• A dinuclear ruthenium(II) phototherapeutic that targets duplex and quadruplex DNA

      Archer, Stuart; Raza, Ahtasham; Dröge, Fabian; Robertson, Craig C.; Auty, Alexander J; Chekulaev, Dimitri M; Weinstein, Julia; Keane, Theo; Meijer, Anthony J. H. M.; Haycock, John; MacNeil, Sheila; Thomas, Jim A; University of Sheffield (Royal Society of Chemistry, 2019-02-18)
      With the aim of developing a sensitizer for photodynamic therapy, a previously reported luminescent dinuclear complex that functions as a DNA probe in live cells was modified to produce a new isostructural derivative containing RuII(TAP)2 fragments (TAP = 1,4,5,8- tetraazaphenanthrene). The structure of the new complex has been confirmed by a variety of techniques including single crystal X-ray analysis. Unlike its parent, the new complex displays RuL-based 3MLCT emission in both MeCN and water. Results from electrochemical studies and emission quenching experiments involving guanosine monophosphate are consistent with an excited state located on a TAP moiety. This hypothesis is further supported by detailed DFT calculations, which take into account solvent effects on excited state dynamics. Cell-free steady-state and time-resolved optical studies on the interaction of the new complex with duplex and quadruplex DNA show that the complex binds with high affinity to both structures and indicate that its photoexcited state is also quenched by DNA, a process that is accompanied by the generation of the guanine radical cation sites as photo-oxidization products. Like the parent complex, this new compound is taken up by live cells where it primarily localizes within the nucleus and displays low cytotoxicity in the absence of light. However, in complete contrast to [{RuII(phen)2}2(tpphz)]4+, the new complex is therapeutically activated by light to become highly phototoxic toward malignant human melanoma cell line showing that it is a promising lead for the treatment of this recalcitrant cancer.
    • Directly coupled versus spectator linkers on diimine ptii acetylides—change the structure, keep the function

      Archer, Stuart A.; Keane, Theo; Delor, Milan; Bevon, Elizabeth; Auty, Alexander J.; Chekulaev, Dimitri; Sazanovich, Igor V.; Towrie, Michael; Meijer, Anthony J. H. M.; Weinstein, Julia A.; University of Sheffield; Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Didcot; University of California, Berkeley; Moscow Lomonosov State University, Russia (Wiley, 2017-12-27)
      Modification of light‐harvesting units with anchoring groups for surface attachment often compromises light‐harnessing properties. Herein, a series of [donor–acceptor–anchor] platinum(II) diimine (bis‐)acetylides was developed in order to systematically compare the effect of conjugated versus electronically decoupled modes of attachment of protected anchoring groups on the photophysical properties of light‐harvesting units. The first examples of “decoupled” phosphonate diimine PtII complexes are reported, and their properties are compared and contrasted to those of carboxylate analogues studied by a diversity of methods. Ultrafast time‐resolved IR and transient absorption spectroscopy revealed that all complexes have a charge‐transfer (CT) lowest excited state with lifetimes between 2 and 14 ns. Vibrational signatures and dynamics of CT states were identified; the assignment of electronic states and their vibrational origin was aided by TDDFT calculations. Ultrafast energy redistribution accompanied by structural changes was directly captured in the CT states. A significant difference between the structures of the electronic ground and CT excited states, as well as differences in the structural reorganisation in the complexes bearing directly attached or electronically decoupled anchoring groups, was discovered. This work demonstrates that decoupling of the anchoring group from the light‐harvesting core by a saturated spacer is an easy approach to combine surface attachment with high reduction potential and ten times longer lifetime of the CT excited state of the light‐absorbing unit, and retain electron‐transfer photoreactivity essential for light‐harvesting applications.
    • Criminal Lives 1780-1925: Punishing Old Bailey Convicts

      Allwork Larissa; Robert Shoemaker; Tim Hitchcock; AHRC Digital Panopticon (London Metropolitan Archives, 2017-12-11)
      Between 1700 and 1900 the British government stopped punishing the bodies of London’s convicts and increasingly sought to exile them and/or reform their minds. From hanging, branding and whipping the response to crime shifted to transportation and imprisonment. By the nineteenth century, judges chose between two contrasting forms of punishments: exile and forced labour in Australia, or incarceration in strictly controlled ‘reformatory’ prisons at home. This exhibition, based on material from London Metropolitan Archives and the AHRC funded Digital Panopticon research project, traces the impact of punishments on individual lives. It follows the men, women and children convicted in London from their crimes and trials through to their experiences of punishment and their subsequent lives.
    • Holocaust remembrance as ‘civil religion’: the case of the Stockholm Declaration.

      Allwork Larissa; University of Derby (Palgrave Macmillan, 2015-07)
    • How small suppliers deal with the buyer power in asymmetric relationships within the sustainable fashion supply chain.

      Talay, Cagri; Oxborrow, Lynn; Brindley, Clare; University of Derby; Nottingham Trent University (Elsevier, 2018-09-05)
      This research investigates the application of power by retail buyers and how fashion suppliers deal with the application of power within sustainable supply chains by focusing on the experience of six small fashion suppliers. Using an exploratory case methodology, the empirical findings demonstrate that power is applied by enforcing collaborations and extension of responsibilities of fashion suppliers. Small fashion suppliers deal with the application of power by providing process efficiency that supports the performance of economic, environmental and social sustainable goals of retail buyers within sustainable supply chains. This research contributes by linking the concept of power and sustainability within fashion supply chains. The paper concludes by evaluating the application of power by retail buyers and fashion suppliers' responses.
    • Interrogating Europe's voids of memory: trauma theory and Holocaust remembrance between the national and the transnational.

      Allwork Larissa; University of Derby (Journal of Fondazione CDEC, 2016-12-16)
      Reflecting on the research process for 'Holocaust Remembrance between the National and the Transnational' (HRNT), which explores and analyzes the significance of the European and global politics of the commemoration of the Holocaust and Nazi-era crimes in the late 1990s and 2000s, this article will consider the influence of the intellectual context of trauma theory for this book. It will offer a response to the increasing critique of Eurocentric trauma theory which developed during the period spent researching the Stockholm International Forum (SIF 2000) and the first decade of the Task Force for International Co-operation on Holocaust Education, Remembrance and Research (ITF, now the International Holocaust Remembrance Alliance, IHRA). This article will discuss how a revised trauma theory, along the lines suggested by scholars such as Joshua Pederson, continues to offer important possibilities for European studies of the histories and memories of the Holocaust in singular and comparative terms.
    • Homo‐ and heteroleptic phototoxic dinuclear metallo‐intercalators based on Ru II(dppn) intercalating moieties: synthesis, optical and biological studies.

      Saeed, Hiwa K.; Jarman, Paul J.; Archer, Stuart; Sreedharan, Sreejesh; Saeed, Ibrahim Q.; Mckenzie, Luke K.; Weinstein, Julia A.; Buurma, Niklaas J.; Smythe, Carl G. W.; Thomas, Jim A.; University of Sheffield; Cardiff University; Department of Chemistry; University of Sheffield; Sheffield S3 7HF UK; Department of Chemistry; University of Sheffield; Sheffield S3 7HF UK; Department of Chemistry; University of Sheffield; Sheffield S3 7HF UK; Department of Chemistry; University of Sheffield; Sheffield S3 7HF UK; Physical Organic Chemistry Centre; School of Chemistry; Cardiff University; Main Building, Park Place Cardiff CF10 3AT UK; Department of Chemistry; University of Sheffield; Sheffield S3 7HF UK; Department of Chemistry; University of Sheffield; Sheffield S3 7HF UK; Physical Organic Chemistry Centre; School of Chemistry; Cardiff University; Main Building, Park Place Cardiff CF10 3AT UK; Department of Biomedical Science; University of Sheffield; Sheffield S10 2TN UK; Department of Chemistry; University of Sheffield; Sheffield S3 7HF UK (Wiley, 2017-09-27)
      Using a new mononuclear “building block,” for the first time, a dinuclear RuII(dppn) complex and a heteroleptic system containing both RuII(dppz) and RuII(dppn) moieties are reported. The complexes, including the mixed dppz/dppn system, are 1O2 sensitizers. However, unlike the homoleptic dppn systems, the mixed dppz/dppn complex also displays a luminescence “switch on” DNA light‐switch effect. In both cisplatin sensitive and resistant human ovarian carcinoma lines the dinuclear complexes show enhanced uptake compared to their mononuclear analogue. Thanks to a favorable combination of singlet oxygen generation and cellular uptake properties all three of the new complexes are phototoxic and display potent activity against chemotherapeutically resistant cells.
    • Holocaust remembrance between the national and the transnational: the Stockholm International Forum and the first decade of the International Task Force.

      Allwork Larissa; University of Derby (Bloomsbury Academic, 2015-07-30)
      'Holocaust Remembrance Between the National and the Transnational' provides a key study of the remembrance of the Jewish Catastrophe and the Nazi-era past in the world arena. It uses a range of primary documentation from the restitution conferences, speeches and presentations made at the Stockholm International Forum of 2000 (SIF 2000), a global event and an attempt to mark a defining moment in the inter-cultural construction of the political and institutional memory of the Holocaust in the USA, Europe and Israel. Containing oral history interviews with delegates to the conference and contemporary press reports, this book explores the inter-relationships between global and national Holocaust remembrances.
    • Directing the path of light-induced electron transfer at a molecular fork using vibrational excitation.

      Delor, Milan; Archer, Stuart A.; Keane, Theo; Meijer, Anthony J. H. M.; Sazanovich, Igor V.; Greetham, Gregory M.; Towrie, Michael; Weinstein, Julia A.; University of Sheffield; Research Complex at Harwell (Springer, 2017-06-19)
      Ultrafast electron transfer in condensed-phase molecular systems is often strongly coupled to intramolecular vibrations that can promote, suppress and direct electronic processes. Recent experiments exploring this phenomenon proved that light-induced electron transfer can be strongly modulated by vibrational excitation, suggesting a new avenue for active control over molecular function. Here, we achieve the first example of such explicit vibrational control through judicious design of a Pt(II)-acetylide charge-transfer Donor-Bridge-Acceptor-Bridge-Donor “fork” system: asymmetric 13C isotopic labelling of one of the two -C≡C-bridges makes the two parallel and otherwise identical Donor→Acceptor electron-transfer pathways structurally distinct, enabling independent vibrational perturbation of either. Applying an ultrafast UVpump(excitation)-IRpump(perturbation)-IRprobe(monitoring) pulse sequence, we show that the pathway that is vibrationally perturbed during UV-induced electron-transfer is dramatically slowed down compared to its unperturbed counterpart. One can thus choose the dominant electron transfer pathway. The findings deliver a new opportunity for precise perturbative control of electronic energy propagation in molecular devices.
    • 13C or Not 13C: selective synthesis of asymmetric carbon-13-labeled platinum(II) cis-acetylides.

      Archer, Stuart A.; Keane, Theo; Delor, Milan; Meijer, Anthony J. H. M.; Weinstein, Julia A.; University of Sheffield; Department of Chemistry, University of Sheffield, Sheffield S3 7HF, United Kingdom; Department of Chemistry, University of Sheffield, Sheffield S3 7HF, United Kingdom; Department of Chemistry, University of Sheffield, Sheffield S3 7HF, United Kingdom; Department of Chemistry, University of Sheffield, Sheffield S3 7HF, United Kingdom; Department of Chemistry, University of Sheffield, Sheffield S3 7HF, United Kingdom (American Chemical Society, 2016-08-09)
      Asymmetric isotopic labeling of parallel and identical electron- or energy-transfer pathways in symmetrical molecular assemblies is an extremely challenging task owing to the inherent lack of isotopic selectivity in conventional synthetic methods. Yet, it would be a highly valuable tool in the study and control of complex light-matter interactions in molecular systems by exclusively and nonintrusively labeling one of otherwise identical reaction pathways, potentially directing charge and energy transport along a chosen path. Here we describe the first selective synthetic route to asymmetrically labeled organometallic compounds, on the example of charge-transfer platinum(II) cis-acetylide complexes. We demonstrate the selective 13C labeling of one of two acetylide groups. We further show that such isotopic labeling successfully decouples the two ν(C≡C) in the mid-IR region, permitting independent spectroscopic monitoring of two otherwise identical electron-transfer pathways, along the 12C≡12C and 13C≡13C coordinates. Quantum-mechanical mixing leads to intriguing complex features in the vibrational spectra of such species, which we successfully model by full-dimensional anharmonically corrected DFT calculations, despite the large size of these systems. The synthetic route developed and demonstrated herein should lead to a great diversity of asymmetric organometallic complexes inaccessible otherwise, opening up a plethora of opportunities to advance the fundamental understanding and control of light-matter interactions in molecular systems.
    • Let’s talk about peace over dinner: A cultural experience on memory, dislocation and the politics of belonging in Cyprus.

      Photiou, Maria; University of Derby (Intellect, 2017-10-01)
      On Saturday 9 April 2011, Greek Cypriot artist Lia Lapithi invited a group of eighteen guests to join her for her own version of the Last Supper, a four-course dinner that took place in the warehouse of an old furniture factory in Nicosia, Cyprus. The dinner was the first project of a series of orchestrated meals that Lapithi hosted and participated, where the theme was hospitality and politics in Cyprus.1 Significant to Lapithi’s work are autobiographical experiences and the geopolitical division of Cyprus. Born in 1963 in Cyprus, Lapithi experienced at a young age the traumatic 1974 division of Cyprus and the on-going occupation of half of the island by Turkey.2 This article explores the significance of an orchestrated meal for the politics of belonging and remembering in contemporary Cyprus. It analyses the representation of the event by Lapithi, who engaged in questioning the meaning of peace by serving food as a ‘medium’ and as a ‘symbol of peace’. It also explores Lapithi’s strategies in communicating her own memories and experiences as a refugee who can visit her family’s house over the occupied northern side of Cyprus only as a guest. Through the discussion of food/taste and visuals, this article will consider how the dinner acts as a means of catharsis for the participants and develops a critical understanding of contemporary events in Cyprus and our reaction to them.
    • The use of power in self and collective interests of retailers and small apparel suppliers’ relationships

      Talay, Cagri; Oxborrow, Lynn; Brindley, Clare; Nottingham Trent University; University of Derby (2017-07-07)
    • ‘Smart Cities’ – Dynamic sustainability issues and challenges for ‘old world’ economies: A case from the United Kingdom

      Stokes, Peter; Larson, Mitchell J.; Russell, Natalie; Adderley, Simon; Moore, Neil; Mathews, Martin; Smith, Simon M.; Lichy, Jessica; Scott, Peter; Ward, Tony; Brindley, Clare; Nottingham Trent University (2015-11-30)
      The rapid and dynamic rate of urbanization, particularly in emerging world economies, has resulted in a need to find sustainable ways of dealing with the excessive strains and pressures that come to bear on existing infrastructures and relationships. Increasingly during the twenty-first century policy makers have turned to technological solutions to deal with this challenge and the dynamics inherent within it. This move towards the utilization of technology to underpin infrastructure has led to the emergence of the term ‘Smart City’. Smart cities incorporate technology based solutions in their planning development and operation. This paper explores the organizational issues and challenges facing a post-industrial agglomeration in the North West of England as it attempted to become a ‘Smart City’. In particular the paper identifies and discusses the factors that posed significant challenges for the dynamic relationships residents, policymakers and public and private sector organizations and as a result aims to use these micro-level issues to inform the macro-debate and context of wider Smart City discussions. In order to achieve this, the paper develops a range of recommendations that are designed to inform Smart City design, planning and implementation strategies.
    • Organizational ambidexterity and the emerging-to-advanced economy nexus: Cases from private higher education operators in the United Kingdom

      Stokes, Peter; Moore, Neil; Smith, Simon M.; Larson, Mitchell J.; Brindley, Clare; De Montfort University; University of Chester; University of Winchester; University of Central Lancashire; Nottingham Trent University (2016-07)
      The expansion of advanced-market economy (AME) firms into emerging-market economies (EME) is well documented. In recent decades, EME companies have moved increasingly into AMEs, especially within the manufacturing sector, as well as other important AME sectors such as higher education (HE). However, the latter have received less attention. This study conducts an in-depth qualitative analysis of two EME HE organizations operating in the international HE sector in London. The argument applies a theoretical framework of organizational ambidexterity with which to examine the contexts and complexities in collaborations between EME-HE and AME-HE firms. These argument surfaces, inter alia: differing dynamics in relation to institutional frameworks and sense making; myopic internationalization; tensions regarding organizational reputation, place, partner, and product legitimization; unfulfilled reverse innovation and “explorative-pull” phenomena. Overall, the article develops novel conceptual frameworks of practical relevance, which inform EME-AME firm collaborative operations in AME settings. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    • Disintermediation in the apparel supply chain

      Oxborrow, Lynn; Brindley, Clare; Nottingham Trent University (Emerald Group Publishing Limited, 2014)
      Purpose The apparel industry has acted as a microcosm of global industrial change, exemplified by changes in structure, relationships and technologies. The purpose of this paper is to identify the risk drivers, the changing supply strategies and the relationships suppliers are developing or exiting from, notably because of the increasing power of retailers in the fast fashion sector. Design/methodology/approach The research adopts a qualitative, case study methodology of the Leicester (UK) based suppliers who operate in the fast fashion market. Findings Rich narrative data shows that the apparel supply chain has changed. The small and medium size enterprises (SMEs) have had more success in managing the upstream rather than the downstream, supported by their move towards a more design driven system. This willingness has been motivated by their wish to "own" the relationship with the buyer but this has not always resulted in greater power or returns and relationships have continued to be fractious. Research limitations/implications There is a lack of research on supply chains, especially, apparel supply chains that focus on reality rather than best practice. This paper addresses the power relationships that are exerted in the supply chain and the cultural aspects that influence them, which have hitherto lacked academic focus. Originality/value Adds empirical data to the theoretical work in the area, specifically, the shape of SME supply chains and the nature of risk in supplying fast fashion. It identifies the unequal power base of the supply chain and SMEs strategies for coping, or not, to some extent dependent on their culture.
    • Aligning the sustainable supply chain to green marketing needs: a case study

      Brindley, Clare; Oxborrow, Lynn; Nottingham Trent University (Elsevier, 2013-09-11)
      The research explores the challenges facing organisations in aligning sustainable procurement requirements and marketing needs and the attendant shifts in supply chain management practices. Whilst external influences are readily understood (e.g. regulation and customer demand), less is understood about the implications for suppliers trying to meet sustainable procurement requirements and the organisational challenges of aligning marketing with sustainable supply chain management. An exploratory case study of a UK University catering department has been undertaken, to explore the strategies, processes and relationships associated with synthesising sustainable supply chain and green marketing needs. The empirical findings illustrate the divergence between organisational perspectives on sustainability and procuring sustainable products with marketing demands. Thus, the findings extend the theoretical discussion on sustainable supply chains by providing empirical data based on real-life implementation and from this an emergent aligned supply chain model is proposed, which confirms two drivers for alignment, lean and resource efficient and local and seasonal contingent on market demand. The findings emphasise the benefits of a reverse information flow, the importance of intermediaries, and relationships in its fulfilment, while indicating the resurgence of a supply push of sustainable products into core markets. Future research directions are also posited.
    • Career transitions in marketing: from corporate life to self-employment

      Brindley, Clare; Foster, Carley; Wheatley, Dan; Nottingham Trent University (Praeger, 2014)
    • What the Dickens? Representations of women's entrepreneurship in the work of Charles Dickens

      Brindley, Clare; Nottingham Trent University (Irish Academy of Management, 2015)
    • Risk management in the digital economy

      Ritchie, Bob; Brindley, Clare; Nottingham Trent University (IGI Global, 2009)
    • Supply chain risk management and performance: a guiding framework for future development

      Ritchie, Bob; Brindley, Clare; Nottingham Trent University (Emerald Group Publishing Limited, 2007)
      Purpose The purpose of this paper is to examine the constructs underpinning risk management and explores its application in the supply chain context through the development of a framework. The constructs of performance and risk are matched together to provide new perspectives for researchers and practitioners. Design/methodology/approach The conceptual and empirical work in the supply chain management field and other related fields is employed to develop a conceptual framework of supply chain risk management (SCRM). Risk in the supply chain is explored in terms of risk/performance sources, drivers, consequences and management responses, including initial approaches to categorization within these. Two empirical cases are used to illustrate the application of the framework. Findings A new framework is presented that helps to integrate the dimensions of risk and performance in supply chains and provide a categorisation of risk drivers. Research limitations/implications SCRM is at an early stage of evolution. The paper provides a clarification of the dimensions and constructs within this field together with directions for future research and development. Practical implications The focus on performance in terms of efficiency and effectiveness linked to risk drivers and risk management responses provides insights to managing and measuring risk in supply chains. Originality/value The paper consolidates the work in an emerging strand of supply chain management. Two key challenges facing the research community are addressed, the ability to prescribe strategies to address particular risk drivers and the interaction of risk management and performance.