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Towards a conceptual framework for Value Stream Mapping (VSM) implementation: An in-vestigation of managerial factorsDespite the relatively extensive literature on VSM, limited reflection has been reported regarding how managerial proceedings actually put VSM into practice. This research therefore investigates these issues as part of the overall lean philosophy and in correlation with some of its main tools. Five hypotheses and three complementary research questions were formulated and tested using a combination of descriptive statistics and Pearson correlation, 2-Sample proportion, One-way ANOVA, 1-Sample t-tests and Tukey-Pairwise comparison tests. Data were collected through a survey questionnaire responded by 168 manufacturing organisations worldwide. The results establish, among other ‘soft’ aspects; (1) whether organisations that have adopted lean have also employed VSM as an essential tool to identify waste, (2) the position that VSM normally takes in the timeframe hierarchy of lean implementation, (3) the complexity of VSM implementation in terms of easiness and time taken for training when compared to other lean tools such as TPM, JIT and Jidoka, and the (4) critical success factors and barriers for the VSM implementation. A conceptual framework to support the implementation and management of VSM is developed through the unification of the results obtained. This study supports the very limited empirical research on the implementation and management of VSM.