• Lean readiness within emergency departments: A conceptual framework

      Al-Najem, Mohammed; Garza-Reyes, J.A.; Antony, J.; University of Derby (Emerald, 2019-08-05)
      The purpose of this study was to develop a framework to assess the lean readiness within emergency departments (EDs) and identify the key quality practices deemed essential for lean system (LS) implementation. An extensive review of lean healthcare literature was conducted, including LS implementation within the healthcare sector (both generally and in EDs), best ED quality practices, essential factors for LS implementation within healthcare, and lean readiness assessment frameworks. The authors identified six main categories from a literature review (top management and leadership, human resources, patient relations, supplier relations, processes, and continuous improvement), and validated these based on experts’ opinion. Several factors were identified as crucial for EDs, including top management and leadership, human resources, patient relations, supplier relations, processes, and continuous improvement. The framework has not yet been tested, which prevents the author from declaring it fit for EDs. To the author’s knowledge, this is the first lean readiness assessment framework for EDs and one of the few lean readiness assessment frameworks in the literature.
    • Measuring the lean readiness of Kuwaiti manufacturing industries.

      Al-Najem, Mohammed; Garza-Reyes, Jose Arturo; ElMelegy, Ahmed; Gulf University for Science and Technology; University of Derby (Inderscience, 2018-10-04)
      The purpose of this paper is to measure the readiness of the Kuwaiti small and medium sized manufacturing industries to implement the lean system through an evaluation of their existing quality practices, and compare such readiness among different product sectors and ownership types. This study adopts the measurement framework developed by Al-Najem et al. (2013), which establishes six constructs related to lean quality practices, namely: process, planning and control, customer relations, suppliers relations, HR, and top management and leadership. Data were collected from a survey of 50 Kuwaiti small and medium sized manufacturing industries operating in different industrial sectors. One research question and two hypotheses were developed and tested using t-test and Levene’s test, descriptive analysis, and one-way ANOVA. The results demonstrate that the Kuwaiti small and medium sized manufacturing industries are far from being ready to implement lean. In addition, the study found that product sector and ownership type have no significant impact on the lean readiness in the Kuwaiti small and medium sized manufacturing industries. This research provides insight into preparing Kuwaiti, and other small and medium sized manufacturing industries, to implement the lean system by creating an assessment of their existing lean practices and lean readiness. This research is among a limited number of studies that have addressed lean within the Arab region, and only the second to examine the level of lean readiness of the Kuwaiti small and medium sized manufacturing industries. It expands the literature on lean in developing countries, particularly in the Arab region, and can provide guidance to research within other countries in the region.