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  • Using Wikipedia to explore issues of systemic bias and symbolic annihilation in information sources

    Ball, Caroline; University of Derby (Innovative Libraries, 2021-11-01)
    Wikipedia is one of the most high profile and heavily used sources of information used by students today. The English language version contains over 5.8 million articles, growing at a rate of some 500+ new articles every day . It receives roughly 15 billion page views per month, making it the fifth most used website in the world . It is one of the first places students to go to find information. However, Wikipedia itself is very far from a truly global source of information. As an information source, it betrays the biases of its contributors. The majority of Wikipedia editors are young, white, college-educated males, technically-inclined, living in majority-Christian, Western Hemisphere countries - a group that has been described as "a bunch of male geeks who are wealthy enough to afford a $2,000 laptop and a broadband connection" . Recent surveys have estimated that only 8.5% - 16% of Wikipedia users are female – even fewer are people of colour . As a result, Wikipedia coverage in many areas suffer from this lack of representation. Articles about notable women are under-represented ; coverage relating to Africa, Latin American and the Middle East is rated by Wikipedia itself as poor to mediocre , and those that do exist are often written from a European or North American perspective ; articles on ‘universal’ topics often fail to include examples from these regions – do people in Africa not eat lunch, for example? If the world increasingly uses a single information source, what happens when that information source is incomplete, biased or misleading, not because of any inaccuracies but because of issues of perspective, notability and bias? Absence can signify ‘symbolic annihilation’ – if people do not see faces like their own in the media and information they consume, the message that sends is that they are less important. Focusing on Wikipedia’s shortcomings in these areas provides an opportunity to explore wider issues of systemic bias and representation with students, using a resource they are all familiar with but few truly understand. It enhances students’ evaluation and critical analysis skills and provides a new perspective on how information is researched, created and consumed – all vital skills in today’s ‘post-truth’ era when scarcely a day goes by without some ‘fake news’ story raising headlines and students’ digital literacy is increasingly under scrutiny. Activities to teach systemic bias in Wikipedia can include: a representation hunt through traditional print media sources; a ‘wikihopping’ activity generating random articles and keeping a log of how many articles about men vs women, western country vs Africa, universal articles that omit certain countries or geographic regions; textual analysis of articles for perspective bias in language used, examples included or not, sources of referenced information used.
  • Home and away: building cultural capital to encourage progression to higher education

    Spink, Victoria; Hubbard, Megan; University of Derby (FACE, 2021-03-24)
    The Derbyshire and Nottinghamshire Collaborative Outreach Programme (DANCOP), part of the Uni Connect Programme (formally the National Collaborative Outreach Programme), procured the services of World Challenge to co-deliver three separate ten-day trips to Morocco for year ten learners from areas of low progression across Derbyshire and Nottinghamshire. The trips were designed to improve the cultural capital (Bourdieu, 1977) of learners in response to schools’ requests for experiences that offer cultural enrichment and broaden horizons that they typically struggle to offer. With half of all local authority areas in the East Midlands being social mobility coldspots (Social Mobility Commission, 2017), DANCOP has had an opportunity to provide an experience for learners to encounter a completely different culture that they may not otherwise be able to engage with. This chapter explores the successes and challenges of executing successful trips abroad for school-age learners from areas where progression to higher education is low. It also examines whether the trips have had a positive impact on learners’ views of progression to higher education and learners’ attitudes towards self. This chapter was originally written and submitted in autumn 2019.
  • Times they are a changing: evaluating interventions in a new era

    Astley, Jo; Church, Emma; University of Derby; East Midlands Widening Participation Research and Evaluation Partnership (FACE, 2021-03-24)
    This chapter will outline the University of Derby’s response to that APP requirement of evidence-based practice to address the inequitable HE outcomes of under-represented groups. It will firstly share the University’s current evaluation practices concerning access, in which the East Midlands Widening Participation Research and Evaluation Partnership (EMWPREP) plays such a key role. It will then move on to demonstrate how the University has utilised Theory of Change to embed evidence-based practice across the whole student lifecycle, and discuss the methods and methodologies that will be adopted within a new framework to evaluate interventions, and identify new areas for research. The chapter concludes by reflecting on key areas of focus required by the University through the 2019-2020 academic year, in order for the institution to be well equipped to meet its APP reporting requirements when the first monitoring return is due in spring 2022. It will also reflect on the challenges that the institution faces (as well as the sector as a whole), in order to fulfil OfS expectations.
  • Treat-to-target strategies in rheumatoid arthritis: a systematic review and cost-effectiveness analysis

    Hock, Emma Stefania; Martyn-St James, Marrissa; Wailoo, Allan; Scott, David L.; Stevenson, Matt; Rawdin, Andrew; Simpson, Emma L.; Dracup, Naila; Young, Adam; University of Sheffield; et al. (Springer Science and Business Media LLC, 2021-01-25)
    To systematically review clinical and health economic impacts of treat-to-target (TTT) strategies in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) managed in specialist units, compared with routine care. Sixteen and seven electronic databases were searched for clinical RCTs and cost-effectiveness respectively. Study selection, data extraction and quality assessment (Cochrane Collaboration risk of bias criteria) were performed. Evidence was reported by (1) TTT vs. usual care; (2) comparison of different treatment protocols against each other; (3) comparison of different targets against each other. Narrative synthesis was undertaken and conclusions drawn on a trial by trial basis, due to study heterogeneity. Twenty-two RCTs were included. Sixteen were at high risk of bias, five unclear and one low risk. Three trials showed TTT to be more effective than usual care in terms of remissions, in some or all comparisons, whereas one other trial reported no significant difference. Two trials showed TTT to be more effective than usual care in terms of low disease activity (LDA), in some or all comparisons, whereas two trials reported little difference. Some evidence suggests that TTT strategies involving combination therapy can achieve more remissions than those involving monotherapy, but little impact of alternative treatment targets on remission or LDA. Overall, there is evidence that TTT increases remissions in early RA and mixed early and established RA populations, and increases LDA in established RA. Although results varied, typically TTT was estimated to be more cost-effective than usual care. No target appears more effective than others.
  • Mentoring as an intervention to promote gender equality in academic medicine: a systematic review

    House, Allan; Dracup, Naila; Burkinshaw, Paula; Ward, Vicky; Bryant, Louise D; University of Leeds; University of Derby; University of St Andrews (BMJ, 2021-01-26)
    Mentoring is frequently suggested as an intervention to address gender inequalities in the workplace. To systematically review evidence published since a definitive review in 2006 on the effectiveness of mentoring interventions aimed at achieving gender equality in academic medicine. Systematic Review, using the Template for Intervention Description and Replication as a template for data extraction and synthesis. Studies were included if they described a specific mentoring intervention in a medical school or analogous academic healthcare organisation and included results from an evaluation of the intervention. Mentoring was defined as (1) a formally organised intervention entailing a supportive relationship between a mentor, defined as a more senior/experienced person and a mentee defined as a more junior/inexperienced person; (2) mentoring intervention involved academic career support (3) the mentoring relationship was outside line management or supervision of performance and was defined by contact over an extended period of time. The impact of mentoring was usually reported at the level of individual participants, for example, satisfaction and well-being or self-reported career progression. We sought evidence of impact on gender equality via reports of organisation-level effectiveness, of promotion or retention, pay and academic performance of female staff. We identified 32 publications: 8 review articles, 20 primary observational studies and 4 randomised controlled trials. A further 19 discussed mentoring in relation to gender but did not meet our eligibility criteria. The terminology used, and the structures and processes reported as constituting mentoring, varied greatly. We identified that mentoring is popular with many who receive it; however, we found no robust evidence of effectiveness in reducing gender inequalities. Primary research used weak evaluation designs. Mentoring is a complex intervention. Future evaluations should adopt standardised approaches used in applied health research to the design and evaluation of effectiveness and cost-effectiveness.
  • HIgh attaining pupils programme

    Astley, Jo; University of Derby (FACE, 2019-05-07)
  • University of Derby year 10 white working-class boys pilot programme

    Astley, Jo; University of Derby (FACE, 2019-07-03)
  • WikiLiteracy: enhancing students' digital literacy with Wikipedia

    Ball, Caroline; University of Derby (CILIP Information Literacy Group, 2019-12-03)
    In January 2019 the University of Derby delivered its first module entirely dedicated to and structured around editing and writing articles for Wikipedia. The course focused on using Wikipedia as a means to improve students’ skills in writing for public consumption, in addition to enhancing their digital and collaborative skills. Students contributed to 118 articles across a range of topics, which were viewed over 11.2 million times, providing them with a public platform no university assignment could match, and introduced them to the challenges of interaction and engagement in a global editing community. Students’ confidence in their digital capabilities was assessed at the start and end of the module and showed a clear increase in confidence across all categories.
  • The impacts and benefits of employing a progressive and sustained approach to outreach programmes for universities: a case study – the progress to success framework

    Bainham, Krisha; University of Derby (FACE: Forum for Access and Continuing Education, 2019-07)
    The East Midlands is a social mobility cold spot with limited life chances and GCSE attainment well below the national average. The University of Derby’s Progress to Success Framework - targeting secondary schools in disadvantaged areas of Derby city and Derbyshire - has been developed in response to government concerns around widening the participation in higher education (HE) of under-represented learners. It is a long-term outreach initiative aimed at raising the aspiration, awareness and attainment cohorts of learners through a multi-intervention approach creating ‘drip feed’ touchpoints from Year 7 through to Year 11. Initiatives such as the National Collaborative Outreach Programme (NCOP) and Derby Opportunity Area (OA), plus research into sector best practice and ‘what works’ inform the framework, through which we offer activity which is engaging, interactive and informative. Robust evaluation and reflection is embedded throughout the framework using a logic model to map out success and impact measures to ensure effectiveness. A mixed methodology is employed, including individual activity feedback; teacher evaluation; multi-point surveys; focus groups; and tracking progress against predicted grades. This paper explores the benefits and challenges of delivering sustained outreach, and measuring the longitudinal impact on learners, in a rapidly changing political landscape, which is often times characterised by short-term funding streams and responding to continuous change in government measures. It puts forward an often overlooked practitioner viewpoint and illustrates how outreach professionals can ensure programmes encompass activity that is ultimately deliverable, whilst also being reactive to policy and creating a valid body of impact evidence.
  • Defining the nature of blended learning through its depiction in current research

    Smith, Karen; Hill, John; University of Derby; University of Hertfordshire (Taylor & Francis, 2018-09-18)
    Blended learning has been a feature of higher education practice and research for almost two decades. This article takes stock of current blended learning research, contributing to the growing number of meta-analyses of higher education and blended learning research more generally, through a review of ninety-seven articles relating to blended learning in higher education published in fifteen journals between 2012 and mid-2017. The review focused on where and when the articles were published; their provenance, scale, scope; methodological approach; the broad research themes; and definition of blended learning used. The review shows that despite its ubiquity, blended learning’s definition is all-encompassing; its spread is global but research is dominated by key players; it is of technical interest; and its research is small-scale, individually focused, seeking to evidence the benefits of blended learning. The article concludes with recommendations of how higher education research could provide institutions with evidence to ensure their ‘best of blends’.
  • Wiki literacy: using Wikipedia as a teaching tool

    Ball, Caroline; White, Jonathan; University of Derby (LILAC conference, 2019-04)
    Wikipedia has traditionally been viewed with scepticism in higher education, and many academics discourage students from using it at all – a position borne out by our own internal sample of Derby academics. However, statistics show that Wikipedia is still one of the top five most heavily used websites in the world. With this in mind therefore, subject librarians at the University of Derby decided to try a different approach by using Wikipedia as a teaching and learning tool rather than just a source of information. Working with the undergraduate Publishing programme, librarians and academic staff redeveloped an existing module on Content Development to be structured entirely around the use of Wikipedia. Students were set tasks to create new articles, copy edit existing ones, peer review each other’s articles, and research for articles missing citations, thereby developing their academic writing, information literacy and digital skills. An added benefit for Publishing students especially was the opportunity to create content for a worldwide audience, with a potential impact long beyond the usual assignment timeline. In this short presentation we will present on the evolution of this project, our collaborative work with Wikimedia UK and academic staff, and outcomes from the project, including feedback from students and future plans for wider use across the University.
  • Teaching intelligence: putting Wikipedia at the heart of a class.

    Ball, Caroline; University of Derby (Times Higher Education, 2019-05-23)
  • The institutional repository and the library catalogue: adventures in data conversion.

    Rimmer, Sally; University of Derby (CILIP, the Library and Information Association, 2018-12)
  • Towards digital scholarship services in China’s university libraries

    Zhou, Lihong; Huang, Ruhua; Zijlstra, Tim R.; University of Derby; Wuhan University; Wuhan University, Wuhan, China; Wuhan University, Wuhan, China; University of Derby, Derby, UK (2018-09-22)
    Purpose - This paper reports on a literature review with the aim to establish a guiding framework for the development of digital scholarship services in China’s university libraries. Design/methodology/approach - The framework was developed through systematically searching, screening, assessing, coding, and aggregating digital scholarship services as reported in the existing body of literature. Three types of literature were included in the analysis: (1) international academic literature as reported in English; (2) academic literature in Chinese; and (3) relevant professional reports. Findings - The literature analysis pointed to 25 different digital scholarship services, which emerged in six themes: supporting services, formulating research ideas, locating research partners, writing proposals, conducting research, and publishing results. Originality/value - Although this literature review focused on university libraries in China, the research findings and the guiding framework developed provide useful insights and indications that can be shared across international borders.
  • The Undergraduate Research Scholarship Scheme: A co-created approach to transforming student learning.

    Ayres, Ruth L.; Wilson, Chris; University of Derby (University of Greenwich, 2018-04)
    The value of student as researcher/‘co-producer’ has been well documented in the research literature. This case study outlines an institutional 'student as researcher' initiative that was introduced to enable the co-creation of research by undergraduate students working in partnership with members of academic staff. The paper outlines the establishment and implementation of the scheme and offers a reflection upon and exploration of its perceived value, through the lens of staff and students who participated in it.
  • The didactic diamond - An information literacy model to explain the academic process in higher education.

    Zijlstra, Tim R.; University of Derby (LILAC Conference, 2018-04-06)
    The foundation for the Didactic Diamond was developed with students of the College of Health and Social Care at the University of Derby – in particular the Chesterfield Campus. A significant number of students are so-called atypical learners (ie. returners to education or non-traditional learners) which led to an identified need to provide more robust study skill guidance. Roberts and Ousey (2011) described "finding and using evidence" as the "bane of student life" in relation to student nurses. The Didactic Diamond seeks to ease this problem by introducing students to the process involved with producing good quality academic work. It is used to explain the process from understanding the question and choosing an appropriate topic; utilising information literacy to find appropriate sources; taking notes on the found evidence to gain critical understanding of the topic; using drafting techniques to improve the academic writing and ensuring that the original question is answered fully and critically by utilising the developed resources diligently. Feedback from students on the Didactic Diamond has been positive, the simple figure acts as a mnemonic and provides students with an introduction to the method with a means to remember which steps to take in their academic process. After utilising the Diamond in one-to-one sessions it has been developed into an Academic Writing session for the University Library’s Enhance Your Learning program and has been successfully delivered to a range of students from different cohorts. The Masterclass provides an opportunity to share the Didactic Diamond with a broader audience interested in Information Literacy and embedding Information Literacy in a broader procedural context.
  • 'It was noticeable so I changed': Supergirls, aspirations and Bourdieu.

    Bowers-Brown, Tamsin; University of Derby (Bloomsbury Academic, 2018-11-01)
  • Achieving "transparency, consistency and fairness" in English HE admissions: progress since Schwartz?

    Adnett, Nick; McCaig Colin; Slack, Kim; Bowers-Brown, Tamsin; Sheffield Hallam University (Wiley, 2010-10-27)
    In 2004 the Schwartz Review advised English higher education institutions that their admissions systems should: be transparent; select students who are able to complete their courses based upon achievements and potential; use assessment methods that are reliable and valid; minimise barriers to applicants; be professional; and be underpinned by appropriate institutional structures and processes. These five principles were only expressed as recommendations, reflecting the reluctance of policy makers to interfere with individual higher education institutions' admissions policies. This article analyses the results of research that reviewed the progress that English higher education institutions had made in implementing the Schwartz recommendations and assess whether a more interventionist stance is required to achieve fair admissions.

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