jose Arturo; Antony, Jiju; Lovely Professional University, Punjab, India; University of Derby; Khalifa University, Abu Dhabi, UAE (IEEE, 2021-09-16)
      The increased awareness about effect of operations on sustainability dynamics and governmental pressure to cut emission rates has forced industries to adopt sustainable approaches like Green Lean Six Sigma (GLSS). Despite increasing interest in GLSS, very limited research has focused on its implementation and no research has investigated barriers that hinder GLSS execution. This study investigates GLSS implementation barriers, their relationship, and removal of same in manufacturing sector. In this research, 18 GLSS barriers have been recognized through literature review and formulated into logical groups using principal component analysis. This study pioneers with decision making trial and evaluation laboratory (DEMATEL) with intuitionistic fuzzy set to prioritize barriers and handle the important and causal relationship among the same. The results of the study were validated through intuitionistic fuzzy best worst method (IF-BWM). The results reveal that management-related barriers are the top-ranked followed by environmental and organization barriers with BWM weights 0.5283, 0.1704, and 0.1035 respectively. This provides impetus to policymakers for induction of GLSS in business organization to make harmony between economic development and environmental sustainability.
    • Health Benefits of Ikigai: A Review of Literature

      Kotera, Yasuhiro; Kaluzeviciute, Greta; Gulcan, Garip; McEwan, Kirsten; Chamberlain, Katy; University of Derby (Concurrent Disorders Society Publishing, 2021)
      Recently, the concept of ikigai has attracted international scholarly attention. Originally, researchers have focused on its impact on longevity; however, contemporary approaches to ikigai include career guidance, wellbeing training and clinical practice. That said, much of the existing literature on ikigai has relied on anecdotal episodes, without a clear focus on scientific or clinical literature. In this chapter, we (a) define ikigai, (b) explore the health benefits of ikigai regarding its impact on both physical health and mental health, and (c) discuss how to enhance ikigai and future research, based on scientific findings. Ikigai— originally identified in difficult life experiences among leprosy patients—is defined as an experiential, everyday life phenomena that relates to a reason for your being. Based on a number of meta-analyses and longitudinal studies, evidence suggests a protective benefit and positive correlation between ikigai and better physical health, and an inverse relationship with all-cause mortality. Psychologically, ikigai may be important in developing one's sense of self-understanding, goal attainability, and problem-solving skills. Interventions such as life crafting are deemed helpful to enhance ikigai, although further research (e.g., cross-culture, longitudinal) needs to be conducted to further support the utility of this construct. Our findings can help healthcare workers and researchers to further advance the science of this experiential wellbeing construct.
    • How does a narrative understanding of change in families post brain injury help us to humanise our professional practice?

      Whiffin, C J; Ellis-Hill, C; University of Derby; Bournemouth University (Cambridge university press, 2021-09-17)
      In this paper we critically explore the discourse of change post brain injury and challenge the dominant discourse of negative change which alone leaves little room for other perspectives to exist. These negative changes pose a considerable risk to the well-being of families who may benefit from engaging in richer accounts making room for a more coherent and connected sense of self and family post-injury. We explore how narrative approaches provide opportunities for all practitioners to expand their professional scripts and support families to move toward a future which is not dominated by a discourse of loss. While loss and negative change is an important, and very real consequence, of brain injury, focusing purely on stories of loss is life limiting for family members and can cause psychological distress. The life thread model is offered as a visible tool for all practitioners to engage with and use while working with families; providing a concrete focus for reflection and discussion of narratives relating to change which otherwise can feel quite abstract in everyday practice. We argue that one way we can humanise our professional practice is to support all practitioners to engage in a narrative understanding of family change following ABI.
    • Japanese Martial Arts for Wellbeing During COVID-19

      Veasey, Christian; Foster Phillips, Charlotte-Fern; Kotera, Yasuhiro; University of Derby (Taylor & Francis Group plc, 2021-09-16)
      The unprecedented and uncertain times of the COVID-19 pandemic have changed our lifestyles significantly, with lockdowns and social distancing measures in place to reduce virus transmission. These changes have likely had a negative effect on our wellbeing, and have been associated with increased stress, anxiety, and depression. During these unforeseen times, online martial arts lessons have highlighted the possibilities that martial arts offer in regard to positive wellbeing benefits such as self-awareness and self-mastery in managing and dealing with health issues. This short paper examines the potential benefits martial arts training may provide as an alternative wellbeing strategy to counter challenges associated with COVID-19.
    • What Comes First, the Behavior or the Condition? In the COVID-19 Era, It May Go Both Ways

      Arena, Ross; Lavie, Carl J; Faghy, Mark A; University of Derby (Elsevier, 2021-08-12)
      Which came first, the chicken or the egg? This causality dilemma was first proposed by the Greek biographer Plutarch in the 1st century CE. While the cause-effect relationship between lifestyle behaviors and chronic disease is not always a certainty, and genetic predisposition can independently lead to premature chronic disease, the likelihood of developing one or more chronic conditions is significantly higher in those who: (1) lead sedentary lifestyles; (2) consume unhealthy diets; (3) smoke; or (4) have excess body mass. Recently, the Royal College of General Practitioners issued an apology for the title of an online event that suggested the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a lifestyle disease. We feel that this was the correct course of action as leading an unhealthy lifestyle is certainly not the cause for an individual contracting COVID-19 (ie, effect). However, a body of evidence has demonstrated that unhealthy lifestyle behaviors and characteristics as well as being diagnosed with one or more chronic diseases does significantly increase the risk for a complicated medical course in individuals infected with COVID-19. Moreover, the cause-effect relationship between lifestyle behaviors and characteristics and COVID-19 may eventually prove to go both ways, as the pandemic may lead to a higher prevalence of unhealthy lifestyle behaviors and characteristics over the long term that eventually leads to a higher prevalence of chronic disease. As such, health living medicine must be widely practiced and prescribed to all individuals globally.
    • Oro-mucosal midazolam maleate: Use and effectiveness in adults with epilepsy in the UK

      Shankar, Rohit; Goodwin, Melesina; Toland, John; Boyle, Andrew; Grant, Amanda; Pearson, Josephine; Storer, Amanda; Higgins, Richard; Hudson, Sharon; Reuber, Markus; et al. (Elsevier, 2021-08-07)
      Oro-mucosal midazolam maleate (OMM) with suitable training to family and carers is being increasingly recognized as the treatment of choice to mitigate the development of status epilepticus in non-hospital community settings. There are no studies to describe the use, effectiveness, and suitable dosing of OMM in adults with epilepsy in community settings. To describe the use, effectiveness, and dosing of OMM in the emergency treatment of epileptic seizures in community settings. A retrospective observational study (2016–17) design was used with participant recruitment from four UK NHS secondary care outpatient clinics providing epilepsy management. Study sample was of adult people with epilepsy (PWE) having had a recent seizure requiring OMM. Data on patient demographics, patient care plans, details of a recent seizure requiring emergency medication, and dose of OMM were collected from medical records. Study data from 146 PWE were included. The mean age of PWE was 41.0 years (SD 15.2) and mean weight was 64.8Kg (SD 18.2). Fifty-three percent of PWE were recorded as having intellectual disability. The most frequently used concomitant medications were lamotrigine (43%). The majority of seizures occurred at people’s homes (n = 92, 63%). OMM was most often administered by family/professional care-givers (n = 75, 48.4%). Generalized (tonic/clonic) seizures were recorded in most people (n = 106, 72.6%). The most common initial dose of OMM was 10 mg (n = 124, 84.9%). The mean time to seizure cessation after administration of this initial dose was 5.5 minutes (SD = 4.5, Median 5.0, IQR 2.1–5.0). Only a minority of seizures led to ambulance callouts (n = 18, 12.3%) or hospital admissions (n = 13, 9%). This is the first observational study describing the use and effectiveness of OMM in adults in community settings. Minimal hospital admissions were reported in this cohort and the treatment was effective in ending seizures in adults in community settings.
    • Incidence, severity and perceived susceptibility of COVID-19 in the UK CrossFit population

      Redwood-Mills, Athalie; Ralston, Grant; Wilson, Jennifer; Nottingham Trent; FiiT for Life Education Ltd, Derby; University of Derby (BioMed Central, 2021-09-06)
      Contemporary literature indicates that a higher body mass index (BMI) serves as a risk factor for metabolic disease and is also correlated with greater disease severity. Subsequently, it has been linked to increased COVID-19 severity. The purpose of the study was to investigate whether regular CrossFit™ participation was associated with lower BMI, decreased COVID-19 severity and susceptibility. A cross-sectional study was conducted on 1806 CrossFit™ (CF) participants. Participants were asked about their age (yrs), sex (male vs. female), ethnic group, body height (cm) and weight (kg). Body mass index (BMI, kg/m2) was computed and consistent with WHO (2018) criteria. Participants self-reported their training history, health and lifestyle history, nutritional customs, present training status and suspected levels of exposure to COVID-19. Once submitted the collected data were coded, cleaned and analysed. The final model comprised of 1806 CF individuals from an online survey response rate of 2086. The participants age ranged from 18 to 65+ yrs. Self-reported mean body mass index (BMI: kg/m2) reported that < 1% were underweight, 41% were healthy, 46% overweight, 10% class I obese, 2% class II obese, and < 1% class III obese. A Kruskal–Wallis H test compared gender and self-reported probability of being infected with COVID-19 with significant differences between subgroups (x2 (4, N = 1739) = 10.86, p = 0.03). Analysis of BMI and perceived severity of COVID-19 revealed a difference however not, significant (x2 (4, N = 1739) = 9.46, p = 0.051). Results on BMI and perceived probability of COVID-19 infection revealed no significant difference (x2 (4, N = 1739) = 2.68, p = 0.61). A separate analysis on BMI and perceived COVID-19 susceptibility revealed no significant difference (x2 (4, N = 1740) = 6.02, p = 0.20). The purpose of the study was to establish whether habitual CrossFit™ participation is associated with reduced BMI, and to further investigate whether habitual participation impacted perceptions of disease. Results of the study indicate that self-reported CrossFit™ participation during the first UK lockdown, measured in minutes of exercise was indicative of a lower BMI. This has been associated with greater host immunity to disease. A history of CrossFit™ participation was not shown to impact perceptions of disease. However, our sample population reported few changes to habitual exercise during lockdown which may be due to the ‘community’ and increased adherence associated with CrossFit™.
    • Criminal networks analysis in missing data scenarios through graph distances

      Ficara, Annamaria; Cavallaro, Lucia; Curreri, Francesco; Fiumara, Giacomo; De Meo, Pasquale; Bagdasar, Ovidiu; Song, Wei; Liotta, Antonio; University of Palermo, Palermo, Italy; University of Messina, Messina, Italy (Public Library of Science (PLoS), 2021-08-11)
      Data collected in criminal investigations may suffer from issues like: (i) incompleteness, due to the covert nature of criminal organizations; (ii) incorrectness, caused by either unintentional data collection errors or intentional deception by criminals; (iii) inconsistency, when the same information is collected into law enforcement databases multiple times, or in different formats. In this paper we analyze nine real criminal networks of different nature (i.e., Mafia networks, criminal street gangs and terrorist organizations) in order to quantify the impact of incomplete data, and to determine which network type is most affected by it. The networks are firstly pruned using two specific methods: (i) random edge removal, simulating the scenario in which the Law Enforcement Agencies fail to intercept some calls, or to spot sporadic meetings among suspects; (ii) node removal, modeling the situation in which some suspects cannot be intercepted or investigated. Finally we compute spectral distances (i.e., Adjacency, Laplacian and normalized Laplacian Spectral Distances) and matrix distances (i.e., Root Euclidean Distance) between the complete and pruned networks, which we compare using statistical analysis. Our investigation identifies two main features: first, the overall understanding of the criminal networks remains high even with incomplete data on criminal interactions (i.e., when 10% of edges are removed); second, removing even a small fraction of suspects not investigated (i.e., 2% of nodes are removed) may lead to significant misinterpretation of the overall network.
    • Continuing professional development and journaling

      Bryson, David; University of Derby (Informa UK Limited, 2021-09-13)
      This professional development paper looks at CPD and journaling which will help you discover how journaling can support your professional practice, mental health and continuing professional development.
    • Reflections in Anticipation of Loss

      Bartram, Angela; University of Derby (2021-09-08)
      There is a shadow that quietly, but progressively creeps upon us with advancing age, a sense of being unheard and increasingly cloaked with invisibility. Solitude and loneliness, which is so often a consequence for the elderly, has a deteriorating effect on health, which often goes unrepresented, unacknowledged, and not discussed. A domestic companion offers appeasement, and a dog gains significance where there is no other human present. The lightning talk focuses on the reflective and poignant stories of the anticipated loss of a pet dog told by participants in my artistic research project, Dogs and the Elderly. The project, made with participants from the Alzheimer’s Society’s ‘Memory Cafes’ in Nottingham and Lincolnshire, connects with those held in a companionable embrace with dogs. It offers personal and pertinent stories of the significance of end of live interspecies relationships to be told; it provides the opportunity for others to listen and hear those intimacies and understand the positive value such inter-species relationships bring. The conference presentation addresses and discuss the importance of domestic end of life human-dog relationships, and the anticipation and fear of loss to come. A video, containing the words spoken by participants, will play throughout to illustrate their sentiments.
    • A Call to Clarify the Intensity and Classification of Standing Behavior

      Kowalsky, Robert J; Stoner, Lee; Faghy, Mark A; Barone Gibbs, Bethany; Human Science Research Centre (MDPI, 2021-08-10)
      Public health guidelines for physical activity now include recommendations to break up prolonged sitting with light-intensity activities. Concurrently, interventions to increase standing have emerged, especially within the workplace in the form of sit–stand or standing workstations. Moreover, in short-duration studies, breaking up prolonged sitting with standing has been associated improved cardiometabolic outcomes. Publicly available estimates of the intensity of standing range from 1.5 to 2.3 metabolic equivalents (METs), neatly classifying standing as a light-intensity activity (>1.5 to <3.0 METs). Further delineation between ‘active’ and ‘passive’ standing has been proposed, with corresponding METs of >2.0 METs and ≤2.0 METs, respectively. However, this study reviews data suggesting that some standing (e.g., while performing deskwork) is substantially below the minimum light intensity activity threshold of 1.5 METs. These data bring into question whether standing should be universally classified as a light-intensity behavior. The objectives of this study are to (i) highlight discrepancies in classifying standing behavior in the human movement spectrum continuum, and (ii) to propose a realignment of the ‘active’ vs. ‘passive’ standing threshold to match the light intensity threshold to help provide a clearer research framework and subsequent public health messaging for the expected health benefits from standing.
    • Associations of Sedentary Time with Heart Rate and Heart Rate Variability in Adults: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Observational Studies.

      Alansare, Abdullah Bandar; Bates, Lauren C; Stoner, Lee; Kline, Christopher E; Nagle, Elizabeth; Jennings, J Richard; Hanson, Erik D; Faghy, Mark A; Gibbs, Bethany Barone; King Saud University, Saudi Arabia; et al. (MDPI, 2021-08-12)
      To evaluate if sedentary time (ST) is associated with heart rate (HR) and variability (HRV) in adults we systematically searched PubMed and Google Scholar through June 2020. Inclusion criteria were observational design, humans, adults, English language, ST as the exposure, resting HR/HRV as the outcome, and (meta-analysis only) availability of the quantitative association with variability. After qualitative synthesis, meta-analysis used inverse variance heterogeneity models to estimate pooled associations. Thirteen and eight articles met the criteria for the systematic review and meta-analysis, respectively. All studies were cross-sectional and few used gold standard ST or HRV assessment methodology. The qualitative synthesis suggested no associations between ST and HR/HRV. The meta-analysis found a significant association between ST and HR (β = 0.24 bpm per hour ST; CI: 0.10, 0.37) that was stronger in males (β = 0.36 bpm per hour ST; CI: 0.19, 0.53). Pooled associations between ST and HRV indices were non-significant (p > 0.05). Substantial heterogeneity was detected. The limited available evidence suggests an unfavorable but not clinically meaningful association between ST and HR, but no association with HRV. Future longitudinal studies assessing ST with thigh-based monitoring and HRV with electrocardiogram are needed
    • Vulnerability and adaptive capacity of rural coastal fishing communities in Ghana to climatic and socio-economic stressors

      Davies-Vollum, Kathrine; Raha, Debadayita; Koomson, Daniel (University of Derby, 2021-08-13)
      The global fishing industry is a source of livelihood for about 820 million people. About 90% of this number are small-scale fisherfolk and traders, living in rural fishing-dependent communities in tropical, developing, and least developed countries. Although the industry generates about $362 billion annually, fishing-dependent communities are generally characterised by chronic poverty and deprivation. Decrease in fish productivity and availability in tropical regions, as well as, increase in the frequency and intensity of extreme weather events due to climate change processes have exacerbated the plight of fishing-dependent communities. In 1970, an agenda for research and development of small-scale fishing was set out. However, rural fishing communities are still considered the poorest of the poor today. They are also considered the most vulnerable as future climate change predictions indicate more extreme events and further reductions in maximum fish catch and revenue potentials. Therefore, there are continued calls for research efforts to understand the impacts of multiple climatic and socioeconomic stressors on small-scale fishing livelihoods, in order to identify viable, context-specific management and policy interventions that can reduce their vulnerability. Using two rural coastal fishing communities in Ghana as a case study, the purpose of this study was to explicate how rural coastal fishing-dependent communities in a tropical context are impacted by the interaction of climatic and socio-economic factors and identify viable policy and management options to enhance their adaptive capacity. Three key research questions guided the study: (i) what are the various factors that impact small-scale fishing livelihoods/households, and how do they interact to shape vulnerability? (ii) how are the fishing communities adapting to current livelihood stressors? and, (iii) What context-specific policy and management interventions are needed to enhance their adaptive capacity and safeguard their wellbeing. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change’s (IPCC) vulnerability framework and the Sustainable Livelihoods Approach (SLA) were integrated as the theoretical underpinnings of the study. A mixed-methods approach was adopted. A total of 120 fishing households were selected and surveyed through a stratified-snowball sampling technique. Several gender and age-group disaggregated focus groups with participatory activities, semi-structured interviews, and key informant discussions were also conducted to collect primary data. These were combined with climatic data to assess each household’s vulnerability, and through triangulated analyses, explicate how it is mediated by socio-cultural, institutional, and policy structures.
    • Current and Future Implications of COVID-19 among Youth Wheelchair Users: 24-Hour Activity Behavior.

      Conners, Ryan T; Bates, Lauren C; Lassalle, Patricia Pagan; Zieff, Gabriel; Whitehead, Paul N; Stevens, Sandra; Killen, Lauren; Cochrum, Robert; Rodebaugh, Kathryn L; Stoner, Lee; et al. (MDPI, 2021-08-11)
      Preventative measures taken worldwide to decrease the transmission of COVID-19 have had a tremendous impact on youth. Following social restrictions, youth with and without physical disabilities are engaging in less physical activity, more increased sedentary behavior, and poor sleep habits. Specifically, youth wheelchair users (YWU) are likely disproportionately affected by COVID- 19 and have a higher risk of contraction due to underlying comorbidities. While we cannot control all of the negative long-term implications of COVID-19 for YWU, participation in positive 24-h activity behaviors can decrease chronic disease risk and the likelihood of long-term complications resulting from infection. This commentary is to extend the discourse on the importance of 24-h activity behaviors by focusing on YWU. Specifically, we discuss the importance of chronic disease prevention, provide a brief overview of 24-h activity behaviors, and outline some of the lessons that can be learned from the COVID-19 pandemic.
    • The Effects of a Nutrition Education Intervention on Sports Nutrition Knowledge during a Competitive Season in Highly Trained Adolescent Swimmers.

      Foo, Wee Lun; Faghy, Mark A; Sparks, Andy; Newbury, Josh W; Gough, Lewis A; Birmingham City University; University of Derby; University of Illinois at Chicago; Edge Hill University (MDPI, 2021-08-06)
      The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of a seven-week nutrition education intervention on the sports nutrition knowledge (SNK) of highly trained UK adolescent swimmers. Fifteen national and international adolescent swimmers (males = 5; females = 10, 15.5 ± 1.1 years, 170.2 ± 7.5 cm, 60.3 ± 5.7 kg) participated in the study during seven consecutive weeks of the competitive swimming season. The participants received 30 min of nutrition education once per week in a classroom-based setting after they had completed their regular swim training. An undergraduate sports nutrition student delivered all nutrition education sessions and SNK questionnaires were administered to the participants pre- and post-intervention. The mean total SNK score improved by 8.3% (SD = 8.4%, 95% CI = 4.1-12.6; p = 0.006; ES = 1.0) following the nutrition education sessions. On an individual basis, ten swimmers significantly improved their total SNK score, whereas four swimmers did not improve, and one swimmer performed significantly worse after the intervention. Moreover, the swimmers' knowledge of hydration improved by 22.2% (SD = 20.6%, 95% CI = 11.8-32.6, p = 0.004, ES = 1.1) over the seven-week timeframe, which was the only nutrition topic to have a significantly increased knowledge score. The current study therefore suggests that a nutrition education intervention can positively influence the SNK of highly trained adolescent swimmers.
    • Subjective experiences of participatory arts engagement of healthy older people and explorations of creative ageing

      Bradfield, E.; University of Derby (Elsevier BV, 2021-08-04)
      The aim of this article was to report findings from a qualitative focus group study conducted to understand the subjective experiences of community-dwelling healthy older people engaging in a range of participatory arts activities. The article also uses the participants' voices to consider nuances and interconnections of themes to unpack the complexities of ‘participatory arts’ engagement and support a conceptualisation of ‘creative ageing’. This study involved qualitative focus group interviews. Focus group interviews were conducted with five groups of healthy older people (aged ≥50 years) living in the community (i.e. not in residential care settings). Participants were recruited through self-selected sampling, and on the basis of self-reporting, no diagnosis of ill-health. Focus group interviews were digitally recorded and analysed using thematic analysis. Themes developed from a systematic review of participatory arts for promoting well-being in later life conducted previously by the author were used as the stimulus for conversation in the focus groups. Interviews were not transcribed, rather pseudonymised quotations are used to support the themes. The study also explored barriers to participation, although these findings are not reported here. Subjective experiences of participatory arts engagement of healthy older people focused on everyday creativity and reflections on the term ‘participation’, which challenge the traditional focus of arts and health research on the effects of active engagement. Healthy older people experienced a sense of achievement and ‘flow’ through creative engagement, which led to opportunities for social interaction and developing a sense of purpose. Through transitions of ageing, older people found creative ways of rediscovering their identity in later life, which supported resilience and highlighted a connection between body, mind and soul. Findings suggest that participation in everyday creative experiences can lead to a sense of achievement and purpose, which provides support and structure in the construction of changing identity in later life. Participatory arts engagement is particularly instrumental during transitions of ageing. This study provides a conceptualisation of ‘creative ageing’ which challenges traditional ideas of ‘participatory arts’ and audience engagement by focusing on subjectivities of the participant voice. The framework moves debate beyond a focus on the efficacy of arts engagement to consider the relevance of subjective experiences of everyday creativity in later life.