• Adoption of eco-advantage by SMEs: emerging opportunities and constraints

      Oxborrow, Lynn; Brindley, Clare; Nottingham Trent University (Emerald Group Publishing Limited, 2013)
      Purpose: Esty and Winston (2006) assert that businesses need to adopt 'eco-advantage'. This paper aims to explore the viability of SMEs achieving 'eco-advantage' by considering their understanding of sustainability issues, how they adopt and innovate in terms of sustainability and the benefits and obstacles they face. Methodology: The research approach is exploratory, comprised of 15 SME embedded cases based in the UK. The cases are participants in short interventions in sustainable product and process design as a part of a university knowledge transfer project, representing the overall case. Cases are based on interviews with company participants and collaborating academics, supplemented by documentary and observational evidence. Findings: The results build on the work on 'eco-advantage' (Esty and Winston, 2006), highlighting marketing, rather than compliance issues as a catalyst for change. The newly aware SME enters a development process which involves cumulative capabilities, gaining a nascent inner confidence, which includes espousing wider sustainable values and attempts at influencing internal and upstream practices in four dominant ways: use of alternative materials, enhancing recyclability (Sharma et al, 2010), local sourcing, and product to service shift (Maxwell and van der Vorst 2003), though few fully embrace strategic ecological and economic advantage. Obstacles include ephemerality of benefits (Shearlock et al, 2000) and practicalities of implementing internal and supply chain innovations.
    • Aligning the sustainable supply chain to green marketing needs: a case study

      Brindley, Clare; Oxborrow, Lynn; Nottingham Trent University (Elsevier, 2013-09-11)
      The research explores the challenges facing organisations in aligning sustainable procurement requirements and marketing needs and the attendant shifts in supply chain management practices. Whilst external influences are readily understood (e.g. regulation and customer demand), less is understood about the implications for suppliers trying to meet sustainable procurement requirements and the organisational challenges of aligning marketing with sustainable supply chain management. An exploratory case study of a UK University catering department has been undertaken, to explore the strategies, processes and relationships associated with synthesising sustainable supply chain and green marketing needs. The empirical findings illustrate the divergence between organisational perspectives on sustainability and procuring sustainable products with marketing demands. Thus, the findings extend the theoretical discussion on sustainable supply chains by providing empirical data based on real-life implementation and from this an emergent aligned supply chain model is proposed, which confirms two drivers for alignment, lean and resource efficient and local and seasonal contingent on market demand. The findings emphasise the benefits of a reverse information flow, the importance of intermediaries, and relationships in its fulfilment, while indicating the resurgence of a supply push of sustainable products into core markets. Future research directions are also posited.
    • Barriers to women achieving their entrepreneurial potential: women and risk

      Brindley, Clare; Nottingham Trent University (Emerald Group Publishing Limited, 2005)
      Purpose This paper provides a comprehensive summary of the academic literature with regard to risk and its role in the entrepreneurial experience of women. Entrepreneurial risk has an under?developed conceptual basis and distilling gender?specific aspects is difficult. Various academic disciplines have contributed to the topic of risk, e.g. economics, and often decision making is used to contextualise the topic. Though the literature does not always prove an association between the different facets of risk and entrepreneurship, there is general agreement that a number of factors, e.g. personal, political and social inter?relate to influence risk and subsequent behaviour. Design/methodology/approach Uses a desk?based approach to data collection. An overview of the main issues concerning risk and entrepreneurship is given to contexualise the gender aspects to be discussed, drawing on the extant literature. Findings The paper posits that an understanding of the gender aspects of risk is required if policy measures are to be constructive and help women overcome barriers and achieve their entrepreneurial potential. The conclusions drawn from the literature provide the foundations for a discussion of the likely policy measures that are required to encourage women entrepreneurs. Research limitations/implications A summary is provided of the research and information gaps that remain in terms of women entrepreneurship and risk with the aim of encouraging further research in the area. Originality/value Provides a comprehensive summary of the literature with regard to risk and the entrepreneurial experience of women, and discusses the likely policy measures required to encourage women entrepreneurs.
    • Career transitions in marketing: from corporate life to self-employment

      Brindley, Clare; Foster, Carley; Wheatley, Dan; Nottingham Trent University (Praeger, 2014)
    • Challenging the concept of risk in relation to women's entrepreneurship

      Humbert, Anne Laure; Brindley, Clare; European Institute for Gender Equality; Nottingham Trent University (Emerald Group Publishing Limited, 2015)
      Purpose This paper aims to challenge the myth of risk-averseness among women entrepreneurs and analyses risk in the context of gender. It explores risk perceptions and examines the relationship between the concept of risk and women's socially attributed roles. Design/methodology/approach This paper adopts a qualitative approach, where ten Irish women business owners were interviewed, that encouraged them to talk about their entrepreneurial experiences. The research design aimed to elicit data concerning how gender and the socio-economic context influenced risk. Findings Risk is shown as a gendered concept which needs to be widened to suit the experiences of women entrepreneurs and the influences of the gendered expectations of care dictated by the socio-economic environment. Practical implications Risk as a concept needs to be expanded to go beyond financial risk. The different types of risk encountered by women should be addressed by policy to promote a further growth of women-led enterprises and support those considering self-employment. Originality/value The paper develops an understanding of risk among women entrepreneurs in their socio-economic context. It challenges the viewpoint of seeing women entrepreneurs as risk-averse and thus leading to low-growth prospects for their business ventures.
    • Cultural determinants of competitiveness within SMEs

      Ritchie, Bob; Brindley, Clare; Nottingham Trent University (Emerald Group Publishing Limited, 2005)
      Purpose To develop a contingency framework that will assist in overcoming the concerns expressed about the ability to integrate and generalise findings from research studies into entrepreneurship and small? to medium?sized enterprises (SMEs). Design/methodology/approach A preliminary framework is developed as a contribution towards fulfilling the need for a means of connecting often, diverse studies into SMEs and entrepreneurship. The framework is evaluated initially in terms of previous studies in the field and subsequently employing results from the authors' own cross?national empirical studies involving ethnic, gender and cultural barriers to engaging in entrepreneurship. Findings The results from a series of empirical studies of experienced managers and aspiring managers are presented. The nature of the cultural differences and the implications for future research and policy making are evaluated. Issues such as the motivating and de?motivating factors associated with establishing and managing an SME are highlighted. Research limitations/implications The findings are used to initiate the development and formulation of a contingency framework of entrepreneurship, which identifies cultural factors and differences as significant contingency variables. Practical implications The importance of recognising the impact of cultural and gender differences on the development and application of policies and practices designed to stimulate and sustain entrepreneurship and enterprise is highlighted. This theoretical contribution should lead to more robust policy development. Originality/value The development of a contingency framework which addresses differences in the contextual circumstances in differing countries or regions in terms of culture, gender and ethnicity. Providing support for this framework based on the review of relevant literature and empirical evidence.
    • Disintermediation in the apparel supply chain

      Oxborrow, Lynn; Brindley, Clare; Nottingham Trent University (Emerald Group Publishing Limited, 2014-07-08)
      Purpose The apparel industry has acted as a microcosm of global industrial change, exemplified by changes in structure, relationships and technologies. The purpose of this paper is to identify the risk drivers, the changing supply strategies and the relationships suppliers are developing or exiting from, notably because of the increasing power of retailers in the fast fashion sector. Design/methodology/approach The research adopts a qualitative, case study methodology of the Leicester (UK) based suppliers who operate in the fast fashion market. Findings Rich narrative data shows that the apparel supply chain has changed. The small and medium size enterprises (SMEs) have had more success in managing the upstream rather than the downstream, supported by their move towards a more design driven system. This willingness has been motivated by their wish to "own" the relationship with the buyer but this has not always resulted in greater power or returns and relationships have continued to be fractious. Research limitations/implications There is a lack of research on supply chains, especially, apparel supply chains that focus on reality rather than best practice. This paper addresses the power relationships that are exerted in the supply chain and the cultural aspects that influence them, which have hitherto lacked academic focus. Originality/value Adds empirical data to the theoretical work in the area, specifically, the shape of SME supply chains and the nature of risk in supplying fast fashion. It identifies the unequal power base of the supply chain and SMEs strategies for coping, or not, to some extent dependent on their culture.
    • Eco-innovation in SMEs - drivers of a holistic process of change

      Oxborrow, Lynn; Brindley, Clare; Nottingham Trent University (ISDR Society, 2011-06-25)
      The paper aims to explore SMEs understanding of sustainability issues, how they adopt and innovate in terms of sustainability and the benefits and obstacles they face in developing, adopting and commercialising new products and processes. The concept of eco-innovation or developing 'new products and processes which provide customer and business value but significantly decrease environmental impacts' (James 1997) is therefore applied to the specialised context of UK SMEs, a context which impacts cumulatively on overall environmental sustainability (Tilley 1999). In particular the concept of ecoinnovation is researched in the context of SME capabilities and competences, and how these relate to the change process that emerges as a reaction to the drivers towards eco-innovation.
    • Effective management of supply chain risk and performance

      Ritchie, Bob; Brindley, Clare; Nottingham Trent University (Springer, 2009)
      A significant feature of the rapidly evolving business climate spurred on by significant technology shifts, innovation, communication technologies and globalization, is the increasing prevalence of risk in almost every aspect of our lives. Whether real or imagined, we perceive greater exposure, increased likelihood and more severe consequences of already known risks whilst becoming aware of other risks previously unknown. FM Global (2007) concluded from their study of the views of 500 financial executives in Europe and America that most anticipated an increase in overall business risks in the foreseeable future. The top three risk areas featured global competition, supply chains and property-related risks. Individual organizations are continuously receiving information inputs identifying new risk sources, enhanced exposure to existing risks and escalating costs associated with compensation should such risks materialize. The emergence of risk management is an important response to such developments providing a contribution to most fields of management decision and control (e. g. Smallman, 1996; Giannakis et al., 2004). Supply Chain Risk Management (SCRM) represents the risk management response primarily to supply chain risks, although as will be seen later in the chapter, it has a much wider influence at the strategic enterprise risk level.
    • An emergent framework for supply chain risk management and performance measurement.

      Ritchie, Bob; Brindley, Clare; Nottingham Trent University (Springer, 2007)
      Changes in the shape of risk (ie sources, nature, triggers, scale, rapidity and severity of consequences) relating to supply chains pose challenges for risk management and the underpinning discipline domains such as Operations Research that have traditionally provided guidance and support. The aim is to evaluate these challenges, specifically in the context of supply chain risk management and to consider new approaches to support management. An overall Supply Chain Risk Management Framework is constructed, comprising five components risk drivers, risk management influencers, decision maker characteristics, risk management responses and performance outcomes. The focus is towards the risk management influencers, recognizing that other components have been investigated elsewhere in the operations literature. Four elements are identified within this risk management component, two conventional elements, rewards and risks, and two new elements, timescale and portfolio effects. An empirical case example is employed to illustrate these issues of risk management in the manufacturing sector and to evaluate the approaches employed to manage risk and performance. The conclusion drawn is that the proposed Supply Chain Risk Management Framework with the inclusion of the risk management influencers component provides a more robust description of the factors that affect the nature of the risk management responses in particular situations. This also demonstrates the need for the Operations Research discipline to evolve a more diverse set of risk management tools and approaches (ie both quantitative and qualitative) to effectively address the diversity of issues and contexts.
    • Enabling the SME is sustainable procurement: a case study

      Oxborrow, Lynn; Brindley, Clare; Nottingham Trent University (Institute for Small Business and Entrepeurship, 2011)
    • Gambling over the Internet

      Brindley, Clare; Nottingham Trent University (IGI Global, 2006)
      Gambling providers have begun to exploit the Internet as a vehicle for marketing their products and services. This article discusses the increase in Internet gambling and how the gambling industry has exploited technology to make market gains. Gambling on the Internet is a billion-dollar industry, with online lotteries and pools generating more than half of the total market value (i.e., $1.66 billion). There is a plethora of gambling opportunities, such as casino games and online games, and horse and event betting, although inevitably some of the rules of the games have had to be adapted to operate via the new medium. The home-based nature of interactive gambling means that consumers are no longer restricted by opening hours, social status, or membership requirements, and are able to choose from a wide selection of gambling sites. The nature of the response by gambling organizations to the changes in consumer behavior has depended on the willingness of providers to become online providers, domestic and/or international legislation, and of course Internet service provision, all of which will differ depending on the gambling products offered.
    • Government intervention in women's entrepreneurship development: the Bumiputera craft industry

      Topimin, Salmah; Brindley, Clare; Foster, Carley; Nottingham Trent University (Institute for Small Business and Entrepeurship, 2015)
    • How small suppliers deal with the buyer power in asymmetric relationships within the sustainable fashion supply chain.

      Talay, Cagri; Oxborrow, Lynn; Brindley, Clare; University of Derby; Nottingham Trent University (Elsevier, 2018-09-05)
      This research investigates the application of power by retail buyers and how fashion suppliers deal with the application of power within sustainable supply chains by focusing on the experience of six small fashion suppliers. Using an exploratory case methodology, the empirical findings demonstrate that power is applied by enforcing collaborations and extension of responsibilities of fashion suppliers. Small fashion suppliers deal with the application of power by providing process efficiency that supports the performance of economic, environmental and social sustainable goals of retail buyers within sustainable supply chains. This research contributes by linking the concept of power and sustainability within fashion supply chains. The paper concludes by evaluating the application of power by retail buyers and fashion suppliers' responses.
    • ICT adoption by SMEs: implications for relationships and management

      Ritchie, Bob; Brindley, Clare; Nottingham Trent University (Wiley, 2005)
      A conceptual model of the changes in small and medium enterprise interfaces and relationships consequent on their adoption of information and communication technologies is developed and explored in this paper. Emphasis is placed on the implications for management, employees and working practices. Empirical evidence from two organisations is provided to illustrate the model and corroborate this new perspective.
    • The information-risk conundrum

      Ritchie, Bob; Brindley, Clare; Nottingham Trent University (Emerald Group Publishing Limited, 2001)
      Information technologies have been deliberately targeted towards enhancing database access, analytical powers and the communications capacity of marketers. The justification for these efforts has been based on the premise that more and better quality information will result in reduced uncertainty and improved risk perceptions in decision situations. This premiss is examined in the context of decision maker behaviour, drawing on empirical research involving 50 managers undertaking strategic analysis and decisions. The research methodology employed a computer?based simulation of a strategic decision situation, enabling the managers to access structured information databases to support their decision making. Concludes that the initial perceptions of uncertainty and risk relating to the decisions faced are unlikely to be modified irrespective of the quantity or quality of the information transmitted and processed by the decision maker. The evidence suggests that the decision maker may also construct their decision?taking behaviour to constrain the opportunity for new information to alter the initial perceptions and choices made.
    • The marketing of gambling on the Internet

      Brindley, Clare; Nottingham Trent University (Emerald Group Publishing Limited, 1999)
      It is estimated that gambling on the Internet will be worth as much as $3bn by 2001. Gambling via interactive technology is already underpinned by two recent changes in consumer behaviour. First, increasing familiarisation with interactive technology and second, by changes in the way the gambling market operates. These already changing behaviour patterns, signal the success drivers on which gambling on the internet can build. The implications of this new leisure consumption pattern are discussed and the paper concludes that the synergy between marketing gambling and technology will transform the production and consumption of gambling.
    • Organizational ambidexterity and the emerging-to-advanced economy nexus: Cases from private higher education operators in the United Kingdom

      Stokes, Peter; Moore, Neil; Smith, Simon M.; Larson, Mitchell J.; Brindley, Clare; De Montfort University; University of Chester; University of Winchester; University of Central Lancashire; Nottingham Trent University (2016-07-25)
      The expansion of advanced-market economy (AME) firms into emerging-market economies (EME) is well documented. In recent decades, EME companies have moved increasingly into AMEs, especially within the manufacturing sector, as well as other important AME sectors such as higher education (HE). However, the latter have received less attention. This study conducts an in-depth qualitative analysis of two EME HE organizations operating in the international HE sector in London. The argument applies a theoretical framework of organizational ambidexterity with which to examine the contexts and complexities in collaborations between EME-HE and AME-HE firms. These argument surfaces, inter alia: differing dynamics in relation to institutional frameworks and sense making; myopic internationalization; tensions regarding organizational reputation, place, partner, and product legitimization; unfulfilled reverse innovation and “explorative-pull” phenomena. Overall, the article develops novel conceptual frameworks of practical relevance, which inform EME-AME firm collaborative operations in AME settings. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    • Personalized relationship e-marketing and the small and medium sized enterprise

      Brindley, Clare; Nottingham Trent University (IGI Global, 2006)
      Many small businesses are beginning to adopt at least tactical solutions to enhance relationships between themselves and their customers. This chapter focuses on a UK-based marketing communications company which has developed an innovative personalized relationship e-marketing tool, utilizing mobile technology aimed at the SME sector. Current marketing practices, such as database marketing and CRM systems, are discussed in terms of SME adoption and whether the tool, Sign-Up.to is an effective replacement for established CRM systems. The authors conclude that while the case study company has developed a tool that will aid SMEs with their relationship marketing, the philosophy of relationship marketing must already be imbedded within the SME. The authors' intention is to illustrate how technology can be implemented in the SME sector and to explore how technology and marketing can help each other.
    • Reducing risk in information search activities

      Ritchie, Bob; Brindley, Clare; Nottingham Trent University (IGI Global, 2004)
      This chapter proposes that the initial perceptions of uncertainty and risk relating to decision making are unlikely to be modified irrespective of the quantity or quality of the information transmitted and processed by the decision maker. It argues that initial risk perceptions and decisions are fairly robust even when confronted with contradictory information. The chapter begins by offering definitions of the key terms such as risk, uncertainty, and the components of the digital economy. The authors then provide an overview of risk assessment and associated management processes before moving onto an examination of the contribution of intelligence and information to risk resolution. A case scenario provides a practical illustration of the issues raised.