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dc.contributor.authorGilbert, Paul
dc.date.accessioned2021-04-07T12:58:46Z
dc.date.available2021-04-07T12:58:46Z
dc.date.issued2021-02-10
dc.identifier.citationGilbert, P. (2021). 'Creating a compassionate world: addressing the conflicts between sharing and caring versus controlling and holding evolved strategies'. Frontiers in Psychology, 11, pp. 1-38.en_US
dc.identifier.doi10.3389/fpsyg.2020.582090
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/10545/625695
dc.description.abstractFor thousands of years, various spiritual traditions and social activists have appealed to humans to adopt compassionate ways of living to address the suffering of life. Yet, along with our potential for compassion and self-sacrifice, the last few thousand years of wars, slavery, tortures, and holocausts have shown humans can be extraordinarily selfish, callous, vicious, and cruel. While there has been considerable engagement with these issues, particularly in the area of moral psychology and ethics, this paper explores an evolutionary analysis relating to evolved resource-regulation strategies that can be called “care and share” versus “control and hold.” Control and hold are typical of primates that operate through intimidatory social hierarchies. Care and share are less common in non-human primates, but evolved radically in humans during our hunter-gatherer stage when our ancestors lived in relatively interdependent, small, mobile groups. In these groups, individualistic, self-focus, and self-promoting control and hold strategies (trying to secure and accumulate more than others) were shunned and shamed. These caring and sharing hunter-gatherer lifestyles also created the social contexts for the evolution of new forms of childcare and complex human competencies for language, reasoning, planning, empathy, and self-awareness. As a result of our new ‘intelligence’, our ancestors developed agriculture that reduced mobility, increased group size, resource availability and storage, and resource competition. These re-introduced competing for, rather than sharing of, resources and advantaged those who now pursue (often aggressively) control and hold strategies. Many of our most typical forms of oppressive and anti-compassionate behavior are the result of these strategies. Rather than (just) thinking about individuals competing with one another, we can also consider these different resource regulation strategies as competing within populations shaping psychophysiological patterns; both wealth and poverty change the brain. One of the challenges to creating a more compassionate society is to find ways to create the social and economic conditions that regulate control and hold strategies and promote care and share. No easy task.en_US
dc.description.sponsorshipN/Aen_US
dc.language.isoenen_US
dc.publisherFrontiers Media SAen_US
dc.relation.urlhttps://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2020.582090en_US
dc.rightsAttribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International*
dc.rights.urihttp://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/*
dc.subjectGeneral Psychologyen_US
dc.subjectcompassionen_US
dc.subjectcaringen_US
dc.subjectcompetitiveen_US
dc.subjectevolutionen_US
dc.subjectstrategiesen_US
dc.titleCreating a compassionate world: addressing the conflicts between sharing and caring versus controlling and holding evolved strategiesen_US
dc.typeArticleen_US
dc.identifier.eissn1664-1078
dc.contributor.departmentUniversity of Derbyen_US
dc.identifier.journalFrontiersen_US
dc.identifier.pii10.3389/fpsyg.2020.582090
dc.source.journaltitleFrontiers in Psychology
dc.source.volume11
dcterms.dateAccepted2020-11-23
dc.author.detailVCHI583en_US


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Except where otherwise noted, this item's license is described as Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International