• Barriers in green lean implementation: a combined systematic literature review and interpretive structural modelling approach

      Cherrafi, Anass; Elfezazi, Said; Garza-Reyes, Jose Arturo; Benhida, Khalid; Mokhlis, Ahmed; Cadi Ayyad University; University of Derby (Taylor and Francis, 2017)
      Green Lean has recently emerged as an alternative strategy for organizations to pursue both operational and sustainability excellence. The interest on this approach has rapidly risen in both academic and industry circles. However, despite this interest, very limited research has focused on its implementation, and no research has investigated the barriers that hinder the success of such activity. This study investigates the Green Lean implementation barriers and their contextual relationships and effects on the integration and deployment of this approach. A Systematic Literature Review (SLR), Interpretative Structural Modelling and fuzzy Matriced’ Impacts Croise’s Multiplication Appliqée a UN Classement (MICMAC) analyzes were carried out. Fifteen barriers were extracted from the SLR and then validated in consultation with industry and academic experts. The Interpretive Structural Modelling (ISM) method was used to understand the relationship between the fifteen barriers and to develop a hierarchical model of these. The different barriers were classified into ‘linkage’ and ‘dependent’ barriers by using MICMAC analysis. The results suggested that all the identified barriers play an important role, and hence can equally act as a significant hurdle to the implementation of Green Lean projects. This study can help managers and policy makers in better understanding these barriers. Thus, they can be assisted in managing and prioritizing barriers towards the successful implementation of Green Lean initiatives for better financial and environmental performance.
    • A framework for the integration of green and lean six sigma for superior sustainability performance

      Benhida, Khalid; Garza-Reyes, Jose Arturo; Govindan, Kannan; Elfezazi, Said; Cherrafi, Anass; Mokhlis, Ahmed; University of Derby (Taylor and Francis, 2016)
      Evidence suggests that Lean, Six Sigma and Green approaches make a positive contribution to the economic, social and environmental (i.e. sustainability) performance of organizations. However, evidence also suggests that organizations have found their integration and implementation challenging. The purpose of this research is therefore to present a framework that methodically guides companies through a five stages and sixteen steps process to effectively integrate and implement the Green, Lean and Six Sigma approaches to improve their sustainability performance. To achieve this, a critical review of the existing literature in the subject area was conducted to build a research gap, and subsequently develop the methodological framework proposed. The paper presents the results from the application of the proposed framework in four organizations with different sizes and operating in a diverse range of industries. The results showed that the integration of Lean Six Sigma and Green helped the organizations to averagely reduce their resources consumption from 20% to 40% and minimize the cost of energy and mass streams by 7-12%. The application of the framework should be gradual, the companies should assess their weaknesses and strengths, set priorities, and identify goals for successful implementation. This paper is one of the very first researches that presents a framework to integrate Green and Lean Six Sigma at a factory level, and hence offers the potential to be expanded to multiple factories or even supply chains.
    • Lean, green practices and process innovation: a model for green supply chain performance.

      Cherrafi, Anass; Garza-Reyes, Jose Arturo; Kumar, Vikas; Mishra, Nishikant; Ghobadian, Abby; Elfezazi, Said; University of Derby; Moulay Ismail University; University of the West of England; University of Hull; et al. (Elsevier, 2018-09-26)
      This paper investigates the relationship between lean, green and process innovation practices and green supply chain (GSC) performance. Data were collected from 374 manufacturing firms and results analyzed using Structural Equation Modeling (SEM). The findings revealed a synergetic effect between process innovations, green and lean practices, which play a crucial role towards the improvement of GSC performance. In particular, the results suggested that: (1) lean practices such as JIT, set-up time reduction, cellular manufacturing, and waste elimination can significantly contribute to improve GSC performance; (2) green practices including eco-design, life cycle assessment, green manufacturing, reverse logistics, and waste management significantly and positively affect GSC performance; (3) process innovation practices such as fast response to new processes introduced by other companies within the same sector, pioneering disposition to introduced new processes, and number of changes in the process introduced in one year, do not have a direct contribution to improving GSC performance; finally that (4) process innovation amplifies the effect which contributes for lean and green practices to offer a higher payoff rate in terms of GSC performance when these are coupled with process innovation activities. This paper presents an innovative approach since it studies simultaneously the three dimensions of sustainability (environmental, social and economic), the lean, the innovation process and green paradigms, which are considered strategic for supply chain competitiveness. Investigating the relationships between the four strategies is a contribution that the authors hope will become a forward step for promoting sustainability in manufacturing supply chains.