• Electrical power and energy systems for transportation applications

      Stewart, Paul; Bingham, Chris; University of Derby (Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute (MDPI), 2016-07-14)
      This book contains the successful invited submissions [1-25] to a Special Issue of Energies on the subject area of “Electrical Power and Energy Systems for Transportation Applications�.
    • Energy harvesting and power network architectures for the multibody advanced airship for transport high altitude cruiser-feeder airship concept

      Smith, Tim; Bingham, Chris; Stewart, Paul; Allarton, R.; Stewart, Jill; University of Lincoln (Institution of Mechanical Engineers, 2013-01-09)
      This article presents results of preliminary investigations in the development of a new class of airship. Specific focus is given to photo-electric harvesting as a primary energy source, power architectures and energy audits for life support, propulsion and ancillary loads to support the continuous daily operation of the primary airship (cruiser) at stratospheric altitudes (similar to 15 km). The results are being used to drive the requirements of the FP7 multibody advanced airship for transport programme, which is to globally transport both passengers and freight using a 'feeder-cruiser' concept. It is shown that there is a potential trade off to traditional cost and size limits and, although potentially very complex, a first-order approximation is used to demonstrate sensitivities to the economics of the lifting gas. This presented concept is substantially different to those of conventional aircraft due to the airship size and the inherent requirement to harvest and store sufficient energy during 'daylight' operation to guarantee safe operation during 'dark hours'. This is particularly apparent when the sizing of the proposed electrolyser is considered, as its size and mass increases nonlinearly with decreasing daylight duty. The study also considers the integration of photovoltaics with various electrical architectures, in safety critical environments. A mass audit is also included that shows that if the electrolyser was omitted in such systems, the overall impact will be small compared to structural and propulsion masses. It should be noted that although the technology bias is application specific, the underlying principles are much widely applicable to other energy harvesting and power management sectors.
    • Multifunctional unmanned reconnaissance aircraft for low-speed and STOL operations

      Trancossi, Michele; Bingham, Chris; Capuani, Alfredo; Das, Shyam; Dumas, Antonio; Grimaccia, Francesco; Madonia, Mauro; Pascoa, Jose; Smith, Tim; Stewart, Paul; et al. (SAE International, 2015-09-15)
      This paper presents a novel UAS (Unmanned Aerial System) designed for excellent low speed operations and VTOL performance. This aerial vehicle concept has been designed for maximizing the advantages by of the ACHEON (Aerial Coanda High Efficiency Orienting-jet Nozzle) propulsion system, which has been studied in a European commission under 7th framework programme.This UAS concept has been named MURALS (acronym of Multifunctional Unmanned Reconnaissance Aircraft for Low-speed and STOL operation). It has been studied as a joint activity of the members of the project as an evolution of a former concept, which has been developed during 80s and 90s by Aeritalia and Capuani. It has been adapted to host an ACHEON based propulsion system. In a first embodiment, the aircraft according to the invention has a not conventional shape with a single fuselage and its primary objective is to minimize the variation of the pitching moment allowing low speed operations. The shape with convex wings has been specifically defined to allow a future possibility of enabling stealth operations.Main objective of the design activity has been focused on low speed flight, very short take off and landing, and a control possibility by mean of two mobile surfaces in the front canard, which allow changing the pitch angle, and allows an almost complete plane control in combination with an ACHEON variable angle of thrust propulsion system. The design considers has been specifically to allow flying at a speed which is lower than 12 m/s with an high angle of attach (over 7°), without losses in terms of manoeuvrability and agility. These features allow innovative uses such as road monitoring, and police support and are characterized by a breakthrough performance level.A complete optimal sizing of the aircraft has been performed, together with an effective performance analysis, which allows identifying the strong points and the potential problems of the project. An effective energy analysis has been performed also. An effective prototyping is expected in about one year.
    • A new aircraft architecture based on the ACHEON Coanda effect nozzle: flight model and energy evaluation

      Marques, Jose Pascoa; Porreca, Eliana; Smith, Tim; Stewart, Paul; Subhash, Maharshi; Sunol, Anna; Vucinic, Dean; Trancossi, Michele; Madonia, Mauro; Dumas, Antonio; et al. (Springer, 2016-03-12)
      Aeronautic transport has an effective necessity of reducing fuel consumption and emissions to deliver efficiency and competitiveness driven by today commercial and legislative requirements. Actual aircraft configurations scenario allows envisaging the signs of a diffused technological maturity and they seem very near their limits. This scenario clearly shows the necessity of radical innovations with particular reference to propulsion systems and to aircraftarchitecture consequently. Methods This paper presents analyses and discusses a promising propulsive architecture based on an innovative nozzle, which allows realizing the selective adhesion of two impinging streams to two facing jets to two facing Coanda surfaces. This propulsion system is known with the acronym ACHEON (Aerial Coanda High Efficiency Orienting Nozzle). This paper investigates how the application of an all-electric ACHEONs propulsion system to a very traditional commuter aircraft can improve its relevant performances. This paper considers the constraints imposed by current state-of-the-art electric motors, drives, storage and conversion systems in terms of both power/energy density and performance and considers two different aircraft configurations: one using battery only and one adopting a more sophisticated hybrid cogeneration. The necessity of producing a very solid analysis has forced to limit the deflection of the jet in a very conservative range (±15°) with respect to the horizontal. This range can be surely produced also by not optimal configurations and allow minimizing the use of DBD. From the study of general flight dynamics equations of the aircraft in two-dimensional form it has been possible to determine with a high level of accuracy the advantages that ACHEON brings in terms of reduced stall speed and of reduced take-off and landing distances. Additionally, it includes an effective energy analysis focusing on the efficiency and environmental advantages of the electric ACHEON based propulsion by assuming the today industrial grade high capacity batteries with a power density of 207 Wh/kg. Results It has been clearly demonstrated that a short flight could be possible adopting battery energy storage, and longer duration could be possible by adopting a more sophisticated cogeneration system, which is based on cogeneration from a well-known turboprop, which is mostly used in helicopter propulsion. This electric generation system can be empowered by recovering the heat and using it to increase the temperature of the jet. It is possible to transfer this considerable amount of heat to the jet by convection and direct fluid mixing. In this way, it is possible to increase the energy of the jets of an amount that allows more than recover the pressure losses in the straitening section. In this case, it is then possible to demonstrate an adequate autonomy of flight and operative range of the aircraft. The proposed architecture, which is within the limits of the most conservative results obtained, demonstrates significant additional benefits for aircraft manoeuvrability. In conclusion, this paper has presented the implantation of ACHEON on well-known traditional aircraft, verifying the suitability and effectiveness of the proposed system both in terms of endurance with a cogeneration architecture and in terms of manoeuvrability. It has demonstrated the potential of the system in terms of both takeoff and landing space requirements. Conclusions This innovation opens interesting perspectives for the future implementation of this new vector and thrust propulsion system, especially in the area of greening the aeronautic sector. It has also demonstrated that ACHEON has the potential of renovating completely a classic old aircraft configuration such as the one of Cessna 402.
    • Primary and albedo solar energy sources for high altitude persistent air vehicle operation

      Smith, Tim; Trancossi, Michele; Vucinic, Dean; Bingham, Chris; Stewart, Paul; University of Lincoln; Sheffield Hallam University; Vrije Universiteit Brussel; University of Derby (Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute (MDPI), 2017-04-22)
      A new class of the all electric airship to globally transport both passengers and freight using a ‘feeder‐cruiser’ concept, and powered by renewable electric energy, is considered. Specific focus is given to photo‐electric harvesting as the primary energy source and the associated hydrogen‐based energy storage systems. Furthermore, it is shown that the total PV output may be significantly increased by utilising cloud albedo effects. Appropriate power architectures and energy audits required for life support, and the propulsion and ancillary loads to support the continuous daily operation of the primary airship (cruiser) at stratospheric altitudes (circa 18 km), are also considered. The presented solution is substantially different from those of conventional aircraft due to the airship size and the inherent requirement to harvest and store sufficient energy during “daylight” operation, when subject to varying seasonal conditions and latitudes, to ensure its safe and continued operation during the corresponding varying “dark hours”. This is particularly apparent when the sizing of the proposed electrolyser is considered, as its size and mass increase nonlinearly with decreasing day‐night duty. As such, a Unitized Regenerative Fuel Cell is proposed. For the first time the study also discusses the potential benefits of integrating the photo‐voltaic cells into airship canopy structures utilising TENSAIRITY®‐based elements in order to eliminate the requirements for separate inter‐PV array wiring and the transport of low pressure hydrogen between fuel cells.
    • Special Issue "Electrical Power and Energy Systems"

      Stewart, Paul; Bingham, Chris; University of Derby (Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute (MDPI), 2013-01)
      Electrical power and energy systems are at the forefront of application developments in renewable energy, smart grid, more electric aircraft, electric and hybrid vehicles and much more. The associated technologies and control methods are crucial to achieving global targets in energy efficiency and low-carbon operations, and will also contribute to key areas such as energy security. The greatest challenges occur when we combine new technologies at large-scale and often complex system level. The Special Edition will cover theoretical developments with special emphasis on applications in electrical power and energy systems. Topics of interest for publication include, but are not limited to: Renewable Energy Systems - Energy management; hybrid systems; distributed systems; renewable sources and integration; transient energy storage, charging networks. Electrical Machines, Drives and Applications - AC and DC machines and drives; multiscale systems modeling; remote monitoring and diagnosis; electric and hybrid vehicles; energy conversion, vehicle to grid interaction. Power Electronic Systems - Converters and emerging technologies; modeling simulation and control; power factor correction; power supplies; active filters; reliability and fault tolerance. Electrical Power Generation Systems - Modeling and simulation of electrical power systems; load management; power quality; distribution reliability; distributed and islanded power systems, sensor networks, communication and control. Electrical Power Systems Modeling and Control - Modeling and control methodologies and applications; intelligent systems; optimization and advanced heuristics; adaptive systems; robust control.