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dc.contributor.authorCondliffe, Otto
dc.contributor.authorMaratos, Frances A.
dc.date.accessioned2020-04-24T10:18:24Z
dc.date.available2020-04-24T10:18:24Z
dc.date.issued2020-04-11
dc.identifier.citationCondliffe, O. and Maratos, F.A., (2020). 'Can compassion, happiness and sympathetic concern be differentiated on the basis of facial expression?' Cognition and Emotion, pp. 1-13.en_US
dc.identifier.issn0269-9931
dc.identifier.doi10.1080/02699931.2020.1747989
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/10545/624715
dc.description.abstractRecent research has demonstrated the importance of positive emotions, and especially compassion, for well-being. Via two investigations, we set out to determine if facial expressions of happiness, “kind” compassion and sympathetic concern can be distinguished, given limitations of previous research. In investigation one, prototypes of the three expressions were analysed for similarities and differences using the facial action coding system (FACS) by two certified independent coders. Results established that each expression comprised distinct FACS units. Thus, in investigation 2, a new photographic stimulus set was developed using a gender/racially balanced group of actors to pose these expressions of “kind” compassion, happiness, sympathetic concern, and the face in a relaxed/neutral pose. 75 participants were then asked to name the FACS generated expressions using not only forced categorical quantitative ratings but, importantly, free response. Results revealed that kind compassionate facial expressions: (i) engendered words associated with contented and affiliative emotions (although, interestingly, not the word “kind”); (ii) were labelled as compassionate significantly more often than any of the other emotional expressions; but (iii) in common with happiness expressions, engendered happiness word groupings and ratings. Findings have implications for understandings of positive emotions, including specificity of expressions and their veridicality.en_US
dc.description.sponsorshipN/Aen_US
dc.language.isoenen_US
dc.publisherTaylor and Francisen_US
dc.relation.urlhttps://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/02699931.2020.1747989en_US
dc.subjectAffiliation, kind compassion, free response ratings, faces, contented compassion, positive emotionen_US
dc.subjectExperimental and Cognitve Psychologyen_US
dc.titleCan compassion, happiness and sympathetic concern be differentiated on the basis of facial expression?en_US
dc.typeArticleen_US
dc.identifier.eissn1464-0600
dc.contributor.departmentUniversity of Shanghaien_US
dc.contributor.departmentUniversity of Derbyen_US
dc.identifier.journalCognition and Emotionen_US
dc.source.journaltitleCognition and Emotion
dc.source.beginpage1
dc.source.endpage13
dcterms.dateAccepted2020-03-17
dc.author.detailsehs277en_US


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