Pervasive blood pressure monitoring using Photoplethysmogram (PPG) Sensor
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AbstractPreventive healthcare requires continuous monitoring of the blood pressure (BP) of patients, which is not feasible using conventional methods. Photoplethysmogram (PPG) signals can be effectively used for this purpose as there is a physiological relation between the pulse width and BP and can be easily acquired using a wearable PPG sensor. However, developing real-time algorithms for wearable technology is a significant challenge due to various conflicting requirements such as high accuracy, computationally constrained devices, and limited power supply. In this paper, we propose a novel feature set for continuous, real-time identification of abnormal BP. This feature set is obtained by identifying the peaks and valleys in a PPG signal (using a peak detection algorithm), followed by the calculation of rising time, falling time and peak-to-peak distance. The histograms of these times are calculated to form a feature set that can be used for classification of PPG signals into one of the two classes: normal or abnormal BP. No public dataset is available for such study and therefore a prototype is developed to collect PPG signals alongside BP measurements. The proposed feature set shows very good performance with an overall accuracy of approximately 95\%. Although the proposed feature set is effective, the significance of individual features varies greatly (validated using significance testing) which led us to perform weighted voting of features for classification by performing autoregressive modeling. Our experiments show that the simplest linear classifiers produce very good results indicating the strength of the proposed feature set. The weighted voting improves the results significantly, producing an overall accuracy of about 98%. Conclusively, the PPG signals can be effectively used to identify BP, and the proposed feature set is efficient and computationally feasible for implementation on standalone devices.
CitationRiaz, F., Azad, M.A., Arshad, J., Imran, M., Hassan, A. and Rehman, S., (2019) 'Pervasive blood pressure monitoring using photoplethysmogram (PPG) sensor'. Future Generation Computer Systems. 98, pp. 120-130. DOI: 10.1016/j.future.2019.02.032.
JournalFuture Generation Computer Systems