Now showing items 1-20 of 5508

    • Conspiracy Theories, MIllennialism, and the Nation: Understanding the collective voice in improvisational millennialism

      Henry, Phil; Weller, Paul; Wilson, Andrew Fergus (University of DerbyLaw and Social Science, University of Derby, 2020-07-10)
      The following critical appraisal presents eight interlinked works that apply and extend Michael Barkun’s (2003) concept of ‘improvisational millennialism’. This body of work demonstrates that, as Barkun suggests, the concept is widely applicable to the online communities in which stigmatized knowledge is widely accepted. Moreover, it extends the definition to consider how improvisational millennialism provides ill-defined or dispossessed communities a means of articulating a collective relationship to historical time as well as a crude means of shoring up basic assumptions of group membership. Mythical pasts and millennial expectation provide the opportunity for shared eschatological orientation whilst the dualism of conspiracy theories demarcates between the communities and their outsiders. This critical review demonstrates how the journal articles and book chapters collected in the appendices provide specific examples of the application and extension of improvisational millennialism. The examples chosen are varied but a persistent theme drawn out through analysis is the role that national cultures – official and official – are articulated through improvisational millennialism. The examples include consideration of how the depiction of millennial beliefs in the mass media contribute to national cultural constructs but more typically focus on the use of improvisational millennialism in online communities. Of the latter, the greater number of examples are concerned with improvisational millennialism within the neo-fascist milieu. Mobilised by conspiracy theories with apocalyptic subtexts, the far right reliance on improvisational millennialism demonstrates the implicit danger of the increased incursion of stigmatized knowledge into the cultural mainstream. This critical review serves to show that despite being typified by a syncretic bricolage of unconnected ideas and traditions, improvisational millennialism is reflective of both social and political realities.
    • The Meiji Legacy: Gardens and Parks of Japan and Britain, 1850-1914

      Elliott, Paul; Neuhaus, Tom; Schoppler, Luke (University of Derby, 2020-07-10)
      Meiji era (1868-1912) politics cast a legacy which extended beyond the Far Eastern nation. This thesis explores the relationship between Japan and Britain during this period, in relation to the cultural exchange of ideas around garden and park design. In contrast to previous studies which have emphasised Japanese style as consumed in Britain, it compares both Japanese and British appropriations of their respective native garden styles underlining the considerable interdependent factors in their developments that have been previously under-emphasised. Furthermore, it includes analysis of public Japanese gardens which have been under-represented in previous work that has tended to focus excessively on aristocratic gardens. The thesis research has utilised published works, archive collections and the large amount of digital material now available in order to systematically identify and examine park and garden sites in both nations which had foreign garden elements infused within them. By analysing such sources, the gardens, people and motivating factors in their creation are revealed. This study argues that there was a significant process of cultural exchange between Japan and Europe during the closed era or sakoku. The Asiatic Society of Japan and Japan Society of London were crucial in the transmission of elements of Japanese-style gardening to Britain as analysis of their members, their activities and publications demonstrates. In addition, the Edo/Meiji era gardening knowledge of self-styled experts in Japan known as niwashi strongly informed influential works on the subject such as Josiah Conder’s Landscape Gardening in Japan (1893), which in turn shaped how these gardens were understood in Britain. Another key finding was that King Edward VII played an important part in encouraging the adoption of Japanese gardening ideas amongst the British aristocracy and forging a strong relationship with Japanese royalty. This was cemented by the Anglo-Japanese Alliance of 1902 with political motivation also crucial in shaping the design of gardens at the Japan-British Exhibition 1910. This thesis argues that in all British-Japanese style gardens, authenticity was ultimately unachievable despite a variety of steps taken by their creators such as employing Japanese gardeners. Furthermore, the study concludes that the extent of European elements in Japanese parks and gardens has been exaggerated in previous analyses. This thesis demonstrates how Meiji politics affected garden styles inside and outside of Japan stemming from sustained interaction with foreign nations, modernisation and a reaction against European imperialism. A rich study of the Meiji legacy to garden design, this thesis suggests that Japanese imperialism was successful in counteracting European advances and changing initial European perceptions of Japan as Oriental. This has significantly added ground-breaking new knowledge to the subject. This interdisciplinary research draws from a range of ideas and methods from fields including history, geography, horticulture, politics, cultural and Japanese studies providing a rich and interwoven examination of the factors involved in the formation of the relationship between Japan and Britain from its beginnings in the sixteenth century.
    • Competition and collaboration in the extractive industries in a world of resource scarcity using a Game theory approach

      Yekini, Sina; Baranova, Polina; Crowther, Shahla Seifi (University of Derby, 2020-07-20)
      Sustainability has become one of the most important issues for businesses, governments and society at large. Increasingly, it features in all planning for future activity. The topic is under much debate as to what it actually is and how it can be achieved, but it is completely certain that the resources of the planet are fixed in quantity, and once used, cannot be reused except through being reused in one form or another. This is particularly true of the mineral resources of the planet. These are finite in quantity, and once fully extracted, extra quantities are no longer available for future use. In this thesis, it is argued that the remaining mineral resources are diminishing significantly and heading towards extinction. Once mined and consumed, they are no longer available for future use other than what can be recycled and reused. What is becoming important therefore – both for the present and for future sustainability – is not the extraction of minerals, but their distribution. Future scarcity means that best use must be made of what exists, as sustainability depends upon this, and best use is defined in this thesis as utility rather than economic value, and this must be considered at a global level rather than a national level. This thesis investigates the alternative methods of achieving the global distribution of these mineral resources and proposes an optimum solution. It does so by showing the efficacy of Game theory for such strategic decision-making, and by developing the theory with some extensions pertinent to the environment being described, before performing the necessary mathematical manipulations to evaluate this environment, and then applying this to real world data. The findings are supported by using linear programming and sensitivity analysis, and by using real world data. Application of the results obtained would raise a number of problems with market regulations and with the geopolitical situation, and these also are explored at length. In achieving this research, the main contribution of this thesis is through identifying the new environment and the extending of Game theory into this environment and in developing the necessary extensions. Previous research has only proposed methods to deal with this, but never actually developed and tested any model; therefore, this model itself, is a contribution. An additional contribution has been made through the application of those extensions into the practical global arena, and in the consideration of the role of regulation in the management of the market for resources in a way which is effective globally rather than locally. Essentially, this is through an understanding of the dichotomy between competition and collaboration, where this thesis argues that the conventional economic mode does not work to best results. Therefore, this thesis adds to the discourse through the understanding of the importance of the depletion and finiteness of raw materials and their use for the present and the future, in order to achieve and maintain sustainability.
    • Alternative methods for assessing habitat quality in freshwater systems

      Sweet, Michael; Ramsey, Andrew; Brys, Rein; Mauvisseau, Quentin (University of DerbyAquatic Research Facility, Environmental Sustainability Research Centre, University of Derby, 2020-06-03)
      “Water, water, everywhere…”. 71% of the earth’s surface is covered by water, freshwater representing 2.5% of it, and only 1% being accessible. Due, largely to a number of anthropogenic activities (pollution, habitats modification) coupled with the impacts of climate change, a dramatic decline in biodiversity is occurring across all earth’s ecosystems. Surprisingly, freshwater ecosystems receive considerably less attention than many other habitats and therefore, effective biodiversity monitoring programs are urgently needed to assess the health and state of the endangered and threatened species in these aquatic systems. Further, current techniques utilised to survey freshwater ecosystems are often considered ineffective, invasive, time consuming and biased. As a result, the implementation of molecular-based detection tools are attractive options as they are often shown to be more sensitive and cost effective. The use of environmental DNA (eDNA) detection is one such molecular tool which is showing promising results, due to its high reliability, sensitivity and non-invasiveness characters. However, recent studies have highlighted potential limitations associated with eDNA-based detection. Such limitations may lead to a decrease in the confidence of this method. The aim of this thesis was to investigate the use of eDNA-based detection across a number of species and a number of systems, all as a proxy of habitat quality. Stringent laboratory practices and validation guidelines were adhered to, allowing for reliable quality assessments of newly designed eDNA assays outlined in this thesis. Moreover, distinct controlled mesocosm experiments allowed the investigation of critical factors, part of the sampling method or analysis processes leading to an optimisation of eDNA collection and decreasing the rates of false negative results. Several comparison between traditional monitoring techniques and the novel assays were also performed aiding in the confidence of these new methods. Interestingly, the results obtained in this thesis shows a similar efficiency between traditional and eDNA-based methods for monitoring invasive species, but a higher efficiency of eDNA detection when detecting rare or low abundant organisms (i.e. those that are endangered or threatened). Furthermore, this thesis reports an extreme example where a species was found at a number of locations within a stretch of a river, yet undetected with the eDNA assay. In this chapter eDNA detection was only possible when I utilised ddPCR rather than qPCR (the more standard technique for assessing eDNA in any given system). Overall, eDNA detection was found to be an effective tool for assessing the presence of invasive and/or endangered species, increasing theknowledge on their distribution and the impact of future management plans. In this thesis, chapters 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6 are organised as case studies, aiming to highlight benefits and limitations of species-specific detection using eDNA.
    • Save the student labour market

      Hooley, Tristram; Institute of Student Employers; University of Derby (The Student Employer, 2020-07)
      The pandemic has created a youth unemployment ticking time bomb and we all have a role to play. ISE is championing government support for employers. What else can be done?
    • International nurses day 2020: The importance of the healthcare sector to society

      Williams, Alan; University of Derby (University of Derby, 2020-05-11)
      Dr Alan Williams, Academic Lead for Nursing and Perioperative Practice at the University of Derby, marks International Nurses Day 2020 (May 12) by discussing why he is proud of his profession and the wider healthcare sector and why it should be celebrated and appreciated all year round.
    • How will education 4.0 influence learning in higher education?

      Williams, Alan; Windle, Richard; Wharrad, Heather; University of Derby; University of Nottingham (Association for Learning Development in Higher Education, 2020-05-29)
      Higher education at the start of the Fourth Industrial Revolution (Schwab, 2015) is undergoing unprecedented change because of the opportunities revealed through the use of digital technology. Though societies throughout time have undergone seismic change, it is the speed and magnitude of change now because of technology that is challenging higher education. The changes include access to knowledge, how that knowledge is shared and the increasing demand by students’ for their voice to be heard in their education and to be integral to the design of their learning. The opportunities revealed by the use of digital technology can lead to good and bad effects and it is essential academics and higher education investigate the design of learning objects used by students in higher education.
    • An investigation uncovering how students and how tutors design learning objects for novice students to use when acquiring established resuscitation knowledge.

      Williams, Alan; University of Nottingham (2018-07-01)
      Higher education in the twenty-first century is experiencing transformational change due to the advances in technology, with this period referred to as the Fourth Industrial Revolution – the Information Age. Just as the three previous revolutions created step changes in society so will this one, and as the changes now are occurring over a much shorter time period academics, educators and universities have less time to understand and respond to these events. The three key technological changes are firstly the availability, power and pervasiveness of computers, secondly the development of the Internet and finally how these factors have affected knowledge and learning, in the new millennium. These changes in the Information Age have influenced learning theories and learners, with the rapidity meaning there is less time to consider and investigate how technology can be used to enhance student learning in higher education. The opportunities technology provide to improve student learning in higher education range from the design of small educational resources to overarching curricula and educational organisations themselves. This work investigated the design of small educational resources called learning objects and in particular, the storyboard creation aspect of this process and then the educational gains achieved from using said resources. The established knowledge of resuscitation was a suitable vehicle to investigation the design of learning objects as it has a strong internationally accepted theoretical foundation and nurses are required to learn this knowledge as part of their pre-registration education. The Storyboard Workshop (phase 1) of this research investigated how learning objects are designed by nursing students (n=7) and by tutors (n=6), by applying Tuckman’s stage of group development model revealing how each homogenous group functioned and what twelve pedagogical factors student-designers and tutor-designers felt important when analysed using the Learning Object Attributes Metric (LOAM) Tool. In the Learning and Evaluation (phase 2) of this investigation, novice nursing student were randomly assigned to view either the student-designed (n=58) or tutor-designed (n=61) learning object to acquire established resuscitation knowledge with the learning gain and acceptability of the resource viewed, assessed. The results of phase 1 revealed student-designers and tutor-designers generally discussed similar LOAM pedagogical factors though students spent more time discussing navigation and tutors focussed on the objective. When Tuckman’s model was applied the student-designers spent significantly less time forming and storming and significantly more time performing than the tutor-designers, suggesting when designing learning objects on established knowledge, students focus on the task whereas tutors may refer to professional experience that may distract from the design process. Phase two demonstrated irrespective of the designers, viewing either the student-designed or tutor-designed learning object conferred significant learning gains when pre and post viewing (knowledge, student-designed 4.3 to 8.3, p=.000; tutor-designed 4.4 to 8.2, p=.000 and confidence in knowledge, student-designed 5.4 to 7.5, p=.000; tutor-designed 5.3 to 6.9, p=.000) was assessed. However, the difference in confidence in knowledge significantly favoured the student-designed resource (2.1 v 1.5, p=.042), though both resources were very positively evaluated. In the design of a learning object it may be the student-designers are more attuned to their peers needs, and this effect could be exploited by ensuring students are integral in the design of a learning object for novice student to use when acquiring established knowledge. In addition, this effect may be applicable with projects to design learning objects for novice learners to acquire established knowledge, whether this has a clinical focus or for novice students in non-healthcare disciplines.
    • Birth shock! What role might arts engagement have to play in antenatal and postnatal care?

      Hogan, Susan; University of Derby (Intellect, 2020-06-17)
      This article shares research findings for an Arts and Humanities Research Council project called The Birth Project (grant ref. AH/K003364/1). The Birth Project has been particularly interested to explore women’s personal experience of birth and the transition to motherhood using the arts, within a participatory arts framework. It ran experiential art-based groups for mothers and a further group for birthing professionals, each over a twelve-week period to solicit in-depth qualitative data. An innovative aspect of this endeavour has been the use of film as research data, as a means of answering the research questions (through selective editing) and as the primary mode of dissemination of the research results. Results elaborated and summarized here explore the ways women and birthing professionals found the intervention useful. The project analyses the distinctive contribution of the arts and concludes that arts engagement can play a vital role in both antenatal and postnatal care.
    • Understanding inclusion

      Wharton, Julie; Codina, Geraldene; Middleton, Tristan; Esposito, Rosanne; University of Winchester; University of Derby; University of Gloucestershire; UCL Centre for Inclusive Education (Nasen, 2020-06-02)
      This mini guide is for SENCOs, school leaders (including governors), teachers and support staff. This guide aims to help you to consider your position with regard to inclusion in your setting, identify how you can develop an inclusive ethos and practice and reflect on the approach to inclusion taken in your setting.
    • Distributed leadership in DMOs: a review of literature and directions for future research

      Hristov, Dean; Ramkissoon, Haywantee; Naumov, Nick; University of Northampton; University of Derby; The Arctic University of Norway, Tromsø, Norway; University of Johannesburg, South Africa; Nexford University, Washington DC, USA (Taylor & Francis, 2020-07-27)
      Amidst key emergent challenges for Destination Management Organisations (DMOs) and destinations triggered by changes in the funding and governance landscape for tourism on a global scale, Distributed Leadership (DL) has emerged as a promising concept to provide a collaborative framework for channelling resources and leadership to cope with such changes. Current evidence from academic literature discussing the importance of embedding shared forms of leadership is scarce and few studies discuss the application of DL in the context of DMOs. The key purpose of the following conceptual study is to provide a critical overview of key DL contributions in the mainstream and DMO academic literature. The study seeks to examine the relevance of DL in the context DMOs with the purpose to stimulate future empirical investigations in the application of DL in DMO organisations.
    • Pellino-1 regulates the responses of the airway to viral infection

      Marsh, Elizabeth K; Prestwich, Elizabeth C; Marriott, Helen M; Williams, Lynne; Hart, Amber R; Muir, Claire F; Parker, Lisa C; Jonker, Marnix R; Heijink, Irene H; Timens, Wim; et al. (Frontiers, 2020)
      Exposure to respiratory pathogens is a leading cause of exacerbations of airway diseases such as asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Pellino-1 is an E3 ubiquitin ligase known to regulate virally-induced inflammation. We wished to determine the role of Pellino-1 in the host response to respiratory viruses in health and disease. Pellino-1 expression was examined in bronchial sections from patients with GOLD stage 2 COPD and healthy controls. Primary bronchial epithelial cells (PBECs), in which Pellino-1 expression had been knocked down, were extracellularly challenged with the TLR3 agonist poly(I:C). C57BL/6 Peli1-/- mice and wild type littermates were subjected to intranasal infection with clinically-relevant respiratory viruses; rhinovirus (RV1B) and influenza A. We find that Pellino-1 is expressed in the airways of normal subjects and those with COPD, and that Pellino-1 regulates TLR3 signalling and responses to airways viruses. In particular we observed that knockout of Pellino‐1 in the murine lung resulted in increased production of proinflammatory cytokines IL‐6 and TNFα upon viral infection, accompanied by enhanced recruitment of immune cells to the airways, without any change in viral replication. Pellino-1 therefore regulates inflammatory airway responses without altering replication of respiratory viruses.
    • The challenge and impact of engaging hard-to-reach populations in regular physical activity and health behaviours: an examination of an English Premier League ‘Football in the Community’ men's health programme

      Curran, K.; Drust, B.; Murphy, R.; Pringle, Andy; Richardson, D.; Leeds Beckett University; Liverpool John Moores University (Elsevier BV, 2016-04-20)
      To investigate the challenges that men from hard-to-reach (HTR) populations encounter when attempting to commit to regular participation in physical activity and health behaviours, and to explore the psychological and social effects of participation in a twelve week football-led health improvement intervention. A twelve week football specific physical activity intervention targeting men from HTR populations was delivered by Everton Football Clubs' Football in the Community (FitC) scheme as part of a national programme of men's health delivered in/by English Premier League (EPL) football clubs. Men living in homeless shelters and/or recovering from substance misuse were recruited over a period of three months. The programme consisted of a two hour football session, twice weekly, alongside the dissemination of healthy living messages. Football sessions were conducted by a qualified FitC coach. This research was conducted during a twelve week period of immersed practitioner-research. Ethnographic and observational methodologies were adopted. Psychosocial issues were discussed with participants through informal client–researcher interactions and data were logged via field notes. Records of attendance were logged. Participants who failed to attend a session were contacted and their reason(s) for non-attendance were recorded. Data were analysed using deductive and inductive reasoning. Despite the apparent ambition of the participants to regularly participate in the FitC programme, adherence to the programme was poor. Economic, environmental and social barriers to engagement in the programme were apparent. Engagement in the programme resulted in positive psychosocial developments; the development of structure, social interaction and social capital. Community based football-led health improvement programmes endorsed by professional football clubs appear well positioned to connect with, and attract, men from HTR populations. The evidence suggests that such programmes can improve psychosocial health amongst these populations. However, a bottom-up programme design and management strategy is required in order to reduce the challenges facing HTR participants when attempting to regularly engage in physical activity and health behaviours.
    • Why consistent completion criterion are required in childhood weight management programmes

      Nobles, J.; Griffiths, C.; Pringle, Andy; Gately, P.; Leeds Beckett University (Elsevier BV, 2017-09-01)
      Current research in the field of childhood weight management (WM) effectiveness is hampered by inconsistent terminology and criterion for WM programme completion, alongside other engagement-related concepts (e.g. adherence, dropout and attrition). Evidence reviews are not able to determine conclusive intervention effectiveness because of this issue. This study aims to quantify how various completion criterion impacts upon on: 1) the percentage of WM completers; 2) the standardised body mass index (BMI SDS) reduction; and 3) the predictors of WM completion. A methodological, sensitivity analysis to examine how differential completion criterion affect programme outcomes and predictors. Secondary data of 2948 children were used. All children attended a MoreLife WM programme between 2009 and 2014. The completion criterion was incrementally adjusted by 10% (i.e. completer attends 10%, 20%, 30%... of sessions) for research aims 1–2, with the percentage of completers and change in BMI SDS calculated at each increment. For aim 3, the stability (strength, direction and significance) of the predictors were examined when using the completion criterion of four alternative studies against our previous study (completion ≥70% attendance). The volume of programme completers decreased in a linear manner as the completion criterion became more stringent (i.e. 70–100% attendance). The change in BMI SDS conversely became incrementally greater. The strength, direction and significance of the predictors was highly dependent on the completion criterion; the odds ratio varied by 24.2% across a single predictor variable (delivery period). The degree of change is evidenced in the paper. Inconsistent completion criterion greatly limits the synthesis of programme effectiveness and explains some of the inconsistency in the predictors of engagement. Standardised criterion for engagement-related terminology are called for.
    • Engaging older adults with physical-activity delivered in professional soccer clubs: initial pre-adoption and implementation characteristics

      Pringle, Andy; Parnell, D; Zwolinsky, S; McKenna, J; Hargreaves, J; Rutherford, Z; Trotter, L; Rigby, M; Richardson, D; Leeds Beckett University (2015-05)
      Older-adults are a priority within policy designed to facilitate healthy lifestyles through physical activity. Golden Goal is a pilot programme of physical activity-led health improvement for older-adults 55 years and older. Activities were delivered at Burton Albion Football Club. Sessions involved weekly moderate-intensity exercise sessions including exer-gaming (exercise orientated video-games), indoor bowls, cricket, new age curling, walking football, and traditional board games and skittles. Secondary analysis of data collected through the original programme evaluation of Golden Goal investigated the impact of the intervention on participants. Older-adults completed self-reports for demographics, health-screening/complications and quality of life. Attendees, n=23 males (42.6%) and n=31 females (57.4%) with a mean age of 69.38 (±5.87) (n=40), ranging from 55-85 years took part. The mean attendance was 7.73 (±3.12) sessions for all participants, (n=51). Older-adults with two or more health complications (n=22, 42.3%) attended fewer sessions on average (6.91 ±3.322) compared to those reporting less than two health complications (8.65 ±2.694). Self-rated health was higher for women (87.32 ±9.573) versus men (80.16 ±18.557), although this was not statistically significant (U= 223.500, p=0.350). Results support the potential of football-led health interventions for recruiting older-adults, including those reporting health problems.
    • Are intervention-design characteristics more predictive than baseline participant characteristics on participant attendance to a paediatric, community weight management programme?

      Nobles, J; Gately, P; Griffiths, C; Pringle, Andy; Leeds Beckett University (2015-05)
      Approximately 50% of participants complete a paediatric weight management programme, yet the predictors of attendance and dropout are inconsistent. This study investigates subject and intervention-design characteristics associated with attendance at a group based, family weight management programme. Secondary data analysis of 2948 subjects (Age 10.4±2.8 years, BMI 26.0±5.7kg/m2, Standardised BMI (BMI SDS) 2.48±0.87, White 70.3%) from 244 MoreLife (UK) programmes. Subjects attend weekly for 10-12 weeks, sessions last 2-3 hours. Sessions include lifestyle guidance and physical activity. Subject characteristics (demographics, psychological (body satisfaction & self-esteem) and sedentary behaviour) were gathered at first contact and BMI SDS was noted weekly. Intervention-design characteristics were recorded (year, length (weeks), group size, age segregation and day of session). Attendance was calculated as total number of sessions attended (%). Multivariate linear regression examined predictors of attendance and multiple imputation countered missing data. RESULTS: Average attendance was 59.4%±29.3%. Baseline subject characteristics were ‘poor’ predictors of attendance. Intervention year, group size and day of session significantly predicted attendance (Tables 1 & 2). Yet, the most predictive marker of attendance was a change in BMI SDS during the programme (B = -0.38, 95% CI = -0.43 - -0.33). A reduction in BMI was seen to predict greater attendance. However, baseline subject characteristics were weakly associated with attendance, refuting past findings. Dominant intervention characteristics (large groups, weekend sessions and recent delivery) predicted lower attendance. Future programmes may be better informed.
    • Professional football clubs’ involvement in health promotion in Spain: an audit of current practices

      Lozano-Sufrategui, Lorena; Pringle, Andy; Zwolinsky, Stephen; Drew, Kevin J; Leeds Beckett University (Oxford University Press (OUP), 2019-09-20)
      The implementation of effective community-based health interventions within Spanish football clubs has the potential to positively influence the public health agenda and enable the health care system in Spain to be more successful and sustainable. This paper aims to explore the involvement of Spanish football clubs in health promotion activities, their potential for future involvement and what that would require. A mixed methods explanatory sequential design, with a purposive sample of La Liga clubs. Data collection included online questionnaires and phone interviews. Quantitative methods enabled us to describe the number and types of programmes the clubs are currently involved in. Qualitative data was useful to further unpick the processes followed by the clubs in planning and developing health promotion programmes, while identifying any determinants to change. Seventeen clubs completed questionnaires and 11 participated in interviews. Clubs generally support inclusive programmes that target disadvantaged groups. Health-related programmes focus on healthy eating, physical activity and blood donation. Thematic analysis of interviews with 11 representatives of La Liga clubs resulted in three key themes. These related to: (1) Diversity of programmes; (2) (Lack of) evidence-based approaches to intervention design and evaluation; and (3) Contrasting views about a club’s role in health promotion interventions. Spanish football clubs have potential to reach into communities that are currently underserved. However, there is limited infrastructure and understanding within the clubs to do this. Nevertheless, there is huge opportunity for organisations with public health responsibility in Spain to implement translational approaches within football-based settings.
    • Design programmes to maximise participant engagement: a predictive study of programme and participant characteristics associated with engagement in paediatric weight management

      Nobles, James; Griffiths, Claire; Pringle, Andy; Gately, Paul; Leeds Beckett University (Springer Science and Business Media LLC, 2016-07-19)
      Approximately 50 % of paediatric weight management (WM) programme attendees do not complete their respective programmes. High attrition rates compromise both programme effectiveness and cost-efficiency. Past research has examined pre-intervention participant characteristics associated with programme (non-)completion, however study samples are often small and not representative of multiple demographics. Moreover, the association between programme characteristics and participant engagement is not well known. This study examined participant and programme characteristics associated with engagement in a large, government funded, paediatric WM programme. Engagement was defined as the family’s level of participation in the WM programme. Secondary data analysis of 2948 participants (Age: 10.44 ± 2.80 years, BMI: 25.99 ± 5.79 kg/m2, Standardised BMI [BMI SDS]: 2.48 ± 0.87 units, White Ethnicity: 70.52 %) was undertaken. Participants attended a MoreLife programme (nationwide WM provider) between 2009 and 2014. Participants were classified into one of five engagement groups: Initiators, Late Dropouts, Low- or High- Sporadic Attenders, or Completers. Five binary multivariable logistic regression models were performed to identify participant (n = 11) and programmatic (n = 6) characteristics associated with an engagement group. Programme completion was classified as ≥70 % attendance. Programme characteristics were stronger predictors of programme engagement than participant characteristics; particularly small group size, winter/autumn delivery periods and earlier programme years (proxy for scalability). Conversely, participant characteristics were weak predictors of programme engagement. Predictors varied between engagement groups (e.g. Completers, Initiators, Sporadic Attenders). 47.1 % of participants completed the MoreLife programme (mean attendance: 59.4 ± 26.7 %, mean BMI SDS change: -0.15 ± 0.22 units), and 21 % of those who signed onto the programme did not attend a session. As WM services scale up, the efficacy and fidelity of programmes may be reduced due to increased demand and lower financial resource. Further, limiting WM programme groups to no more than 20 participants could result in greater engagement. Baseline participant characteristics are poor and inconsistent predictors of programme engagement. Thus, future research should evaluate participant motives, expectations, and barriers to attending a WM programme to enhance our understanding of participant WM engagement. Finally, we suggest that session-by-session attendance is recorded as a minimum requirement to improve reporting transparency and enhance external validity of study findings.
    • “Football is pure enjoyment”: An exploration of the behaviour change processes which facilitate engagement in football for people with mental health problems

      Hargreaves, Jackie; Pringle, Andy; Leeds Beckett University (Elsevier BV, 2019-03-08)
      Physical activity is known to be beneficial for people with mental health problems, although engagement is low. Football, provided by professional football club community trusts could aid engagement in physical activity, however little is known about the behaviour change processes which engage individuals in this type of PA. One factor which is often overlooked is affect and exploring this could help identify the behaviour change processes, which engage individuals in a professional football club-led mental health intervention. The aim of this study was to explore the experiences of individuals attending football provided by a professional club community trust to further our understanding of the behaviour change processes involved in facilitating engagement in this provision. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with twelve men who played football provided by a professional football club trust. A range of mental health problems were reported and the participants were aged between 19 and 46. Template analysis was conducted, implementing some of the concepts from the Affective – Reflective Theory (ART). The results highlighted that both affective and reflective processes of ART were evident in engaging individuals in football. Pleasurable experiences were enabled through the physical and social characteristics of football. Self-control strategies emerged which help to action engagement. The professional football club trust provided coaching knowledge and skills, team organisation and resources and feelings of belonging and responsibility. Application of ART to the understanding of football experiences has provided a novel exploration of the processes involved in engaging individuals in football. This has important implications for intervention design; the focus should be on providing pleasurable experiences and fostering appropriate self-control strategies.
    • Engaging families in weight management

      Nobles, J; Griffiths, C; Pringle, Andy; Staniford, L; Gately, P; Leeds Beckett University (2016-06)
      Approximately 50% of families who initiate a weight management programme (WMP) will not complete. It is fundamental to understand why participants initiate and complete a programme, and to ensure that programmes are effectively designed and delivered. This study examined the reasoning for family (young person and parent) engagement in three different and diverse WMPs. A multiple instrumental case study approach was employed. Three community-based WMPs participated: MoreLife, SHINE, and Weigh to Go. Clear design and implementation differences existed between WMPs. Multiple WMPs were recruited to examine the generalisability of research findings, and extract key features associated with participant engagement. Thirty families took part (~10 per programme). Data were collected early in the programme (0-2 weeks) and immediately after completion or dropout (within two weeks). Young people took part in a Participatory Action Research (PAR) session (interactive activities to generate meaningful information), and parents completed semi-structured interviews. A deductive line of inquiry was used; questions were based upon participant characteristics, environmental interactions, psychological processes and programme interactions. Interview data was transcribed verbatim and analysed alongside the PAR data using content and thematic analysis (themes presented in italics). Preliminary findings indicate that families often engage in a WMP for non-weight related reasons. Such reasons include: management of mental health, to improve self -esteem, and to create friendships. Families remain in a WMP when: the programme suits their needs, they fit in amongst other participants, strong relationships are fostered with staff, and have strong support networks. Numerous families completing programmes prioritised WMP attendance above other leisure activities, and had plans in place to ensure they could attend each session. Low engagement was due to situational factors (e.g. logistic barriers [transport, timing…]) rather than programme dissatisfaction. Families attend community-based WMPs for reasons beyond weight management. Additionally, the families identified unique WMP features (e.g. maintenance programmes and non-clinical staff) which encourage programme attendance. Such features can be replicated in multiple, diverse settings. Understanding participant engagement is critical to designing and implementing efficacious WMPs.