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Multifunctional unmanned reconnaissance aircraft for low-speed and STOL operationsTrancossi, Michele; Bingham, Chris; Capuani, Alfredo; Das, Shyam; Dumas, Antonio; Grimaccia, Francesco; Madonia, Mauro; Pascoa, Jose; Smith, Tim; Stewart, Paul; et al. (SAE International, 2015-09-15)This paper presents a novel UAS (Unmanned Aerial System) designed for excellent low speed operations and VTOL performance. This aerial vehicle concept has been designed for maximizing the advantages by of the ACHEON (Aerial Coanda High Efficiency Orienting-jet Nozzle) propulsion system, which has been studied in a European commission under 7th framework programme.This UAS concept has been named MURALS (acronym of Multifunctional Unmanned Reconnaissance Aircraft for Low-speed and STOL operation). It has been studied as a joint activity of the members of the project as an evolution of a former concept, which has been developed during 80s and 90s by Aeritalia and Capuani. It has been adapted to host an ACHEON based propulsion system. In a first embodiment, the aircraft according to the invention has a not conventional shape with a single fuselage and its primary objective is to minimize the variation of the pitching moment allowing low speed operations. The shape with convex wings has been specifically defined to allow a future possibility of enabling stealth operations.Main objective of the design activity has been focused on low speed flight, very short take off and landing, and a control possibility by mean of two mobile surfaces in the front canard, which allow changing the pitch angle, and allows an almost complete plane control in combination with an ACHEON variable angle of thrust propulsion system. The design considers has been specifically to allow flying at a speed which is lower than 12 m/s with an high angle of attach (over 7°), without losses in terms of manoeuvrability and agility. These features allow innovative uses such as road monitoring, and police support and are characterized by a breakthrough performance level.A complete optimal sizing of the aircraft has been performed, together with an effective performance analysis, which allows identifying the strong points and the potential problems of the project. An effective energy analysis has been performed also. An effective prototyping is expected in about one year.
A new aircraft architecture based on the ACHEON Coanda effect nozzle: flight model and energy evaluationMarques, Jose Pascoa; Porreca, Eliana; Smith, Tim; Stewart, Paul; Subhash, Maharshi; Sunol, Anna; Vucinic, Dean; Trancossi, Michele; Madonia, Mauro; Dumas, Antonio; et al. (Springer, 2016-03-12)Aeronautic transport has an effective necessity of reducing fuel consumption and emissions to deliver efficiency and competitiveness driven by today commercial and legislative requirements. Actual aircraft configurations scenario allows envisaging the signs of a diffused technological maturity and they seem very near their limits. This scenario clearly shows the necessity of radical innovations with particular reference to propulsion systems and to aircraftarchitecture consequently. Methods This paper presents analyses and discusses a promising propulsive architecture based on an innovative nozzle, which allows realizing the selective adhesion of two impinging streams to two facing jets to two facing Coanda surfaces. This propulsion system is known with the acronym ACHEON (Aerial Coanda High Efficiency Orienting Nozzle). This paper investigates how the application of an all-electric ACHEONs propulsion system to a very traditional commuter aircraft can improve its relevant performances. This paper considers the constraints imposed by current state-of-the-art electric motors, drives, storage and conversion systems in terms of both power/energy density and performance and considers two different aircraft configurations: one using battery only and one adopting a more sophisticated hybrid cogeneration. The necessity of producing a very solid analysis has forced to limit the deflection of the jet in a very conservative range (±15°) with respect to the horizontal. This range can be surely produced also by not optimal configurations and allow minimizing the use of DBD. From the study of general flight dynamics equations of the aircraft in two-dimensional form it has been possible to determine with a high level of accuracy the advantages that ACHEON brings in terms of reduced stall speed and of reduced take-off and landing distances. Additionally, it includes an effective energy analysis focusing on the efficiency and environmental advantages of the electric ACHEON based propulsion by assuming the today industrial grade high capacity batteries with a power density of 207 Wh/kg. Results It has been clearly demonstrated that a short flight could be possible adopting battery energy storage, and longer duration could be possible by adopting a more sophisticated cogeneration system, which is based on cogeneration from a well-known turboprop, which is mostly used in helicopter propulsion. This electric generation system can be empowered by recovering the heat and using it to increase the temperature of the jet. It is possible to transfer this considerable amount of heat to the jet by convection and direct fluid mixing. In this way, it is possible to increase the energy of the jets of an amount that allows more than recover the pressure losses in the straitening section. In this case, it is then possible to demonstrate an adequate autonomy of flight and operative range of the aircraft. The proposed architecture, which is within the limits of the most conservative results obtained, demonstrates significant additional benefits for aircraft manoeuvrability. In conclusion, this paper has presented the implantation of ACHEON on well-known traditional aircraft, verifying the suitability and effectiveness of the proposed system both in terms of endurance with a cogeneration architecture and in terms of manoeuvrability. It has demonstrated the potential of the system in terms of both takeoff and landing space requirements. Conclusions This innovation opens interesting perspectives for the future implementation of this new vector and thrust propulsion system, especially in the area of greening the aeronautic sector. It has also demonstrated that ACHEON has the potential of renovating completely a classic old aircraft configuration such as the one of Cessna 402.