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dc.contributor.authorStorm, Lance
dc.contributor.authorSherwood, Simon J.
dc.contributor.authorRoe, Chris A.
dc.contributor.authorTressoldi, Patrizio E.
dc.contributor.authorRock, Adam J.
dc.contributor.authorDi Risio, Lorenzo
dc.date.accessioned2018-01-25T13:44:36Z
dc.date.available2018-01-25T13:44:36Z
dc.date.issued2017-11-01
dc.identifier.citationStorm, L. et al (2017) 'On the correspondence between dream content and target material under laboratory conditions: A meta-analysis of dream-ESP studies, 1966-2016.' International Journal of Dream Research, 10(2).en
dc.identifier.issn18667953
dc.identifier.doi10.11588/ijodr.2017.2.34888
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/10545/622074
dc.description.abstractIn order to further our understanding about the limits of human consciousness and the dream state, we report meta-analytic results on experimental dream-ESP studies for the period 1966 to 2016. Dream-ESP can be defined as a form of extra-sensory perception (ESP) in which a dreaming perceiver ostensibly gains information about a randomly selected target without using the normal sensory modalities or logical inference. Studies fell into two categories: the Maimonides Dream Lab (MDL) studies (n = 14), and independent (non-MDL) studies (n = 36). The MDL dataset yielded mean ES = .33 (SD = 0.37); the non-MDL studies yielded mean ES = .14 (SD = 0.27). The difference between the two mean values was not significant. A homogeneous dataset (N = 50) yielded a mean z of 0.75 (ES = .20, SD = 0.31), with corresponding significant Stouffer Z = 5.32, p = 5.19 × 10-8, suggesting that dream content can be used to identify target materials correctly and more often than would be expected by chance. No significant differences were found between: (a) three modes of ESP (telepathy, clairvoyance, precognition), (b) senders, (c) perceivers, or (d) REM/non-REM monitoring. The ES difference between dynamic targets (e.g., movie-film) and static (e.g., photographs) targets approached significance. We also found that significant improvements in the quality of the studies was not related to ES, but ES did decline over the 51-year period. Bayesian analysis of the same homogeneous dataset yielded results supporting the ‘frequentist’ finding that the null hypothesis should be rejected. We conclude that the dream-ESP paradigm in parapsychology is worthy of continued investigation, but we recommend design improvements.
dc.description.sponsorshipN/Aen
dc.language.isoenen
dc.publisherUniversität Heidelbergen
dc.relation.urlhttp://journals.ub.uni-heidelberg.de/index.php/IJoDR/article/view/34888en
dc.rights.urihttp://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/*
dc.subjectDreamsen
dc.subjectExtra-sensory perceptionen
dc.subjectMeta-analysisen
dc.subjectParanormalen
dc.subjectBayesian analysisen
dc.titleOn the correspondence between dream content and target material under laboratory conditions: A meta-analysis of dream-ESP studies, 1966-2016.en
dc.typeArticleen
dc.contributor.departmentUniversity of Adelaideen
dc.contributor.departmentUniversity of Derbyen
dc.contributor.departmentUniversity of Northamptonen
dc.contributor.departmentUniversita di Padovaen
dc.contributor.departmentUniversity of New Englanden
dc.contributor.departmentUniversita di Padovaen
dc.identifier.journalInternational Journal of Dream Researchen
refterms.dateFOA2019-02-28T16:30:48Z
html.description.abstractIn order to further our understanding about the limits of human consciousness and the dream state, we report meta-analytic results on experimental dream-ESP studies for the period 1966 to 2016. Dream-ESP can be defined as a form of extra-sensory perception (ESP) in which a dreaming perceiver ostensibly gains information about a randomly selected target without using the normal sensory modalities or logical inference. Studies fell into two categories: the Maimonides Dream Lab (MDL) studies (n = 14), and independent (non-MDL) studies (n = 36). The MDL dataset yielded mean ES = .33 (SD = 0.37); the non-MDL studies yielded mean ES = .14 (SD = 0.27). The difference between the two mean values was not significant. A homogeneous dataset (N = 50) yielded a mean z of 0.75 (ES = .20, SD = 0.31), with corresponding significant Stouffer Z = 5.32, p = 5.19 × 10-8, suggesting that dream content can be used to identify target materials correctly and more often than would be expected by chance. No significant differences were found between: (a) three modes of ESP (telepathy, clairvoyance, precognition), (b) senders, (c) perceivers, or (d) REM/non-REM monitoring. The ES difference between dynamic targets (e.g., movie-film) and static (e.g., photographs) targets approached significance. We also found that significant improvements in the quality of the studies was not related to ES, but ES did decline over the 51-year period. Bayesian analysis of the same homogeneous dataset yielded results supporting the ‘frequentist’ finding that the null hypothesis should be rejected. We conclude that the dream-ESP paradigm in parapsychology is worthy of continued investigation, but we recommend design improvements.


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