• A real-time Active Routing approach via a database for airport surface movement

      Weiszer, Michal; Chen, Jun; Stewart, Paul; Institute for Innovation in Sustainable Engineering, Derby, United Kingdom (2015-07-29)
      Airports face challenges due to the increasing volume of air traffic and tighter environmental restrictions which result in a need to actively integrate speed profiles into conventional routing and scheduling procedure. However, only until very recently, the research on airport ground movement has started to take into account such a speed profile optimisation problem actively so that not only time efficiency but also fuel saving and decrease in airport emissions can be achieved at the same time. It is envisioned that the realism of planning could also be improved through speed profiles. However, due to the multi-objective nature of the problem and complexity of the investigated models (objective functions), the existing speed profile optimisation approach features high computational demand and is not suitable for an on-line application. In order to make this approach more competitive for real-world application and to meet limits imposed by International Civil Aviation Organization for on-line decision time, this paper introduces a pre-computed database acting as a middleware to effectively separate the planning (routing and scheduling) module and the speed profile generation module. Employing a database not only circumvents duplicative optimisation for the same taxiway segments, but also completely avoids the computation of speed profiles during the on-line decision support owing a great deal to newly proposed database initialization procedures. Moreover, the added layer of database facilitates, in the future, more complex and realistic models to be considered in the speed profile generation module, without sacrificing on-line decision time. The experimental results carried out using data from a major European hub show that the proposed approach is promising in speeding up the search process.
    • Toward a More Realistic, Cost-Effective, and Greener Ground Movement Through Active Routing—Part I: Optimal Speed Profile Generation

      Chen, Jun; Weiszer, Michal; Stewart, Paul; Shabani, Masihalah; University of Derby - IISE (2015-11-05)
      Abstract- Among all airport operations, aircraft ground movement plays a key role in improving overall airport capacity as it links other airport operations. Moreover, ever-increasing air traffic, rising costs, and tighter environmental targets create pressure to minimize fuel burn on the ground. However, current routing functions envisioned in Advanced Surface Movement, Guidance and Control Systems almost exclusively consider the most time efficient solution and apply a conservative separation to ensure conflict-free surface movement, sometimes with additional buffer times to absorb small deviations from the taxi times. Such an overly constrained routing approach may result in either a too tight planning for some aircraft so that fuel efficiency is compromised due to multiple acceleration phases, or performance could be further improved by reducing the separation and buffer times. In light of this, Parts I and II of this paper present a new Active Routing (AR) framework with the aim of providing a more realistic, cost-effective, and environmental friendly surface movement, targeting some of the busiest international hub airports. Part I of this paper focuses on optimal speed profile generation using a physics-based aircraft movement model. Two approaches based, respectively, on the Base of Aircraft Data and the International Civil Aviation Organization engine emissions database have been employed to model fuel consumption. These models are then embedded within a multiobjective optimization framework to capture the essence of different speed profiles in a Pareto optimal sense. The proposed approach represents the first attempt to systematically address speed profiles with competing objectives. Results reveal an apparent tradeoff between fuel burn and taxi times irrespective of fuel consumption modeling approaches. This will have a profound impact on the routing and scheduling and open the door for the new concept of AR discussed in Part II of this paper.
    • The trade-off between taxi time and fuel consumption in airport ground movement

      Ravizza, Stefan; Chen, Jun; Atkin, Jason A. D.; Burke, Edmund K.; Stewart, Paul; University of Lincoln (2013-02-13)
      Environmental issues play an important role across many sectors. This is particularly the case in the air transportation industry. One area which has remained relatively unexplored in this context is the ground movement problem for aircraft on the airport's surface. Aircraft have to be routed from a gate to a runway and vice versa and a key area of study is whether fuel burn and environmental impact improvements will best result from purely minimising the taxi times or whether it is also important to avoid multiple acceleration phases. This paper presents a newly developed multi-objective approach for analysing the trade-off between taxi time and fuel consumption during taxiing. The approach consists of a combination of a graph-based routing algorithm and a population adaptive immune algorithm to discover different speed profiles of aircraft. Analysis with data from a European hub airport has highlighted the impressive performance of the new approach. Furthermore, it is shown that the trade-off between taxi time and fuel consumption is very sensitive to the fuel-related objective function which is used.