• Impact of I4.0 Technologies and their Interoperability on Performance: Future Pathways for Supply Chain Resilience Post-COVID-19

      Frederico, G.F.; Kumar, V; Garza-Reyes, Jose Arturo; Kumar, A; Agrawal, R; Federal University of Paraná, Curitiba, Brazil; University of the West of England; University of Derby; London Metropolitan University; National Institute of Technology Tiruchirappalli, Tiruchirappalli, India (Emerald, 2021-10-05)
      This study aims to investigate the impact of I4.0’s technologies and their interoperability on Supply Chains (SCs) performance and how the integration of such technologies and their interoperability can create pathways for SCs resilience post-COVID-19. This is of paramount importance in the context of COVID-19 as the investigation around I4.0 technologies may provide relevant insights on how SCs may better respond to unexpected situations like the current pandemic with the use of digital technologies. A survey research method was designed based on some constructs extracted from the literature regarding the main disruptive technologies, interoperability, elements of Supply Chains Processes (SCPs) performance such as integration, collaboration, transparency, efficiency, responsiveness, and profitability. The data were collected from March-July 2020 from different regions of the world when the peak of the first wave of the pandemic had occurred. The survey resulted in 115 valid responses. The study employed a combination of descriptive, correlation and multiple regression methods to analyse the data. The study indicates that disruptive technologies significantly impact SCPs performance (integration, collaboration, responsiveness, and transparency) and their resilience. The findings did not support the notion that these technologies improve the efficiency of SCs, a significant contrast to the existing literature. Our findings also refute the existing understanding that interoperability moderates the impact of disruptive technologies on SCPs performance and enhancing the resilience of SCs. However, the findings show that the integration of I4.0 technologies and their interoperability has a positive impact on SCPs profitability. The findings strongly advocate that this integration plays an important role in improving SC performance, and a future pathway of supply chain resiliency post-COVID-19. Considering that the I4.0 trend will impact SCs in the coming years, this study brings a relevant contribution to researchers and practitioners. This study makes a unique contribution by investigating a novel causal relationship between the main elements (I4.0 technologies, interoperability, processes performance, and strategic outcomes) related to the SC in this new context.
    • Exploring the Challenges of Electric Vehicle Adoption in Final Mile Parcel Delivery

      Anosike, Anthony; Loomes, H; Udokporo, C.K.; Garza-Reyes, Jose Arturo; University of Derby (Taylor & Francis, 2021-09-23)
      The rise in e-commerce has increased last mile parcel deliveries, in turn affecting the sustainability of transport. With the worldwide efforts to minimise fossil fuel use including the UK Government's plans to end the sales of new petrol and diesel vehicles by 2035, alternative fuels need to be explored. Currently one of the most promising solutions is the electric vehicle which produces zero tailpipe emissions. This paper aims to explore the challenges of adopting Electric Vehicles (EVs) in final mile parcel deliveries, and thus identify potential directions for future research. To achieve this, we developed a systematic literature review to better understand the nature of these challenges and to provide a background from which to acquire more information from leading logistics companies in the form of in-depth interviews. We found that the companies encountered different challenges based on their fleet sizes, schedule and capacity to implement the required structural and infrastructural changes to support the efficient running of their last mile delivery operations on EVs.
    • An Empirical Examination of Benefits, Challenges, and Critical Success Factors of Industry 4.0 in Manufacturing and Service Sector

      Sony, M; Antony, J; McDermott, O; Garza-Reyes, Jose Arturo; Namibia University of Science and Technology, Windhoek, Namibia; Department of Industrial and Systems Engineering, Khalifa University, Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates; College of Engineering an Science, National University of Ireland, Gallway, Ireland; University of Derby (Elsevier, 2021-09-20)
      Industry 4.0 marks a new paradigm and has expanded its domain from theoretical concepts to real-world applications. Industry 4.0 is, however, still in the state of infancy and conceptual state wherein it is not clear as to how to incorporate many dynamic technological concepts in different sectors. Previous studies have conceptually delineated the benefits, challenges, and CSFs of Industry 4.0, however, there is yet to be an empirical study that critically examines the differences in benefits, challenges, and critical success factors (CSFs) of Industry 4.0 in both manufacturing and service industries and rank them. This study through an online survey captures the view of senior management professionals who have experience in Industry 4.0 implementation in major companies in Asia, Europe, and North America. 96 senior management professionals participated in this study through an online survey. The qualitative data on benefits and challenges were analysed using thematic analyses. The quantitative data on critical success factors were ranked using the normalisation of the mean to find the most important factors. Further agreement analysis was conducted in the manufacturing and service sectors for the CSFs. This study identifies the top five benefits and challenges in the manufacturing and service industries. The CSFs for Industry 4.0 was put forward and ranked in both the manufacturing and service industries.
    • Exploration and Investigation of Green Lean Six Sigma Adoption Barriers for Manufacturing Sustainability

      Kaswan, Mahender Singh; Rathi, Rajeev; Garza-Reyes, Jose Arturo; Antony, Jiju; Lovely Professional University, Punjab, India; University of Derby; Khalifa University, Abu Dhabi, UAE (IEEE, 2021-09-16)
      The increased awareness about effect of operations on sustainability dynamics and governmental pressure to cut emission rates has forced industries to adopt sustainable approaches like Green Lean Six Sigma (GLSS). Despite increasing interest in GLSS, very limited research has focused on its implementation and no research has investigated barriers that hinder GLSS execution. This study investigates GLSS implementation barriers, their relationship, and removal of same in manufacturing sector. In this research, 18 GLSS barriers have been recognized through literature review and formulated into logical groups using principal component analysis. This study pioneers with decision making trial and evaluation laboratory (DEMATEL) with intuitionistic fuzzy set to prioritize barriers and handle the important and causal relationship among the same. The results of the study were validated through intuitionistic fuzzy best worst method (IF-BWM). The results reveal that management-related barriers are the top-ranked followed by environmental and organization barriers with BWM weights 0.5283, 0.1704, and 0.1035 respectively. This provides impetus to policymakers for induction of GLSS in business organization to make harmony between economic development and environmental sustainability.
    • Circular economy: a conceptual model to measure readiness for manufacturing SMEs

      Thorley, J; Garza-Reyes, Jose Arturo; Anosike, A; University of Derby (Emerald, 2021-08-26)
      Over the last decade, circular economy (CE) has gathered interest from both industrialists and academics alike. Whilst CE research is widespread in such areas as supply chain and larger organisations, there is limited research into how small to medium enterprises (SMEs) can prepare for adopting CE. There is no comprehensive readiness model for SMEs adopting CE. The purpose of this paper is to explore the literature on change readiness and generate knowledge to fill this gap by developing a conceptual model to measure change readiness for SMEs' adopting CE. This study is based on a comprehensive literature review of change readiness models and frameworks. The paper reviews publications from Science Direct, Web of Science, Emerald, Scopus and Google Scholar. The readiness for change models and frameworks from the selected publications are evaluated and synthesised to develop a comprehensive conceptual model for change readiness for SMEs adopting a circular economy. A readiness conceptual model is developed by incorporating several factors as precursors to readiness, i.e. individual/collective difference, structural, contextual factors and related barriers. Eleven factors make up the individual/collective difference. Three factors make up the structural and contextual factors. This paper develops a conceptual model that can aid academics and practitioners in better understanding SMEs readiness to adopt CE. This paper makes a unique contribution by proposing a comprehensive conceptual model of readiness for SMEs adopting CE.
    • Impact of the Strategic Sourcing Process on the Supply Chain Response to the COVID-19 effects

      Frederico, G.F.; Kumar, V; Garza-Reyes, Jose Arturo; Federal University of Paraná, Curitiba, Brazil; University of the West of England; University of Derby (Emerald, 2021-08-20)
      This research investigates the impact of the strategic sourcing process on the supply chain response to COVID-19. The paper presents practitioners' perspectives (experts in supply chain management, especially involved in the procurement field) on the strategic sourcing process's impact on the supply chain response. The study follows a survey-based approach for data collection. It uses a descriptive survey methodology where questions related to the impact of the strategic sourcing process on the supply chain response in the face of the coronavirus pandemic were explored by practitioners. In total, 130 valid responses were obtained. The results showed that the majority of respondents agreed or strongly agreed that strategic sourcing positively impacts the supply chain response amid the COVID-19 effects. Also, for the five phases of the strategic sourcing process, the majority of respondents considered them as a high and very high impact on the supply chain response. This paper provides timely insights for practitioners and academics, especially those involved in the supply chain management area, showing how the strategic sourcing process plays an important role in making supply chains more responsive amid disruption situations. Findings of this paper clearly shows the impact of the phases of the strategic sourcing process on the responsiveness of the supply chains amid the COVID-19 pandemic. This can encourage supply chain leadership to devote more time to strategic sourcing initiatives to generate improvements on the supply chain performance. This paper is unique since it brings an unexplored relation in respect to strategic sourcing amid disruption situations, such as the COVID-19 pandemic, from a practitioner's perspective. It also significantly contributes to developing new directions for the supply chain management domain to deal with large-scale disruptions, such as the coronavirus pandemic.
    • A novel time, cost, quality and risk tradeoff model with a knowledge-based hesitant fuzzy in-formation: An R&D project application

      Mahdiraji, H.A; Sedigh, M.; Hajiagha, S.H.R.; Garza-Reyes, Jose Arturo; Jafari-Sadeghi, V.; Dana, L.P.; De Montfort University, Leicester; Khatam University, Tehran, Iran; University of Derby; Northumbria University; et al. (Elsevier, 2021-08-01)
      This paper proposes a novel approach for identifying the best implementation situation for each activity in a project by optimizing and balancing time, cost, quality, and risk criteria under uncertain circumstances. A hesitant fuzzy linguistic term sets (HFLTs) approach is proposed to determine the status of project activities in the presence of quality and risk criteria alongside their time and cost. Afterwards, a multi-objective linear programming (MOLP) model is formulated for a time, cost, quality, and risk tradeoff (TCQRT). To validate the model, a research and development project in the food industry was investigated. The results indicate that the project’s time compared to the deterministic approach was reduced by 20%. Completing the R&D project earlier than other competitors bring higher profit than tradeoff expenses, even without considering the quality and risk tradeoff benefits of the proposed approach. Considering uncertainty in risk and quality of activities via HFLTs and also optimizing all four elements of time, cost, quality, and risk simultaneously in a project are the main values of this research. The proposed approach can be employed by managers to adopt and optimize project planning and scheduling while trading off TCQR in uncertain circumstances.
    • Challenges in the Implementation of Lean Manufacturing in the Wood & Furniture Industry

      Abu, F; Saman, M.Z.M; Garza-Reyes, Jose Arturo; Gholami, H; Zakuan, N; Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, Skudai, Malaysia; University of Derby (Emerald, 2021-08-03)
      This study analyses the challenges in implementing lean manufacturing (LM) in the wood & furniture industry. In order to facilitate the smooth implementation of LM practices in this industry, the challenges in terms of its deployment need to be analysed and observed. Realising this importance, this study proposes a model, using PLS-SEM, which focuses on dealing with the challenges faced in the implementation of lean in the wood & furniture industry. The model consists of ten challenges that were determined based on a survey involving 46 SMEs companies in Malaysia. The findings revealed that the implementation of LM is significantly affected by 3 main issues, namely: knowledge, resources, and, culture and human attitude. Furthermore, the analyses also highlighted four dominant challenges which are related to culture and human attitude issues – lack of employee commitment, lack of senior management’s interest and support, difficult to implement, and LM is viewed as “current trend”. Overall, the ability to deal with the challenges involving factors of knowledge, and culture and human attitude, determine the success of LM implementation, especially in companies that have limited resources. This study would help wood & furniture SMEs, government agencies, professional bodies, and academics to better understand the challenges when implementing LM practices. Overall, this study aims at investigating the relationships between the three challenges to better promote LM in the scope under study. Therefore, several activities were proposed to overcome the abovementioned challenges and subsequently contributing to the current body of knowledge.
    • A Framework for Assessing Sustainability in Multi-tier Supply Chains using Empirical Evidence and Fuzzy Expert System

      Shayganmehr, Masoud; Kumar, Anil; Lutha, Sunil; Garza-Reyes, Jose Arturo; Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran; London Metropolitan University; Ch. Ranbir Singh State Institute of Engineering and Technology, Jhajjar, Haryana, India; University of Derby (Elsevier, 2021-07-12)
      This study investigates various factors for assessing sustainability in Multi-tier Supply Chains (MtSCs) using a hybrid approach consisting of an empirical study and fuzzy expert system. After an extensive literature review, four research questions were formulated and a questionnaire designed. From its distribution, 152 responses were collected from the textile industry. Exploratory Factor Analysis (EFA) was employed to determine the most effective factors that could contribute to the evaluation of extensive aspects of sustainability in MtSCs as well as recognize the importance of constructs. The categorized constructs based on their importance included “Environmental issues”, “Economic issues”, “Policy and governance”, “Participation”, “Social issues”, “Transparency” and “Leadership and support”. A comprehensive rating for evaluating sustainability by indicating a readiness score and linguistic variables for each construct was developed in the form of a “fuzzy expert system”. The developed fuzzy expert system was applied in an Iranian textile company to assess its readiness status as a case application. The results indicated that the company had the highest and lowest readiness in “Transparency” and “Environmental issues” with total readiness scores of 2.65 and 0.17 respectively. The finding recommends that the company should pay more attention to environmental issues such as making a cutback on utility consumption and increasing recycled materials. The framework’s validity was measured around 90% based on the satisfaction of experts’ judgments, which enables the framework to be applied in different industrial settings. Theoretically, the findings contribute to the Resources-Based View (RBV) theory, with a focus on the sustainability of MtSCs, by unveiling a comprehensive set of factors for assessing sustainability and recognizing external and internal strategic resources that lead firms to sustainable competitive advantages.
    • Evaluating Key Capabilities for Developing Global Collaborative Networks Using a Multi-Layer Decision-Making Approach

      Mahdiraji, H.A.; Hafeez, K; Kamardi, A.A.A.; Garza-Reyes, Jose Arturo; De Montfort University; University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran; University of Derby (Emerald, 2021-07-07)
      This paper proposes a multi-layer hybrid decision-making approach to evaluate the capability alternatives for developing a collaborative network to operate in the international market. The present study is contextualised in the Iranian pistachio export industry. An extensive review of the state-of-the-art literature on supplier collaboration was conducted to identify key capabilities that are essential to establish a collaborative network. The set of defined capabilities were then optimised through interviews with 14 experts from the relevant industry, academics and export authorities. A combination of the fuzzy Delphi method and the best–worst method (BWM) approach was, respectively, used to reduce the number of capability alternatives and assign priority weights to these alternatives. Subsequently, a weighted aggregated sum product assessment method (WASPAS) was employed to rank and evaluate the ability to creating a collaborative network for the export of pistachio. From the extant literature review, 18 capabilities for the formation of coordination networks in the international markets were identified. Then, the prominent indicators in forming a global network were extracted. After ranking the top pistachio export countries/regions to formalise an efficient collaborative network, it was revealed that although Iran exports approximately 30% of the global market, it falls behind the USA and European Union. The competitors have scored higher in critical criteria, including “trust and commitment”, “strategy and management”, “managerial control and standardization” and “financial resources”. The proposed hybrid approach encompassing fuzzy Delphi–BWM–WASPAS offers to solve the capability evaluation and selection as well as ranking the possible alternative to formalise a collaborative network in an integrated fashion. This combination of methods is capable to first identify the most important factors, then measuring their importance and eventually rank the possible alternatives. The suggested framework provides an approach to deal with the uncertainty of global collaborative network formation.
    • Design for environment Ontology-based knowledge management model for green product development

      Benabdellah, A.C; Zekhnini, K; Cherrafi, A.; Garza‐Reyes, J.A; Kumar, A; Moulay Ismail University, Meknes, Morocco; University of Derby; London Metropolitan University (Wiley, 2021-06-30)
      Through appropriate operations and policies, such as green processes and product development (PDP), companies can respond to environmental sustainability. To remain competitive, one such approach, Design for X (DFX), involves considering different environment and sustainable strategies through different factors Xs. With regards to the availability of different DFX techniques that consider environmental issues, the decision as to which approach needs to be adopted remains absent. This paper aims at presenting an overview from 1980 to 2020 of the developed research, applications, and DFX techniques for assessing green issues. Selected DFX techniques are linked with strategies used in organizations. Following a literature analysis, a collaborative knowledge-based framework that addresses the design concepts needed to assess environmental, safety, and health concerns in the development of green products is proposed. Furthermore, as a pillar for considering the Semantic Web and an evolving approach linked with Natural language processing (NLP) and Artificial Intelligence (AI), an ontology-based knowledge management model for green assessment is developed for the representation, acquisition, organization and capitalization of knowledge in a computer interpretable manner. The findings are useful for both managers and practitioners as they provide a coherent domain ontology that can help them manage knowledge, improve teamwork, and make decisions in a collaborative green PDP. Besides, an understanding of the essential design considerations that are required to implement environmental, safety, and health issues, as well as competencies used in the PDP is presented. Key barriers, managerial and strategic implications and mitigation actions are also identified in this paper.
    • Increasing Service Quality at a University: A Continuous Improvement Project

      Gonzalez Aleu, Fernando; Granda Gutierrez, Edgar Marco Aurelio; Garza-Reyes, Jose Arturo; Garza Villegas, Juan Baldemar; Vazquez Hernandez, Jesus; Universidad de Monterrey, San Pedro Garza Garcia, Mexico; University of Derby; Continuous Improvement (Analytics), Viakable SA de CV, San Nicolas de los Garza, Mexico; Advanced Value Chain Institute, San Pedro Garza García, Mexico (Emerald, 2021-07-05)
      This paper evaluates a continuous improvement project (CIP) at a Mexican university designed to increase engineering graduate student loyalty. A plan-do-check-act problem-solving methodology was implemented, and a SERVQUAL survey was conducted on 67 master’s engineering students. Five factors were found to affect student loyalty: facility cleanliness, faculty teaching skills, evening student services, master’s degree student management roles at work and master’s degree students’ ages. After the implementation of the improvement and control actions, there was a 7.7% increase in the engineering master’s degree students’ loyalty scores. This research work took a different approach in assessing student satisfaction and student loyalty in a higher education institution (HEI) by using the SERVQUAL survey as the data collection instrument for the conduct of the CIP. However, there were several research limitations: data availability (such as student loyalty, student satisfaction and a small master’s degree student population size) and factors outside the CIP’s scope (such as the country’s economic situation, university rankings, master’s programme accreditations and COVID-19). Practical implications—The findings from this research study could be used by other HEIs to improve student loyalty and as a reference when conducting similar studies in other service organisations such as hospitals and hotels.
    • Circular Economy: Exploratory Study of Steel Industry in Thailand

      Piyathanavong, Vichathorn; Garza-Reyes, Jose Arturo; Huynh, Van-Nam; Olapiriyakul, Sun; Karnjana, Jessada; University of Derby (IEOM Society, 2021-06)
      The Circular Economy (CE) is widely known as a possible solution to address sustainable development in the manufacturing sector. This paper investigates the adoption status of CE in the steel industry of Thailand. A survey questionnaire was designed, validated, and distributed among Thai steel manufacturing companies. The result of the study indicates that some of the participants’ organization had already implemented the CE. The implementation success of CE is moderate-high. The CE is found to be implemented mainly at the departmental level, rather than across the entire organization. The main drivers of CE implementation are internal motivations, including environmental awareness, long-term sustainable development, and cost savings from material circularity. Furthermore, reducing the environmental impact on external stakeholders is the main CE external driver. A lack of proper training and knowledge, too much effort required, and a lack of support from top management are the main barriers to implementing the CE. This study offers direct benefits for academics, researchers, and steel manufacturing companies who are interested in CE implementation. It also shows the initial evidence of CE adoption in the Thai steel manufacturing industry.
    • Exploration and Prioritization of Just in Time Enablers for Sustainable Healthcare: An Integrated GRA-Fuzzy TOPSIS Application

      Singh Kaswan, Mahender; Rathi, Rajeev; Singh, Mahipal; Garza-Reyes, Jose Arturo; Antony, Jiju; Lovely Professional University, Phagwara, India; University of Derby; Heriot-Watt University, Edinburgh (Emerald, 2021-06-21)
      The increased healthcare costs, improved service quality, and sustainability-oriented customer demand have forced the healthcare sector to relook their current process. The present work deals with the identification, analysis, and prioritization of Just in Time (JIT) enablers in the healthcare sector. JIT leads to waste reduction, improves productivity, and provides high quality patient care. The practical implementation of JIT depends on vital factors known as enablers. The enablers have been found through the comprehensive literature review and prioritized using responses from different healthcare facilities of national capital region of India. Grey Relational Analysis (GRA) has been used in the present study to rank enablers and ranks were further validated using fuzzy TOPSIS and sensitivity analysis. It has been found that top management support, teamwork, and real-time information sharing are the most significant enablers of JIT in healthcare with grey relational grades 0.956, 0.832, and 0.718, respectively. The corresponding closeness coefficients of the fuzzy TOPSIS for the enablers were found as 0.875, 0.802, and 0.688, respectively. The findings of the present research work will facilitate the healthcare organizations to implement a comprehensive JIT approach that further leads to improved patient care at low cost. The present study is unique in terms of the exploration of the readiness measures or enablers of JIT using GRA and fuzzy TOPSIS. The findings of the present research work will facilitate the healthcare organizations to optimize their resources for better patient care.
    • A Novel Location-Inventory-Routing Problem in a Two-Stage Red Meat Supply Chain with Logistic Decisions: Evidence from an Emerging

      Rahbari, M.; Razavi Hajiagha, S. H.; Amoozad Mahdiraji, H.; Riyahi Dorcheh, F.; Garza-Reyes, Jose Arturo; Kharazmi University, Tehran, Iran; De Montfort University; University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran; University of Derby (Emerald, 2021-05-31)
      This study focuses on a specific method of meat production that involves carcass purchase and meat production by packing facilities with a novel two-stage model that simultaneously considers location-routing and inventory-production operating decisions. The considered problem aims to reduce variable and fixed transportation and production costs, inventory holding cost and the cost of opening cold storage facilities. The proposed model encompasses a two-stage model consisting of a single-echelon and a three-echelon many-to-many network with deterministic demand. The proposed model is a mixed-integer linear programming (MILP) model which was tested with the general algebraic modelling system (GAMS) software for a real-world case study in Iran. A sensitivity analysis was performed to examine the effect of retailers' holding capacity and supply capacity at carcass suppliers. In this research, the number of products transferred at each level, the number of products held, the quantity of red meat produced, the required cold storage facilities and the required vehicles were optimally specified. The outcomes indicated a two percent (2%) decrease in cost per kg of red meat. Eventually, the outcomes of the first and second sensitivity analysis indicated that reduced retailers' holding capacity and supply capacity at carcass suppliers leads to higher total costs. This research proposes a novel multi-period location-inventory-routing problem for the red meat supply chain in an emerging economy with a heterogeneous vehicle fleet and logistics decisions. The proposed model is presented in two stages and four-echelon including carcass suppliers, packing facilities, cold storage facilities and retailers.
    • Quality assurance for operating room illumination through lean six sigma

      Ozturkoglu, Y; Kazancoglu, Y; Sagnak, M; Garza-Reyes, Jose Arturo; Yasar University, Universite Caddesi, Bornova, Izmir, Turkey; Izmir Kâtip Celebi University, Balatcik Kampusu, Cigli, Izmir, Turkey; University of Derby (International Journal of Mathematical, Engineering and Management Sciences, India, 2021-06)
      Since every mistake made in the healthcare industry can cause permanent harm or even death, some fundamental requirements should be considered when planning and designing operating rooms. Lighting is one of the most important ergonomic factors, especially for operating rooms. This paper investigates the integration of the lean approach and six sigma in measuring the efficiency of LED technology, which can also be regarded as a factor affecting the operating room efficiency. Measurement System Analysis (MSA) and Gage Control methods were applied to determine measurement variability in operating room illumination measurement process. Repeatability and reproducibility (%R&R) was found 12.89%. After calibration, %R&R value was found 8.21%, which implies that calibration helped reduce variability.
    • A readiness self-assessment model for implementing Green Lean Initiatives

      Cherrafi, Anass; Garza-Reyes, Jose Arturo; Belhadi, Amine; Kamble, S.S; Elbaz, Jamal; Moulay Ismail University, Meknes, Morocco; University of Derby; Cadi Ayyad University, Marrakech, Morocco; EDHEC Business School, Roubaix, 59057, France; ENCG –Agadir, Ibn Zohr University, Agadir, Morocco (Elsevier, 2021-05-07)
      This paper proposes a self-assessment model to evaluate the level of readiness of organizations to implement Green Lean initiatives. A systematic literature review was conducted to synthesize the key elements of the implementation of Green Lean, barriers and its critical success factors. The proposed instrument was validated through semi-structured interviews and workshops with experts from academia and industry and applied in four manufacturing companies in a developing country. The results revealed that the proposed self-assessment model is an appropriate instrument to determine the readiness of organizations for effectively implementing Green Lean. The proposed self-assessment model was able to display the potential challenges a company will face if it aims to integrate Green and Lean and implement it. The results of this paper will help the practitioners to conduct a diagnostic of requirements for Green Lean adoption, thereby increasing the probability of success of such an initiative before a company spends its resources on the project. Consequently, this paper will contribute to encouraging the effective implementation of Green Lean initiatives and serving as implications for further exploration and contribution to this area.
    • A systematic literature review regarding the influence of lean manufacturing on firms’ financial performance

      Dieste, M; Panizzolo, R; Garza-Reyes, Jose Arturo; University of Padova, Vicenza, Italy; Free University of Bozen-Bolzano, Bolzano, Italy; University of Derby (Emerald, 2021-04-07)
      The lean philosophy has demonstrated its effectiveness to improve firms’ operational performance. However, the impact of lean practices on financial performance is still unclear due to the poor understanding of the link between operational and financial measures and the conflictive results obtained by previous research. The purpose of this paper is to conduct a systematic literature review to understand whether lean companies have improved their financial performance. Moreover, this article aims to uncover research gaps in the literature and examine which time spans of research have been considered to analyse both the degree of lean implementation and the measurement of financial outcomes. A systematic literature review has been conducted to identify peer-reviewed articles that analyse the effect of the lean production paradigm on the financial performance measures of manufacturing companies. Then, the identified articles were processed using a combination of descriptive and content analyses methods to draw new conclusions, uncover gaps and find novel paths for research. Various authors indicate that lean initiatives lead to an enhancement of financial performance measures. JIT and TQM lean practice bundles are suggested as the best enablers of financial performance in terms of sales and profit. In contrast, according to some scholars, lean does not necessarily improve companies’ financial results if it is not properly implemented. Despite several studies have focused on analysing the effects of lean on performance, only a small part of the literature has addressed the study of the effects of lean practices on financial performance metrics. The originality of this study lies in the investigation of the connections between lean practices and financial performance measures found in the literature. The outcome is the identification of various possible positive impacts of some lean practices on financial metrics.
    • Improving the sustainability of food supply chains through circular economy practices – a qualitative mapping approach

      Batista, Luciano; Dora, Manoj; Garza-Reyes, Jose Arturo; Kumar, Vikas; Aston University, Birmingham; Brunel University, Uxbridge; University of Derby; University of the West of England (Emerald, 2021-04-30)
      The purpose of this paper is to present a methodological approach to support qualitative analysis of waste flows in food supply chains. The methodological framework introduced allows the identification of circular food waste flows that can maximise the sustainability of food supply chains. Following a qualitative approach, circular economy perspectives are combined with core industrial ecology concepts in the specification of a standardised analytical method to map food waste flows and industrial synergies across a supply chain. The mapped waste flows and industrial linkages depict two time-related scenarios: 1. Current scenarios showing the status quo of existing food waste flows, and 2. Future scenarios pointing out circular flows along the supply chain. The future scenarios inform potential alternatives to take waste flows up the food waste hierarchy. The qualitative approach do not allow generalisations of findings out of the scope of the study. The framework is intended for providing focused analysis, case by case. Future research involving mixedmethods where quantitative approaches complement the qualitative perspectives of the framework would expand the analytical perspective. The framework provides a relatively low cost and pragmatic method to identify alternatives to minimise landfill disposals and improve the sustainability of food supply chains. Its phased methodology and standardised outcomes serve as a referential basis to inform not only comparative analysis, but also policy making and strategic decisions aimed at transforming linear food supply chains into circular economy ecosystems.
    • Machine Learning Applications for Sustainable Manufacturing: A Bibliometric-based Review for Future Research

      Jamwal, Anbesh; Agrawal, R; Sharma, M; Kumar, A; Kumar, V; Garza-Reyes, Jose Arturo; Malaviya National Institute of Technology, Jaipur, India; London Metropolitan University; University of the West of England; University of Derby (Emerald, 2021-05-06)
      The role of data analytics is significantly important in manufacturing industries as it holds the key to address sustainability challenges and handle the large amount of data generated from different types of manufacturing operations. The present study, therefore, aims to conduct a systematic and bibliometric-based review in the applications of machine learning (ML) techniques for sustainable manufacturing (SM). In the present study, we use a bibliometric review approach that is focused on the statistical analysis of published scientific documents with an unbiased objective of the current status and future research potential of ML applications in sustainable manufacturing. The present study highlights how manufacturing industries can benefit from ML techniques when applied to address SM issues. Based on the findings, a ML-SM framework is proposed. The framework will be helpful to researchers, policymakers and practitioners to provide guidelines on the successful management of SM practices. A comprehensive and bibliometric review of opportunities for ML techniques in SM with a framework is still limited in the available literature. This study addresses the bibliometric analysis of ML applications in SM, which further adds to the originality