• Risk management in the digital economy

      Ritchie, Bob; Brindley, Clare; Nottingham Trent University (IGI Global, 2009)
    • A retailer's perspective of customer loyalty

      Keegan, J.; Brindley, Clare; Nottingham Trent University (Academy of Marketing, 2011)
    • Supply chain risk management and performance: issues and challenges

      Ritchie, Bob; Brindley, Clare; Nottingham Trent University (Springer, 2008)
    • SMEs & the Internet: a comparative study - China and the UK.

      Ritchie, Bob; Brindley, Clare; Nottingham Trent University (Elgar, 2005)
    • Self-employed Irish women's entrepreneurial risk behaviour

      Humbert, Anne Laure; Brindley, Clare; Nottingham Trent University (Institute for Small Business and Entrepeurship, 2011)
    • Women and new business creation-breaking down the risk barriers

      Brindley, Clare; Nottingham Trent University (Routledge, 2007)
    • Cultural determinants of competitiveness within SMEs

      Ritchie, Bob; Brindley, Clare; Nottingham Trent University (Emerald Group Publishing Limited, 2005)
      Purpose To develop a contingency framework that will assist in overcoming the concerns expressed about the ability to integrate and generalise findings from research studies into entrepreneurship and small? to medium?sized enterprises (SMEs). Design/methodology/approach A preliminary framework is developed as a contribution towards fulfilling the need for a means of connecting often, diverse studies into SMEs and entrepreneurship. The framework is evaluated initially in terms of previous studies in the field and subsequently employing results from the authors' own cross?national empirical studies involving ethnic, gender and cultural barriers to engaging in entrepreneurship. Findings The results from a series of empirical studies of experienced managers and aspiring managers are presented. The nature of the cultural differences and the implications for future research and policy making are evaluated. Issues such as the motivating and de?motivating factors associated with establishing and managing an SME are highlighted. Research limitations/implications The findings are used to initiate the development and formulation of a contingency framework of entrepreneurship, which identifies cultural factors and differences as significant contingency variables. Practical implications The importance of recognising the impact of cultural and gender differences on the development and application of policies and practices designed to stimulate and sustain entrepreneurship and enterprise is highlighted. This theoretical contribution should lead to more robust policy development. Originality/value The development of a contingency framework which addresses differences in the contextual circumstances in differing countries or regions in terms of culture, gender and ethnicity. Providing support for this framework based on the review of relevant literature and empirical evidence.
    • An emergent framework for supply chain risk management and performance measurement.

      Ritchie, Bob; Brindley, Clare; Nottingham Trent University (Springer, 2007)
      Changes in the shape of risk (ie sources, nature, triggers, scale, rapidity and severity of consequences) relating to supply chains pose challenges for risk management and the underpinning discipline domains such as Operations Research that have traditionally provided guidance and support. The aim is to evaluate these challenges, specifically in the context of supply chain risk management and to consider new approaches to support management. An overall Supply Chain Risk Management Framework is constructed, comprising five components risk drivers, risk management influencers, decision maker characteristics, risk management responses and performance outcomes. The focus is towards the risk management influencers, recognizing that other components have been investigated elsewhere in the operations literature. Four elements are identified within this risk management component, two conventional elements, rewards and risks, and two new elements, timescale and portfolio effects. An empirical case example is employed to illustrate these issues of risk management in the manufacturing sector and to evaluate the approaches employed to manage risk and performance. The conclusion drawn is that the proposed Supply Chain Risk Management Framework with the inclusion of the risk management influencers component provides a more robust description of the factors that affect the nature of the risk management responses in particular situations. This also demonstrates the need for the Operations Research discipline to evolve a more diverse set of risk management tools and approaches (ie both quantitative and qualitative) to effectively address the diversity of issues and contexts.
    • ICT adoption by SMEs: implications for relationships and management

      Ritchie, Bob; Brindley, Clare; Nottingham Trent University (Wiley, 2005)
      A conceptual model of the changes in small and medium enterprise interfaces and relationships consequent on their adoption of information and communication technologies is developed and explored in this paper. Emphasis is placed on the implications for management, employees and working practices. Empirical evidence from two organisations is provided to illustrate the model and corroborate this new perspective.
    • Supply chain risk management and performance: a guiding framework for future development

      Ritchie, Bob; Brindley, Clare; Nottingham Trent University (Emerald Group Publishing Limited, 2007)
      Purpose The purpose of this paper is to examine the constructs underpinning risk management and explores its application in the supply chain context through the development of a framework. The constructs of performance and risk are matched together to provide new perspectives for researchers and practitioners. Design/methodology/approach The conceptual and empirical work in the supply chain management field and other related fields is employed to develop a conceptual framework of supply chain risk management (SCRM). Risk in the supply chain is explored in terms of risk/performance sources, drivers, consequences and management responses, including initial approaches to categorization within these. Two empirical cases are used to illustrate the application of the framework. Findings A new framework is presented that helps to integrate the dimensions of risk and performance in supply chains and provide a categorisation of risk drivers. Research limitations/implications SCRM is at an early stage of evolution. The paper provides a clarification of the dimensions and constructs within this field together with directions for future research and development. Practical implications The focus on performance in terms of efficiency and effectiveness linked to risk drivers and risk management responses provides insights to managing and measuring risk in supply chains. Originality/value The paper consolidates the work in an emerging strand of supply chain management. Two key challenges facing the research community are addressed, the ability to prescribe strategies to address particular risk drivers and the interaction of risk management and performance.
    • Personalized relationship e-marketing and the small and medium sized enterprise

      Brindley, Clare; Nottingham Trent University (IGI Global, 2006)
      Many small businesses are beginning to adopt at least tactical solutions to enhance relationships between themselves and their customers. This chapter focuses on a UK-based marketing communications company which has developed an innovative personalized relationship e-marketing tool, utilizing mobile technology aimed at the SME sector. Current marketing practices, such as database marketing and CRM systems, are discussed in terms of SME adoption and whether the tool, Sign-Up.to is an effective replacement for established CRM systems. The authors conclude that while the case study company has developed a tool that will aid SMEs with their relationship marketing, the philosophy of relationship marketing must already be imbedded within the SME. The authors' intention is to illustrate how technology can be implemented in the SME sector and to explore how technology and marketing can help each other.
    • The information-risk conundrum

      Ritchie, Bob; Brindley, Clare; Nottingham Trent University (Emerald Group Publishing Limited, 2001)
      Information technologies have been deliberately targeted towards enhancing database access, analytical powers and the communications capacity of marketers. The justification for these efforts has been based on the premise that more and better quality information will result in reduced uncertainty and improved risk perceptions in decision situations. This premiss is examined in the context of decision maker behaviour, drawing on empirical research involving 50 managers undertaking strategic analysis and decisions. The research methodology employed a computer?based simulation of a strategic decision situation, enabling the managers to access structured information databases to support their decision making. Concludes that the initial perceptions of uncertainty and risk relating to the decisions faced are unlikely to be modified irrespective of the quantity or quality of the information transmitted and processed by the decision maker. The evidence suggests that the decision maker may also construct their decision?taking behaviour to constrain the opportunity for new information to alter the initial perceptions and choices made.
    • Barriers to women achieving their entrepreneurial potential: women and risk

      Brindley, Clare; Nottingham Trent University (Emerald Group Publishing Limited, 2005)
      Purpose This paper provides a comprehensive summary of the academic literature with regard to risk and its role in the entrepreneurial experience of women. Entrepreneurial risk has an under?developed conceptual basis and distilling gender?specific aspects is difficult. Various academic disciplines have contributed to the topic of risk, e.g. economics, and often decision making is used to contextualise the topic. Though the literature does not always prove an association between the different facets of risk and entrepreneurship, there is general agreement that a number of factors, e.g. personal, political and social inter?relate to influence risk and subsequent behaviour. Design/methodology/approach Uses a desk?based approach to data collection. An overview of the main issues concerning risk and entrepreneurship is given to contexualise the gender aspects to be discussed, drawing on the extant literature. Findings The paper posits that an understanding of the gender aspects of risk is required if policy measures are to be constructive and help women overcome barriers and achieve their entrepreneurial potential. The conclusions drawn from the literature provide the foundations for a discussion of the likely policy measures that are required to encourage women entrepreneurs. Research limitations/implications A summary is provided of the research and information gaps that remain in terms of women entrepreneurship and risk with the aim of encouraging further research in the area. Originality/value Provides a comprehensive summary of the literature with regard to risk and the entrepreneurial experience of women, and discusses the likely policy measures required to encourage women entrepreneurs.
    • Risk assessment and relationship management: practical approach to supply chain risk management

      Ritchie, Bob; Brindley, Clare; Armstrong, Nick; Nottingham Trent University (Inderscience Enterprises, 2008)
      The literature suggests the need for incorporating the risk construct into the measurement of organisational performance, although few examples are available as to how this might be undertaken in relation to supply chains. A conceptual framework for the development of performance and risk management within the supply chain is evolved from the literature and empirical evidence. The twin levels of dyadic performance/risk management and the management of a portfolio of performance/risks is addressed, employing Agency Theory to guide the analysis. The empirical evidence relates to the downstream management of dealerships by a large multinational organisation. Propositions are derived from the analysis relating to the issues and mechanisms that may be employed to effectively manage a portfolio of supply chain performance and risks.
    • Reducing risk in information search activities

      Ritchie, Bob; Brindley, Clare; Nottingham Trent University (IGI Global, 2004)
      This chapter proposes that the initial perceptions of uncertainty and risk relating to decision making are unlikely to be modified irrespective of the quantity or quality of the information transmitted and processed by the decision maker. It argues that initial risk perceptions and decisions are fairly robust even when confronted with contradictory information. The chapter begins by offering definitions of the key terms such as risk, uncertainty, and the components of the digital economy. The authors then provide an overview of risk assessment and associated management processes before moving onto an examination of the contribution of intelligence and information to risk resolution. A case scenario provides a practical illustration of the issues raised.
    • Gambling over the Internet

      Brindley, Clare; Nottingham Trent University (IGI Global, 2006)
      Gambling providers have begun to exploit the Internet as a vehicle for marketing their products and services. This article discusses the increase in Internet gambling and how the gambling industry has exploited technology to make market gains. Gambling on the Internet is a billion-dollar industry, with online lotteries and pools generating more than half of the total market value (i.e., $1.66 billion). There is a plethora of gambling opportunities, such as casino games and online games, and horse and event betting, although inevitably some of the rules of the games have had to be adapted to operate via the new medium. The home-based nature of interactive gambling means that consumers are no longer restricted by opening hours, social status, or membership requirements, and are able to choose from a wide selection of gambling sites. The nature of the response by gambling organizations to the changes in consumer behavior has depended on the willingness of providers to become online providers, domestic and/or international legislation, and of course Internet service provision, all of which will differ depending on the gambling products offered.
    • The marketing of gambling on the Internet

      Brindley, Clare; Nottingham Trent University (Emerald Group Publishing Limited, 1999)
      It is estimated that gambling on the Internet will be worth as much as $3bn by 2001. Gambling via interactive technology is already underpinned by two recent changes in consumer behaviour. First, increasing familiarisation with interactive technology and second, by changes in the way the gambling market operates. These already changing behaviour patterns, signal the success drivers on which gambling on the internet can build. The implications of this new leisure consumption pattern are discussed and the paper concludes that the synergy between marketing gambling and technology will transform the production and consumption of gambling.
    • Effective management of supply chain risk and performance

      Ritchie, Bob; Brindley, Clare; Nottingham Trent University (Springer, 2009)
      A significant feature of the rapidly evolving business climate spurred on by significant technology shifts, innovation, communication technologies and globalization, is the increasing prevalence of risk in almost every aspect of our lives. Whether real or imagined, we perceive greater exposure, increased likelihood and more severe consequences of already known risks whilst becoming aware of other risks previously unknown. FM Global (2007) concluded from their study of the views of 500 financial executives in Europe and America that most anticipated an increase in overall business risks in the foreseeable future. The top three risk areas featured global competition, supply chains and property-related risks. Individual organizations are continuously receiving information inputs identifying new risk sources, enhanced exposure to existing risks and escalating costs associated with compensation should such risks materialize. The emergence of risk management is an important response to such developments providing a contribution to most fields of management decision and control (e. g. Smallman, 1996; Giannakis et al., 2004). Supply Chain Risk Management (SCRM) represents the risk management response primarily to supply chain risks, although as will be seen later in the chapter, it has a much wider influence at the strategic enterprise risk level.
    • Supply chain risk

      Brindley, Clare; Nottingham Trent University (Ashgate, 2004)
      The impact of technological change, globalization, information and communication technologies and international governmental intervention has radically altered supply chain strategies, operations and risk profiles for most organizations. The challenge facing business and researchers alike is how best to address risk management in this new context. This collection, written by international scholars from the UK, US and Scandinavia, addresses this need by providing the first topical review of these developments and the latest research findings. The findings represent a robust cross-disciplinary view of supply chains, articulating policies and strategies for organizations. The research studies are based on empirical case studies within services and manufacturing in both large and SME organizations. This work is intended to provide the foundation for future research in this expanding area and the impact it has on managing risk within the supply chain.
    • Enabling the SME is sustainable procurement: a case study

      Oxborrow, Lynn; Brindley, Clare; Nottingham Trent University (Institute for Small Business and Entrepeurship, 2011)