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dc.contributor.authorHeriot-Maitland, Charles
dc.contributor.authorMcCarthy-Jones, Simon
dc.contributor.authorLongden, Eleanor
dc.contributor.authorGilbert, Paul
dc.date.accessioned2019-03-19T12:15:42Z
dc.date.available2019-03-19T12:15:42Z
dc.date.issued2019-02-01
dc.identifier.citationHeriot-Maitland C, McCarthy-Jones S, Longden E and Gilbert P (2019) 'Compassion focused approaches to working with distressing voices'. Frontiers in psychology, 10:152, pp. 1-11. DOI: 10.3389/fpsyg.2019.00152en_US
dc.identifier.issn1664-1078
dc.identifier.doi10.3389/fpsyg.2019.00152
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/10545/623616
dc.description.abstractThis paper presents an outline of voice-hearing phenomenology in the context of evolutionary mechanisms for self- and social- monitoring. Special attention is given to evolved systems for monitoring dominant-subordinate social roles and relationships. These provide information relating to the interpersonal motivation of others, such as neutral, friendly or hostile, and thus the interpersonal threat, versus safe, social location. Individuals who perceive themselves as subordinate and dominants as hostile are highly vigilant to down-rank threat and use submissive displays and social spacing as basic defenses. We suggest these defense mechanisms are especially attuned in some individuals with voices, in which this fearful-subordinate – hostile-dominant relationship is played out. Given the evolved motivational system in which voice-hearers can be trapped, one therapeutic solution is to help them switch into different motivational systems, particularly those linked to social caring and support, rather than hostile competition. Compassion focused therapy (CFT) seeks to produce such motivational shifts. Compassion focused therapy aims to help voice-hearers, (i) notice their threat-based (dominant-subordinate) motivational systems when they arise, (ii) understand their function in the context of their lives, and (iii) shift into different motivational patterns that are orientated around safeness and compassion. Voice-hearers are supported to engage with biopsychosocial components of compassionate mind training, which are briefly summarized, and to cultivate an embodied sense of a compassionate self-identity. They are invited to consider, and practice, how they might wish to relate to themselves, their voices, and other people, from the position of their compassionate self. This paper proposes, in line with the broader science of compassion and CFT, that repeated practice of creating internal patterns of safeness and compassion can provide an optimum biopsychosocial environment for affect-regulation, emotional conflict-resolution, and therapeutic change. Examples of specific therapeutic techniques, such as chair-work and talking with voices, are described to illustrate how these might be incorporated in one-to-one sessions of CFT.en_US
dc.description.sponsorshipCH-M was supported by a Medical Research Council Clinical Research Training Fellowship (MR/L01677X/1) to investigate Compassion Focused Therapy for Psychosis.en_US
dc.language.isoenen_US
dc.publisherFrontiersen_US
dc.relation.urlhttps://www.frontiersin.org/article/10.3389/fpsyg.2019.00152/fullen_US
dc.rightsCC0 1.0 Universal*
dc.rights.urihttp://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/*
dc.subjectcompassionen_US
dc.subjectCFTen_US
dc.subjectauditory verbal hallucinationsen_US
dc.subjectvoice-hearingen_US
dc.subjectshameen_US
dc.subjecttraumaen_US
dc.titleCompassion Focused Approaches to Working With Distressing Voicesen_US
dc.typeArticleen_US
dc.contributor.departmentUniversity of Glasgowen_US
dc.contributor.departmentKings College Londonen_US
dc.contributor.departmentTrinity College Dublinen_US
dc.contributor.departmentGreater Manchester Mental Health NHS Foundation Trusten_US
dc.contributor.departmentUniversity of Derbyen_US
dc.identifier.journalFrontiers in Psychologyen_US
dc.source.journaltitleFrontiers in Psychology
dc.source.volume10
dcterms.dateAccepted2019-01-16
refterms.dateFOA2019-03-19T12:15:42Z
dc.author.detailVchi583en_US


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