• Career ambitions of teenage mothers: customer insight research

      Hutchinson, Jo; Moore, Nicki; University of Derby, iCeGS (iCeGS - International Centre for Guidance Studies, University of Derby, 2012)
      Teenage pregnancy is more common in some areas and among some groups of young women. Rates of teenage pregnancy in socially deprived areas are higher than the national average. Because of its association with deprivation, in 1999 the Social Exclusion Unit set out targets to Local Authorities to reduce the numbers of conceptions and increase the participation of young mothers in education, training and employment. Progress towards reducing conceptions has been steady but slow as the figure below from Nottinghamshire shows. It remains concentrated in geographic ‘hot spots’ in both the City and the County. Similarly fewer than 30% of young mothers in the City or the County are in education, employment or training. This research sought to find out more about these young women. Through interviews and data analysis the research explored the motivations and factors that influence when or whether a young mother will return to the labour market.
    • Career learning journeys of Derby and Derbyshire NEETs

      Hutchinson, Jo; Korzeniewski, Richard; Moore, Nicki; University of Derby, iCeGS (iCeGS - International Centre for Guidance Studies, University of Derby, 2011-03)
      Young people (aged under 25 years) typically represent a third of all unemployed people across Derby and Derbyshire. The numbers of young people aged between 16 and 18 years old who are either not in education, employment or training (known as NEETs) in Derby and Derbyshire is a concern for local communities, businesses, support organisations, and families. In early 2010 changes to support services and structures were being undertaken, whilst at the same time the economic downturn was affecting opportunities for employment and training. The opportunity that arose at this time through the EMIEP project to undertake research both about, and with, the local NEET population was seized upon locally as a way to better understand the realities of being NEET through systematic analysis of the NCCIS database alongside qualitative analysis of interviews with 40 young people who were categorised as NEET. It finds that those young people with multiple disadvantage feel better supported by services than those whose NEET status derived from just one or two disadvantaging factors.
    • Career transitions in marketing: from corporate life to self-employment

      Brindley, Clare; Foster, Carley; Wheatley, Dan; Nottingham Trent University (Praeger, 2014)
    • Career-related learning and science education: the changing landscape

      Hutchinson, Jo; University of Derby, iCeGS (The Association for Science Education, 2012)
      Pupils ask STEM subject teachers about jobs and careers in science, but where else do they learn about work? This article outlines career-related learning within schools in England alongside other factors that influence pupils’ career decisions. The effect of the Education Act 2011 will be to change career learning in schools. The impact on science educators as advisers, facilitators, commissioners or managers of career-related learning is discussed, with a conclusion that, while science educators are not career educators, they nevertheless can support career-related learning in their delivery of the curriculum alongside enhancement and enrichment activities.
    • Challenging the concept of risk in relation to women's entrepreneurship

      Humbert, Anne Laure; Brindley, Clare; European Institute for Gender Equality; Nottingham Trent University (Emerald Group Publishing Limited, 2015)
      Purpose This paper aims to challenge the myth of risk-averseness among women entrepreneurs and analyses risk in the context of gender. It explores risk perceptions and examines the relationship between the concept of risk and women's socially attributed roles. Design/methodology/approach This paper adopts a qualitative approach, where ten Irish women business owners were interviewed, that encouraged them to talk about their entrepreneurial experiences. The research design aimed to elicit data concerning how gender and the socio-economic context influenced risk. Findings Risk is shown as a gendered concept which needs to be widened to suit the experiences of women entrepreneurs and the influences of the gendered expectations of care dictated by the socio-economic environment. Practical implications Risk as a concept needs to be expanded to go beyond financial risk. The different types of risk encountered by women should be addressed by policy to promote a further growth of women-led enterprises and support those considering self-employment. Originality/value The paper develops an understanding of risk among women entrepreneurs in their socio-economic context. It challenges the viewpoint of seeing women entrepreneurs as risk-averse and thus leading to low-growth prospects for their business ventures.
    • Criminal Lives 1780-1925: Punishing Old Bailey Convicts

      Allwork Larissa; Robert Shoemaker; Tim Hitchcock; AHRC Digital Panopticon (London Metropolitan Archives, 2017-12-11)
      Between 1700 and 1900 the British government stopped punishing the bodies of London’s convicts and increasingly sought to exile them and/or reform their minds. From hanging, branding and whipping the response to crime shifted to transportation and imprisonment. By the nineteenth century, judges chose between two contrasting forms of punishments: exile and forced labour in Australia, or incarceration in strictly controlled ‘reformatory’ prisons at home. This exhibition, based on material from London Metropolitan Archives and the AHRC funded Digital Panopticon research project, traces the impact of punishments on individual lives. It follows the men, women and children convicted in London from their crimes and trials through to their experiences of punishment and their subsequent lives.
    • Cultural determinants of competitiveness within SMEs

      Ritchie, Bob; Brindley, Clare; Nottingham Trent University (Emerald Group Publishing Limited, 2005)
      Purpose To develop a contingency framework that will assist in overcoming the concerns expressed about the ability to integrate and generalise findings from research studies into entrepreneurship and small? to medium?sized enterprises (SMEs). Design/methodology/approach A preliminary framework is developed as a contribution towards fulfilling the need for a means of connecting often, diverse studies into SMEs and entrepreneurship. The framework is evaluated initially in terms of previous studies in the field and subsequently employing results from the authors' own cross?national empirical studies involving ethnic, gender and cultural barriers to engaging in entrepreneurship. Findings The results from a series of empirical studies of experienced managers and aspiring managers are presented. The nature of the cultural differences and the implications for future research and policy making are evaluated. Issues such as the motivating and de?motivating factors associated with establishing and managing an SME are highlighted. Research limitations/implications The findings are used to initiate the development and formulation of a contingency framework of entrepreneurship, which identifies cultural factors and differences as significant contingency variables. Practical implications The importance of recognising the impact of cultural and gender differences on the development and application of policies and practices designed to stimulate and sustain entrepreneurship and enterprise is highlighted. This theoretical contribution should lead to more robust policy development. Originality/value The development of a contingency framework which addresses differences in the contextual circumstances in differing countries or regions in terms of culture, gender and ethnicity. Providing support for this framework based on the review of relevant literature and empirical evidence.
    • The D2N2 employability framework: Employers and schools supporting young people's routes to work

      Hutchinson, Jo; Dickinson, Berni; Vickers, Rob; Hooley, Tristram; University of Derby (D2N2, 2015)
      The D2N2 Employability Framework provides the methodology by which we can significantly improve the employability and life skills of our young people regardless of academic ability or which career pathway they chose to take. Collectively schools, colleges, training providers, wealth creating companies, social enterprises and the public sector have a duty to ensure that we give our young people the best chances in gaining employment and at the same time addressing the skills needs of employers within our area.
    • Defending a communicative theory of punishment: the relationship between hard treatment and amends

      Lee, Ambrose Y. K.; University of Oxford, Centre for Criminology (Oxford University Press, 2016-03-27)
      According to communicative theories of punishment, legal punishment is pro tanto justified because it communicates the censure that offenders deserve for their crimes. The aim of this article is to offer a modest defence for a particular version of a communicative theory. This version builds on the one that has been advanced by Antony Duff. According to him, legal punishment should be understood as a kind of (secular) penitential burden that is placed upon offenders to censure them for their crimes, with the aims that they will then come to repent, reform themselves and reconcile with those whom they have wronged. This article departs from Duff’s version, however, by arguing that the penitential burdens in question should be understood more specifically in terms of the amends that offenders ought to make to apologise for their criminal wrongdoings. The article then attempts to address three potential objections to this revised version of the communicative theory.
    • Delivering NEET policy packages? A decade of NEET policy in England

      Hutchinson, Jo; Beck, Vanessa; Hooley, Tristram; University of Derby; University of Leicester (Taylor and Francis, 2015)
      This article explores the way in which government policy shapes the lives of young people who are not in education, employment or training (NEET). In particular it examines how the concept of NEETs is set within a specific infrastructure and discourse for managing and supporting young people. The article provides a brief history of the NEET concept and NEET initiatives, before moving on to scrutinise the policies of the Coalition Government. A key distinction is made between those policies and practices that seek to prevent young people becoming NEET from those that seek to re-engage those who are NEET. It is argued that the Coalition has drawn on a similar active labour market toolkit to the previous Labour administration, but that this has been implemented with fewer resources and less co-ordination. It concludes that there is little reason to believe that Coalition policy will be any more successful than that of the previous government, and some reason to be concerned that it will lead to young people becoming more entrenched within NEET.
    • Developing business. developing careers: how and why employers are supporting the career development of their employees.

      Hutchinson, Jo; Devins, David; Hooley, Tristram; Kelsey, Sarah; University of Derby, iCeGS; Leeds Metropolitan University, Policy Research Institute (PRI) (UKCES, 2012)
    • A dinuclear ruthenium(II) phototherapeutic that targets duplex and quadruplex DNA

      Archer, Stuart; Raza, Ahtasham; Dröge, Fabian; Robertson, Craig C.; Auty, Alexander J; Chekulaev, Dimitri M; Weinstein, Julia; Keane, Theo; Meijer, Anthony J. H. M.; Haycock, John; et al. (Royal Society of Chemistry, 2019-02-18)
      With the aim of developing a sensitizer for photodynamic therapy, a previously reported luminescent dinuclear complex that functions as a DNA probe in live cells was modified to produce a new isostructural derivative containing RuII(TAP)2 fragments (TAP = 1,4,5,8- tetraazaphenanthrene). The structure of the new complex has been confirmed by a variety of techniques including single crystal X-ray analysis. Unlike its parent, the new complex displays RuL-based 3MLCT emission in both MeCN and water. Results from electrochemical studies and emission quenching experiments involving guanosine monophosphate are consistent with an excited state located on a TAP moiety. This hypothesis is further supported by detailed DFT calculations, which take into account solvent effects on excited state dynamics. Cell-free steady-state and time-resolved optical studies on the interaction of the new complex with duplex and quadruplex DNA show that the complex binds with high affinity to both structures and indicate that its photoexcited state is also quenched by DNA, a process that is accompanied by the generation of the guanine radical cation sites as photo-oxidization products. Like the parent complex, this new compound is taken up by live cells where it primarily localizes within the nucleus and displays low cytotoxicity in the absence of light. However, in complete contrast to [{RuII(phen)2}2(tpphz)]4+, the new complex is therapeutically activated by light to become highly phototoxic toward malignant human melanoma cell line showing that it is a promising lead for the treatment of this recalcitrant cancer.
    • Directing the path of light-induced electron transfer at a molecular fork using vibrational excitation.

      Delor, Milan; Archer, Stuart A.; Keane, Theo; Meijer, Anthony J. H. M.; Sazanovich, Igor V.; Greetham, Gregory M.; Towrie, Michael; Weinstein, Julia A.; University of Sheffield; Research Complex at Harwell (Springer, 2017-06-19)
      Ultrafast electron transfer in condensed-phase molecular systems is often strongly coupled to intramolecular vibrations that can promote, suppress and direct electronic processes. Recent experiments exploring this phenomenon proved that light-induced electron transfer can be strongly modulated by vibrational excitation, suggesting a new avenue for active control over molecular function. Here, we achieve the first example of such explicit vibrational control through judicious design of a Pt(II)-acetylide charge-transfer Donor-Bridge-Acceptor-Bridge-Donor “fork” system: asymmetric 13C isotopic labelling of one of the two -C≡C-bridges makes the two parallel and otherwise identical Donor→Acceptor electron-transfer pathways structurally distinct, enabling independent vibrational perturbation of either. Applying an ultrafast UVpump(excitation)-IRpump(perturbation)-IRprobe(monitoring) pulse sequence, we show that the pathway that is vibrationally perturbed during UV-induced electron-transfer is dramatically slowed down compared to its unperturbed counterpart. One can thus choose the dominant electron transfer pathway. The findings deliver a new opportunity for precise perturbative control of electronic energy propagation in molecular devices.
    • Directly coupled versus spectator linkers on diimine ptii acetylides—change the structure, keep the function

      Archer, Stuart A.; Keane, Theo; Delor, Milan; Bevon, Elizabeth; Auty, Alexander J.; Chekulaev, Dimitri; Sazanovich, Igor V.; Towrie, Michael; Meijer, Anthony J. H. M.; Weinstein, Julia A.; et al. (Wiley, 2017-12-27)
      Modification of light‐harvesting units with anchoring groups for surface attachment often compromises light‐harnessing properties. Herein, a series of [donor–acceptor–anchor] platinum(II) diimine (bis‐)acetylides was developed in order to systematically compare the effect of conjugated versus electronically decoupled modes of attachment of protected anchoring groups on the photophysical properties of light‐harvesting units. The first examples of “decoupled” phosphonate diimine PtII complexes are reported, and their properties are compared and contrasted to those of carboxylate analogues studied by a diversity of methods. Ultrafast time‐resolved IR and transient absorption spectroscopy revealed that all complexes have a charge‐transfer (CT) lowest excited state with lifetimes between 2 and 14 ns. Vibrational signatures and dynamics of CT states were identified; the assignment of electronic states and their vibrational origin was aided by TDDFT calculations. Ultrafast energy redistribution accompanied by structural changes was directly captured in the CT states. A significant difference between the structures of the electronic ground and CT excited states, as well as differences in the structural reorganisation in the complexes bearing directly attached or electronically decoupled anchoring groups, was discovered. This work demonstrates that decoupling of the anchoring group from the light‐harvesting core by a saturated spacer is an easy approach to combine surface attachment with high reduction potential and ten times longer lifetime of the CT excited state of the light‐absorbing unit, and retain electron‐transfer photoreactivity essential for light‐harvesting applications.
    • Disintermediation in the apparel supply chain

      Oxborrow, Lynn; Brindley, Clare; Nottingham Trent University (Emerald Group Publishing Limited, 2014-07-08)
      Purpose The apparel industry has acted as a microcosm of global industrial change, exemplified by changes in structure, relationships and technologies. The purpose of this paper is to identify the risk drivers, the changing supply strategies and the relationships suppliers are developing or exiting from, notably because of the increasing power of retailers in the fast fashion sector. Design/methodology/approach The research adopts a qualitative, case study methodology of the Leicester (UK) based suppliers who operate in the fast fashion market. Findings Rich narrative data shows that the apparel supply chain has changed. The small and medium size enterprises (SMEs) have had more success in managing the upstream rather than the downstream, supported by their move towards a more design driven system. This willingness has been motivated by their wish to "own" the relationship with the buyer but this has not always resulted in greater power or returns and relationships have continued to be fractious. Research limitations/implications There is a lack of research on supply chains, especially, apparel supply chains that focus on reality rather than best practice. This paper addresses the power relationships that are exerted in the supply chain and the cultural aspects that influence them, which have hitherto lacked academic focus. Originality/value Adds empirical data to the theoretical work in the area, specifically, the shape of SME supply chains and the nature of risk in supplying fast fashion. It identifies the unequal power base of the supply chain and SMEs strategies for coping, or not, to some extent dependent on their culture.
    • Eco-innovation in SMEs - drivers of a holistic process of change

      Oxborrow, Lynn; Brindley, Clare; Nottingham Trent University (ISDR Society, 2011-06-25)
      The paper aims to explore SMEs understanding of sustainability issues, how they adopt and innovate in terms of sustainability and the benefits and obstacles they face in developing, adopting and commercialising new products and processes. The concept of eco-innovation or developing 'new products and processes which provide customer and business value but significantly decrease environmental impacts' (James 1997) is therefore applied to the specialised context of UK SMEs, a context which impacts cumulatively on overall environmental sustainability (Tilley 1999). In particular the concept of ecoinnovation is researched in the context of SME capabilities and competences, and how these relate to the change process that emerges as a reaction to the drivers towards eco-innovation.
    • Education to employment: complicated transitions in a changing world

      Hutchinson, Jo; Kettlewell, Kelly; University of Derby (2015)
      The editorial presents a collection of papers which highlight the complex nature of supporting all young people as they move out of statutory education. They illuminate some of the real concerns and problems related to the NEETs phenomenon. By drawing together this body of research and interrogating it, it has been possible to peel back the label ‘NEET’, look beyond the rhetoric and highlight an increasingly sophisticated understanding of the limitations and applications of the label that can provide the basis for international exchange of research findings. Above all, taken together, the papers suggest that the experience of NEET is not homogeneous. This is something that needs to be understood and acknowledged to a far greater extent if policy is to result in actions that truly support young people’s transitions from education to employment.
    • Effective management of supply chain risk and performance

      Ritchie, Bob; Brindley, Clare; Nottingham Trent University (Springer, 2009)
      A significant feature of the rapidly evolving business climate spurred on by significant technology shifts, innovation, communication technologies and globalization, is the increasing prevalence of risk in almost every aspect of our lives. Whether real or imagined, we perceive greater exposure, increased likelihood and more severe consequences of already known risks whilst becoming aware of other risks previously unknown. FM Global (2007) concluded from their study of the views of 500 financial executives in Europe and America that most anticipated an increase in overall business risks in the foreseeable future. The top three risk areas featured global competition, supply chains and property-related risks. Individual organizations are continuously receiving information inputs identifying new risk sources, enhanced exposure to existing risks and escalating costs associated with compensation should such risks materialize. The emergence of risk management is an important response to such developments providing a contribution to most fields of management decision and control (e. g. Smallman, 1996; Giannakis et al., 2004). Supply Chain Risk Management (SCRM) represents the risk management response primarily to supply chain risks, although as will be seen later in the chapter, it has a much wider influence at the strategic enterprise risk level.
    • An emergent framework for supply chain risk management and performance measurement.

      Ritchie, Bob; Brindley, Clare; Nottingham Trent University (Springer, 2007)
      Changes in the shape of risk (ie sources, nature, triggers, scale, rapidity and severity of consequences) relating to supply chains pose challenges for risk management and the underpinning discipline domains such as Operations Research that have traditionally provided guidance and support. The aim is to evaluate these challenges, specifically in the context of supply chain risk management and to consider new approaches to support management. An overall Supply Chain Risk Management Framework is constructed, comprising five components risk drivers, risk management influencers, decision maker characteristics, risk management responses and performance outcomes. The focus is towards the risk management influencers, recognizing that other components have been investigated elsewhere in the operations literature. Four elements are identified within this risk management component, two conventional elements, rewards and risks, and two new elements, timescale and portfolio effects. An empirical case example is employed to illustrate these issues of risk management in the manufacturing sector and to evaluate the approaches employed to manage risk and performance. The conclusion drawn is that the proposed Supply Chain Risk Management Framework with the inclusion of the risk management influencers component provides a more robust description of the factors that affect the nature of the risk management responses in particular situations. This also demonstrates the need for the Operations Research discipline to evolve a more diverse set of risk management tools and approaches (ie both quantitative and qualitative) to effectively address the diversity of issues and contexts.
    • Employers and schools: how Mansfield is building a world of work approach

      Hutchinson, Jo; Dickinson, Berni; University of Derby, iCeGS (2014)
      There is a keen interest in encouraging employers to engage with schools so that young people can learn more about careers, understand the skills that employers are interested in, broaden their aspirations and be motivated to succeed. Employer engagement in schools in England however is increasingly fragmented because of a loss of brokering infrastructure. This article describes a partnership approach developed in Mansfield where a consortium of local schools has worked with their business community and public sector organisations. Together they have listened to what young people say they both want and need to know about careers and then responded by providing a strategic careers learning programme. The particular contribution of the Mansfield Learning Partnership which is wholly funded by the town’s secondary schools is detailed in the article alongside elaboration of the Mansfield Framework for Career Learning which provides a work experience programme and several imaginative opportunities for young people to engage in meaningful encounters with employers,