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dc.contributor.authorBasran, Jaskaran
dc.contributor.authorPires, Claudia
dc.contributor.authorMatos, Marcela
dc.contributor.authorMcEwan, Kirsten
dc.contributor.authorGilbert, Paul
dc.date.accessioned2019-01-30T16:10:15Z
dc.date.available2019-01-30T16:10:15Z
dc.date.issued2019-01-22
dc.identifier.citationBasran, J. et al. (2019) 'Styles of leadership, fears of compassion and competing to avoid inferiority', Frontiers in Psychology, 9:2460. doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2018.02460.en_US
dc.identifier.issn1664-1078
dc.identifier.doi10.3389/fpsyg.2018.02460
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/10545/623458
dc.description.abstractThere is general agreement that styles of leadership evolved from mammalian group living strategies that form social ranks. In both non-human primates and humans, different styles of hierarchical dominant-subordinate and leader-follower behavior can be observed. These can be described in terms of dimensions of antisocial (relatively self-focused, aggressive and threat-based) and prosocial (relatively empathic, caring, and supportive) interpersonal styles. The aim of this study was to explore how a set of established self-report questionnaires might relate to these two dimensions. Two hundred and nineteen students completed questionnaires assessing ruthless self-advancement, coalition building, and dominant leadership styles, as well as hypercompetitiveness, narcissism, striving to avoid inferiority, compassion focused and ego focused goals, fears of compassion, social safeness and attachment (in)security. A principal component analysis supported an antisocial leadership style factor which comprised of ruthless self-advancement, narcissism and hypercompetitiveness. This was significantly correlated with fears of compassion, ego focused goals, insecure striving (striving to avoid inferiority), fears of losing out, fears of being overlooked, fears of being rejected, and avoidant relating in close relationships. It was significantly negatively correlated with compassionate goals. As the results did not reveal a clear factor solution for a prosocial leadership style, we chose to use the coalition building leadership style variable. This showed the opposite pattern, being significantly negatively correlated with narcissism, hypercompetitiveness, fears of compassion, fears of active rejection, and avoidance in close relationships. It was significantly positively correlated with secure striving, compassionate goals, and social safeness. We also found that fears of compassion for others was a partial mediator of the relationship between insecure striving with antisocial leadership style. Moreover, lower fears of compassion for the self emerged as a key mediator for the relationship between non-avoidant attachment with coalition building leadership style and, secure non-striving with coalition building leadership style. While the motive to accumulate social power, resources and dominance may be linked to antisocial forms of leadership, the intensity of the drive may also be linked to unaddressed threats and fears of rejection and fears of compassion. Efforts to promote more ethical, moral and prosocial forms of leadership may falter if such fears are left unaddressed.en_US
dc.description.sponsorshipThis research was supported by a donation received by the Compassionate Mind Foundation charity (https://compassionatemind.co.uk/) from Slimming World.en_US
dc.language.isoenen_US
dc.publisherFrontiersen_US
dc.relation.urlhttps://www.frontiersin.org/article/10.3389/fpsyg.2018.02460/fullen_US
dc.rightsCC0 1.0 Universal*
dc.rights.urihttp://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/*
dc.subjectCompassionen_US
dc.subjectleadership styleen_US
dc.subjectcompetitive behavioren_US
dc.subjectattachmenten_US
dc.subjectantisocialen_US
dc.subjectprosocialen_US
dc.titleStyles of leadership, fears of compassion, and competing to avoid inferiority.en_US
dc.typeArticleen_US
dc.contributor.departmentUniversity of Derbyen_US
dc.contributor.departmentUniversity of Coimbraen_US
dc.identifier.journalFrontiers in Psychologyen_US
dc.source.journaltitleFrontiers in Psychology
dc.source.volume9
dcterms.dateAccepted2018-11-20
refterms.dateFOA2019-01-30T16:10:16Z


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