Per capita carbon dioxide emissions across U.S. states by sector and fossil fuel source: evidence from club convergence tests
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AbstractThis study extends the literature on the convergence of per capita carbon dioxide emissions by examining the 50 U.S. states including the District of Columbia in the aggregate, by sector, and by fossil fuel source using the Phillips-Sul club convergence approach for the period 1980 to 2013. The results indicate multiple convergence clubs in the aggregate, by sector (residential, commercial, industrial, transport, and electric power), and for two of the three fossil fuel sources (natural gas and coal) with full panel club convergence in the case of petroleum. The presence of multiple equilibria suggests that environmental policies should recognize the distinctive convergence paths associated with each cluster of states.
CitationApergis, N., and Payne, J.E.(2017) ‘Per capita carbon dioxide emissions across U.S. states by sector and fossil fuel source: evidence from club convergence tests’, Energy Economics, 63, pp. 365-372. Doi: 10.1016/j.eneco.2016.11.027
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