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AbstractThe proliferation of digital technologies in the past years has seen the adaptation of lifestyles merge between the online and offline domain. The introduction of Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) has provided numerous beneficial opportunities for individuals, groups and wider organizations. However, the digital world can also lead to online risks and vulnerabilities. This chapter will first discuss definitions of cyber victimization across perspectives of cyber aggression, cyberbullying and cybercrime. The chapter will then go on to consider key features of cyber victimization across these three perspectives. In particular, an overview will be provided on the roles of efficiency of ICTs, the unique facet of anonymity in the digital world, bystanders of cyber victimization and a brief consideration of the bully–victim cycle. This will provide a unique insight into key features of cyber victimization, to provide recommendations for strategies to reduce risks of vulnerability. Finally, key factors leading to cyber victimization across cyber aggression, cyberbullying and cybercrimes will be explored. Specifically, individual demographics, time spent online and wider group influences across the school, home and family structure. A review of contemporary issues surrounding cyber victimization and current security measures are recommended in order to aid vulnerable groups and organizations, contributing to a safer online environment. This chapter offers a current and unique insight into the factors leading to cyber victimization which will provide an important contribution to help guide future researchers, organizations and policymakers addressing this global concern.
CitationMacaulay, P.J., Steer, O.L. and Betts, L.R., (2020). 'Factors leading to cyber victimization'. In 'Emerging Cyber Threats and Cognitive Vulnerabilities'. Cambridge, MA: Academic Publishing, pp. 1-25.
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A study of Chinese policy attention on cybersecurityLi, Zhengrong; Guo, Xi; He, Qile; Inner Mongolia University; University of Derby (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), 2020-10-20)The rising number of cyber-attacks and cyber-criminals around the world has put major threats on the cyber-security and even the national security of many countries. In response, governments started to introduce policies and regulations to improve cyber-security. It is increasingly realized that the effective cyber-security policy making largely depends upon optimized policy attention and the effective use of public resources. This paper draws on the “attention-driven policy choice model” and the Punctuated Equilibrium Theory (PET) to analyse the relationship between policy attention allocation, policy agenda setting and the choice of policy tools in different periods of cyber-security development. Using Chinese cyber-security development as the main context, content analysis of policy texts was conducted to examine the pathway of cyber-security policy development in China between 1994 and 2019. The findings suggest that there is evidence for punctuated equilibrium with policy stagnation and incrementality being broken up by major events which shifts policy attention and subsequently affects agenda setting and the choice of policy tools. The findings of this paper will provide important implications for the development of strategic foresight of cyber-security and the effective use of public resources to improve cyber-security.
Factors influencing digital forensic investigations: Empirical evaluation of 12 years of Dubai police casesAl Awadhi, Ibtesam; Read, Janet C.; Marrington, Andrew; Franqueira, Virginia N. L.; University of Central Lancashire; Zayed University; University of Derby (Association of Digital Forensics, Security and Law (ADFSL), 2015)In Digital Forensics, person-hours spent on investigation is a key factor which needs to be kept to a minimum whilst also paying close attention to the authenticity of the evidence. The literature describes challenges behind increasing person-hours and identifies several factors which contribute to this phenomenon. This paper reviews these factors and demonstrates that they do not wholly account for increases in investigation time. Using real case records from the Dubai Police, an extensive study explains the contribution of other factors to the increase in person-hours. We conclude this work by emphasizing on several factors affecting the person-hours in contrast to what most of the literature in this area proposes.
Developing the cyber victimization experiences and cyberbullying behaviors scales.Betts, Lucy R.; Spenser, Karin A.; Nottingham Trent University; Department of Psychology, Nottingham Trent University, Nottingham, United Kingdom; Department of Psychology, Nottingham Trent University, Nottingham, United Kingdom (Taylor and Francis, 2017-04-12)The reported prevalence rates of cyber victimization experiences and cyberbullying behaviors vary. Part of this variation is likely due to the diverse definitions and operationalizations of the constructs adopted in previous research and the lack of psychometrically robust measures. Through 2 studies, the authors developed (Study 1) and evaluated (Study 2) the cyber victimization experiences and cyberbullying behaviors scales. Participants in Study 1 were 393 (122 boys, 171 girls) and in Study 2 were 345 (153 boys, 192 girls) 11–15-year-olds who completed measures of cyber victimization experiences, cyberbullying behaviors, face-to-face victimization experiences, face-to-face bullying behaviors, and social desirability. The 3-factor cyber victimization experiences scale comprised threat, shared images, and personal attack. The 3-factor cyberbullying behaviors scale comprised sharing images, gossip, and personal attack. Both scales demonstrated acceptable internal consistency and convergent validity.