• Cultural determinants of competitiveness within SMEs

      Ritchie, Bob; Brindley, Clare; Nottingham Trent University (Emerald Group Publishing Limited, 2005)
      Purpose To develop a contingency framework that will assist in overcoming the concerns expressed about the ability to integrate and generalise findings from research studies into entrepreneurship and small? to medium?sized enterprises (SMEs). Design/methodology/approach A preliminary framework is developed as a contribution towards fulfilling the need for a means of connecting often, diverse studies into SMEs and entrepreneurship. The framework is evaluated initially in terms of previous studies in the field and subsequently employing results from the authors' own cross?national empirical studies involving ethnic, gender and cultural barriers to engaging in entrepreneurship. Findings The results from a series of empirical studies of experienced managers and aspiring managers are presented. The nature of the cultural differences and the implications for future research and policy making are evaluated. Issues such as the motivating and de?motivating factors associated with establishing and managing an SME are highlighted. Research limitations/implications The findings are used to initiate the development and formulation of a contingency framework of entrepreneurship, which identifies cultural factors and differences as significant contingency variables. Practical implications The importance of recognising the impact of cultural and gender differences on the development and application of policies and practices designed to stimulate and sustain entrepreneurship and enterprise is highlighted. This theoretical contribution should lead to more robust policy development. Originality/value The development of a contingency framework which addresses differences in the contextual circumstances in differing countries or regions in terms of culture, gender and ethnicity. Providing support for this framework based on the review of relevant literature and empirical evidence.
    • Effective management of supply chain risk and performance

      Ritchie, Bob; Brindley, Clare; Nottingham Trent University (Springer, 2009)
      A significant feature of the rapidly evolving business climate spurred on by significant technology shifts, innovation, communication technologies and globalization, is the increasing prevalence of risk in almost every aspect of our lives. Whether real or imagined, we perceive greater exposure, increased likelihood and more severe consequences of already known risks whilst becoming aware of other risks previously unknown. FM Global (2007) concluded from their study of the views of 500 financial executives in Europe and America that most anticipated an increase in overall business risks in the foreseeable future. The top three risk areas featured global competition, supply chains and property-related risks. Individual organizations are continuously receiving information inputs identifying new risk sources, enhanced exposure to existing risks and escalating costs associated with compensation should such risks materialize. The emergence of risk management is an important response to such developments providing a contribution to most fields of management decision and control (e. g. Smallman, 1996; Giannakis et al., 2004). Supply Chain Risk Management (SCRM) represents the risk management response primarily to supply chain risks, although as will be seen later in the chapter, it has a much wider influence at the strategic enterprise risk level.
    • An emergent framework for supply chain risk management and performance measurement.

      Ritchie, Bob; Brindley, Clare; Nottingham Trent University (Springer, 2007)
      Changes in the shape of risk (ie sources, nature, triggers, scale, rapidity and severity of consequences) relating to supply chains pose challenges for risk management and the underpinning discipline domains such as Operations Research that have traditionally provided guidance and support. The aim is to evaluate these challenges, specifically in the context of supply chain risk management and to consider new approaches to support management. An overall Supply Chain Risk Management Framework is constructed, comprising five components risk drivers, risk management influencers, decision maker characteristics, risk management responses and performance outcomes. The focus is towards the risk management influencers, recognizing that other components have been investigated elsewhere in the operations literature. Four elements are identified within this risk management component, two conventional elements, rewards and risks, and two new elements, timescale and portfolio effects. An empirical case example is employed to illustrate these issues of risk management in the manufacturing sector and to evaluate the approaches employed to manage risk and performance. The conclusion drawn is that the proposed Supply Chain Risk Management Framework with the inclusion of the risk management influencers component provides a more robust description of the factors that affect the nature of the risk management responses in particular situations. This also demonstrates the need for the Operations Research discipline to evolve a more diverse set of risk management tools and approaches (ie both quantitative and qualitative) to effectively address the diversity of issues and contexts.
    • ICT adoption by SMEs: implications for relationships and management

      Ritchie, Bob; Brindley, Clare; Nottingham Trent University (Wiley, 2005)
      A conceptual model of the changes in small and medium enterprise interfaces and relationships consequent on their adoption of information and communication technologies is developed and explored in this paper. Emphasis is placed on the implications for management, employees and working practices. Empirical evidence from two organisations is provided to illustrate the model and corroborate this new perspective.
    • The information-risk conundrum

      Ritchie, Bob; Brindley, Clare; Nottingham Trent University (Emerald Group Publishing Limited, 2001)
      Information technologies have been deliberately targeted towards enhancing database access, analytical powers and the communications capacity of marketers. The justification for these efforts has been based on the premise that more and better quality information will result in reduced uncertainty and improved risk perceptions in decision situations. This premiss is examined in the context of decision maker behaviour, drawing on empirical research involving 50 managers undertaking strategic analysis and decisions. The research methodology employed a computer?based simulation of a strategic decision situation, enabling the managers to access structured information databases to support their decision making. Concludes that the initial perceptions of uncertainty and risk relating to the decisions faced are unlikely to be modified irrespective of the quantity or quality of the information transmitted and processed by the decision maker. The evidence suggests that the decision maker may also construct their decision?taking behaviour to constrain the opportunity for new information to alter the initial perceptions and choices made.
    • Reducing risk in information search activities

      Ritchie, Bob; Brindley, Clare; Nottingham Trent University (IGI Global, 2004)
      This chapter proposes that the initial perceptions of uncertainty and risk relating to decision making are unlikely to be modified irrespective of the quantity or quality of the information transmitted and processed by the decision maker. It argues that initial risk perceptions and decisions are fairly robust even when confronted with contradictory information. The chapter begins by offering definitions of the key terms such as risk, uncertainty, and the components of the digital economy. The authors then provide an overview of risk assessment and associated management processes before moving onto an examination of the contribution of intelligence and information to risk resolution. A case scenario provides a practical illustration of the issues raised.
    • Risk assessment and relationship management: practical approach to supply chain risk management

      Ritchie, Bob; Brindley, Clare; Armstrong, Nick; Nottingham Trent University (Inderscience Enterprises, 2008)
      The literature suggests the need for incorporating the risk construct into the measurement of organisational performance, although few examples are available as to how this might be undertaken in relation to supply chains. A conceptual framework for the development of performance and risk management within the supply chain is evolved from the literature and empirical evidence. The twin levels of dyadic performance/risk management and the management of a portfolio of performance/risks is addressed, employing Agency Theory to guide the analysis. The empirical evidence relates to the downstream management of dealerships by a large multinational organisation. Propositions are derived from the analysis relating to the issues and mechanisms that may be employed to effectively manage a portfolio of supply chain performance and risks.
    • Risk management in the digital economy

      Ritchie, Bob; Brindley, Clare; Nottingham Trent University (IGI Global, 2009)
    • SMEs & the Internet: a comparative study - China and the UK.

      Ritchie, Bob; Brindley, Clare; Nottingham Trent University (Elgar, 2005)
    • Supply chain risk management and performance: issues and challenges

      Ritchie, Bob; Brindley, Clare; Nottingham Trent University (Springer, 2008)
    • Supply chain risk management and performance: a guiding framework for future development

      Ritchie, Bob; Brindley, Clare; Nottingham Trent University (Emerald Group Publishing Limited, 2007)
      Purpose The purpose of this paper is to examine the constructs underpinning risk management and explores its application in the supply chain context through the development of a framework. The constructs of performance and risk are matched together to provide new perspectives for researchers and practitioners. Design/methodology/approach The conceptual and empirical work in the supply chain management field and other related fields is employed to develop a conceptual framework of supply chain risk management (SCRM). Risk in the supply chain is explored in terms of risk/performance sources, drivers, consequences and management responses, including initial approaches to categorization within these. Two empirical cases are used to illustrate the application of the framework. Findings A new framework is presented that helps to integrate the dimensions of risk and performance in supply chains and provide a categorisation of risk drivers. Research limitations/implications SCRM is at an early stage of evolution. The paper provides a clarification of the dimensions and constructs within this field together with directions for future research and development. Practical implications The focus on performance in terms of efficiency and effectiveness linked to risk drivers and risk management responses provides insights to managing and measuring risk in supply chains. Originality/value The paper consolidates the work in an emerging strand of supply chain management. Two key challenges facing the research community are addressed, the ability to prescribe strategies to address particular risk drivers and the interaction of risk management and performance.