• Circular economy: a conceptual model to measure readiness for manufacturing SMEs

      Thorley, J; Garza-Reyes, Jose Arturo; Anosike, A; University of Derby (Emerald, 2021-08-26)
      Over the last decade, circular economy (CE) has gathered interest from both industrialists and academics alike. Whilst CE research is widespread in such areas as supply chain and larger organisations, there is limited research into how small to medium enterprises (SMEs) can prepare for adopting CE. There is no comprehensive readiness model for SMEs adopting CE. The purpose of this paper is to explore the literature on change readiness and generate knowledge to fill this gap by developing a conceptual model to measure change readiness for SMEs' adopting CE. This study is based on a comprehensive literature review of change readiness models and frameworks. The paper reviews publications from Science Direct, Web of Science, Emerald, Scopus and Google Scholar. The readiness for change models and frameworks from the selected publications are evaluated and synthesised to develop a comprehensive conceptual model for change readiness for SMEs adopting a circular economy. A readiness conceptual model is developed by incorporating several factors as precursors to readiness, i.e. individual/collective difference, structural, contextual factors and related barriers. Eleven factors make up the individual/collective difference. Three factors make up the structural and contextual factors. This paper develops a conceptual model that can aid academics and practitioners in better understanding SMEs readiness to adopt CE. This paper makes a unique contribution by proposing a comprehensive conceptual model of readiness for SMEs adopting CE.
    • A circularity measurement toolkit for manufacturing SMEs.

      Garza-Reyes, Jose Arturo; Valls, Ailin Salomé; Nadeem, Simon Peter; Anosike, Anthony; Kumar, Vikas; University of Derby; University of Warwick; University of the West of England (Taylor and Francis, 2018-12-24)
      The development and adoption of the concept of circular economy in the last two decades have been remarkable. However, despite its widespread adoption, little progress has been made regarding its measurement, especially in manufacturing SMEs. This paper, therefore, proposes a Circularity Measurement Toolkit (CMT) which enables the assessment of the degree of circularity in manufacturing SMEs. A conceptual CMT framework, which provided the basis for the proposed tool and that defined the different types of circular practices and a classification or levels of circularity was developed from an extensive literature reviewed. To ensure the structure’s accuracy of the proposed CMT in terms of requirements to be measured, the monitoring process and actions involved, the tool was verified through a Delphi-study. Furthermore, its practicality was validated through a case study approach in a manufacturing SME. This paper contributes by filling a gap in the CE measurement field through the proposal of the CMT. Besides providing an evaluation of the degree of circularity in the practices of manufacturing SMEs, companies can also employ the proposed CMT to identify corrective actions or future efforts for the adoption of CE practices.
    • Exploring industry 4.0 technologies to enable circular economy practices in a manufacturing context: a business model proposal.

      Nascimento, D.L.M; Alencastro, V; Quelhas, O.L.G; Caiado, R.G.G; Garza-Reyes, Jose Arturo; Tortorella, G.L; Federal Fluminense University; Pontifical Catholic University of Rio de Janeiro; University of Derby; National Polytechnic Institute (CINVESTAV); et al. (Emerald, 2018-10)
      Purpose - The purpose of this study was to explore how rising technologies from Industry 4.0 can be integrated with circular economy (CE) practices to establish a business model that reuses and recycles wasted material such as scrap metal or e-waste Design/methodology/approach – The qualitative research method was deployed in three stages. Stage one was a literature review of concepts, successful factors, and barriers related to the transition towards a CE along with sustainable supply chain management, smart production systems, and additive manufacturing. Stage two comprised a conceptual framework to integrate and evaluate the synergistic potential among these concepts. Finally, stage three validated the proposed model by collecting rich qualitative data based on semi-structured interviews with managers, researchers, and professors of operations management to gather insightful and relevant information. Findings – The outcome of the study is the recommendation of a circular model to reuse scrap electronic devices, integrating web technologies, reverse logistics, and additive manufacturing to support CE practices. Results suggest a positive influence from improving business sustainability by reinserting waste into the supply chain to manufacture products on demand. Research implications/originality – The impact of reusing wasted materials to manufacture new products is relevant to minimizing resource consumption and negative environmental impacts. Furthermore, it avoids hazardous materials ending up in landfills or in the oceans, seriously threatening life in ecosystems. In addition, reuse of wasted material enables the development of local business networks that generate jobs and improve economic performance.
    • Spectrum of circular economy and its prospects in logistics

      Nadeem, Simon Peter; Garza-Reyes, Jose Arturo; Anosike, Anthony; Kumar, Vikas; University of Derby; University of the West of England (IEEE, 2017-07)
      The paper explores and reviews the concept of Circular Economy (CE) by conducting a systematic literature review (SLR) to develop an in-depth understanding of the growing trends of CE, its framework, implementation, and barriers. The overview of published literature is pigeon-holed under 10 dimensions. Furthermore, the paper explores the attention given to the Logistics sector from the perspective of Circular Economy and highlights the need for in-depth research to develop new frameworks/models for CE’s implementation in the Logistics sector to establish Circular Logistics as an outcome.
    • Towards a more circular economy: exploring the awareness, practices, and barriers from a focal firm perspective.

      Masi, Donato; Kumar, Vikas; Garza-Reyes, Jose Arturo; Godsell, Janet; University of Warwick; University of the West of England; University of Derby; Warwick Manufacturing Group, University of Warwick, Coventry, UK; Bristol Business School, University of the West of England, Bristol, UK; Centre for Supply Chain Improvement, The University of Derby, Derby, UK; et al. (Taylor and Francis, 2018-05-21)
      The circular economy (CE) proposes an economic framework based on circular flows of products and materials. Transition towards a CE is underway, therefore, understanding the nature and state of this transition is important for creating effective policies and business strategies. Some studies have focused on specific contexts and pockets of good practice. This exploratory, survey-based study of 77 companies investigates the shift towards the CE using a taxonomy of practices and barriers. Results show that firms favour practices related to resource and energy utilisation efficiency, while practices related to investment recovery, green purchasing and customer cooperation are less prevalent. Eco-design and internal environmental management practices have a medium level of implementation. The significant upfront investment cost, lack of awareness or sense of urgency were identified as implementation barriers. Results suggest the CE is driven by economic not environmental considerations, and the deployment of practices remains within a firm rather than across the supply chain.