Now showing items 1-20 of 169

    • Bullying in adolescent residential care: The influence of the physical and social residential care environment

      Sekol, Ivana; Faculty of Education, University of Osijek, Croatia (Springer, 2015-10-28)
      To date, no study examined possible contributions of environmental factors to bullying and victimization in adolescent residential care facilities. By testing one part of the Multifactor Model of Bullying in Secure Setting (MMBSS; Ireland in Int J Adolesc Med Health 24(1):63–68, 2012), this research examined the way the physical and social residential environment relates to bullying and victimization in adolescent residential care. Young people aged 11–21 (N = 272) from ten residential institutions in Croatia completed: (a) an anonymous self-reported bullying questionnaire; (b) the social residential environment questionnaire; and (c) the physical residential environment questionnaire. The results demonstrated that both bullies and victims reported having significantly lower levels of perceived peer support than other residents. Male bullies also reported significantly lower levels of their overall wellbeing within their facilities and were significantly more likely than non-bullies to perceive their facilities as having problems with cleanliness and food. Male victims were significantly younger than non-victims. Female victims reported lower levels of their overall wellbeing than non-victims as well as poorer relationship with staff. The results are discussed with reference to the relevant prison and schoolbased bullying literature and directions for future research are provided. Overall, the findings of this study are consistent with the part of the MMBSS (Ireland 2012) examined and provide initial support for the notion that the special nature of the physical and social residential environment may be important in explaining bullying in care.
    • Personal characteristics of bullying victims in residential care for youth

      Sekol, Ivana; Farrington, David; Faculty of Education, University of Osijek, Croatia; University of Cambridge (Emerald, 2016-04-11)
      This research examined some personal characteristics of victims of bullying in residential care for youth. The paper aims to discuss these issues. The results demonstrated that male and female victims lacked self-esteem, presented with neurotic personality traits and were likely to believe that bullying was just part of life in residential care. Female victims also presented with lower levels of agreeableness and conscientiousness, while male victims were young and had a history of victimisation during their previous placement, in school and at the beginning of their current placements.Victims in care might benefit from programmes addressing their low self-esteem, high neuroticism and attitudes approving of bullying. Male residential groups should not accommodate young boys together with older boys. New residents who have a history of victimisation during their previous placement and in school should be supervised more intensively but in a manner that does not increase their perception of being victimised.The present study is the first work that examines individual characteristics of bullying victims in care institutions for young people. As such, the study offers some insights on how to protect residential care bullying victims.
    • The role of radical economic restructuring in truancy from school and engagement in crime

      Farrall, stephen; Gray, Emily; Jones, Philip Mike; University of Derby (Oxford University Press, 2019-07-28)
      Of late, criminologists have become acutely aware of the relationship between school outcomes and engagement in crime as an adult. This phenomenon – which has come to be known as the ‘school-to-prison-pipeline’ – has been studied in North America and the UK, and requires longitudinal datasets. Typically, these studies approach the phenomenon from an individualist perspective and examine truancy in terms of the truants’ attitudes, academic achievement or their home-life. What remains unclear however is a consideration of a) how macro-level social and economic processes may influence the incidence of truancy, and b) how structural processes fluctuate over time, and in so doing produce variations in truancy rates or the causal processes associated with truancy. Using longitudinal data from two birth cohort studies, we empirically address these blind-spots and test the role of social-structural processes in truancy, and how these may change over time
    • Council house sales, homelessness and contact with the criminal justice system: Evidence from the NCDS and BCS70 birth cohorts.

      Farrall, Stephen; Gray, Emily; Jones, Phil; University of Derby (Elsevier, 2019-07-26)
      Focussing on the changes in sitting tenants’ right to buy their council house (introduced in the UK in 1980), we explore the long-term impact of this policy change upon the lives of UK citizens. Using two longitudinal studies of UK citizens born in 1958 and 1970, we exam how policies aimed at achieving one set of goals (providing families with their own homes, reducing the control of councils and weakening the Labour Party’s voting bloc) may have also altered experiences of housing, homelessness, and contact with the criminal justice system not just for those for whom the policies were initially designed (adults living in council owned properties in the 1980s) but also for subsequent generations (most typically their children). Our contribution examines how legislative changes may have altered the lives of citizens, and highlights some of the unintended consequences of the ‘right to buy’ in the UK. We are able to investigate what happens when systems which have previously been tightly regulated suddenly become much less well regulated. Our paper utilises ideas developed by life-course theorists and historical institutionalists in order to understand in more depth how radical policy changes may shape and alter the lives of citizens.
    • Religious minorities and freedom of religion or belief in the UK

      Weller, Paul; Coventry University; University of Derby; Regent's Park College, University of Oxford (Brill, 2018-03-27)
      By particular reference to the polity of the UK, this article discusses issues and options for groups identified as "religious minorities" in relation to issues of "religious freedom". It does so by seeking to ensure that such contemporary socio-legal discussions are rooted empirically in the full diversity of the UK's contemporary religious landscape, while taking account of (especially) 19th century (mainly Christian) historical antecedents. It argues that properly to understand the expansion in scope and substance of religious freedom achieved in the 19th century that account needs to be taken of the agency of the groups that benefited from this. Finally, it argues this history can be seen as a "preconfiguration" of the way in which religious minorities have themselves acted as key drivers for change in relevant 20th and 21st century UK law and social policy and could continue to do so in possible futures post-Brexit Referendum.
    • South Africa's two track approach to science diplomacy

      Masters, Lesley; University of Johannesburg, South Africa (University of the Free State Press, 2016-06)
      While debate continues around the usefulness of the concept of Science Diplomacy, in practice international scientific relations are already facilitating diplomatic engagement, and diplomatic relations are supporting international scientific engagement. This interaction takes place in the context of the current global knowledge structure where industrialised or developed states are the “producers” of knowledge, and developing states the “consumers”. With science, technology and innovation integral to addressing transnational challenges, this article considers the expanding body of literature, which is primarily from developed states, highlighting the shortfall in understanding the role of developing states in science diplomacy. The article then considers developments in South Africa’s science diplomacy, arguing that Pretoria demonstrates a two-track approach; one that reflects the state’s pursuit of international recognition as a “producer” and exporter of knowledge at the centre of the global knowledge structure; and the second, where a shortfall in capacity and resources has increasingly seen the state as a “consumer” or importer of knowledge in meeting domestic priorities.
    • Theological ethics and interreligious relations: A baptist christian perspective

      Weller, Paul; University of Derby; Coventry University; Regent's Park College, University of Oxford (Stamfli Verlag, Switzerland, 2014-01-01)
    • South Africa’s parliamentary diplomacy and the “African agenda”

      Masters, Lesley; Nganje, Fritz; University of Johannesburg, South Africa (Brill, 2017-02-06)
    • The EU–South Africa strategic partnership: From bilateral to multilateral forums and the strategic value for South Africa

      Masters, Lesley; University of Johannesburg, South Africa (Taylor and Francis, 2017-07-06)
      Strategic partnerships are seen as a means of elevating bilateral relations between two countries, or in the case of the European Union (EU), relations between an intergovernmental organisation and its 10 identified strategic partners. There is a growing body of analysis on the value of these strategic partnerships for the two partner states, yet just what role this partnership has within wider multilateral forums is an area for further discussion. This article explores the role that the EU–South Africa Strategic Partnership plays in shaping engagement between the bilateral partners in multilateral contexts. In reviewing the partnership over the course of its first decade, the article argues that South Africa has increasingly acknowledged its potential value. However, further interrogation on how to manage the complex intersection between bilateral and multilateral relations is called for if the strategic partnership is to be used to optimal effect as a tool of foreign policy. © 2017 The South African Institute of International Affairs.
    • South Africa's post-apartheid foreign policy making and the role of the president

      Masters, Lesley; University of Johannesburg, South Africa (University of South Africa Press, 2017-01)
      Who makes South Africa’s foreign policy? This has been an area of continuous discussion following South Africa’s transition to democracy in 1994. In the foreign policy analysis discourse, considerable attention has been given to the role of the head of state and government in shaping foreign policy, particularly in developed countries. With South Africa’s own President assuming a predominant role in foreign policy, there is a need for further reflection on the impact of this position in foreign policy decision making. Using existing theory and current analysis this article highlights the different approaches adopted by South Africa’s first four democratically elected presidents, from the international statesmanship of Mandela, to the micro-management of Mbeki, the stabiliser role of Motlanthe and the consensus-building to absent leader position of Jacob Zuma. Drawing on Joseph Nye’s discussion of the characterisation of transformational and transactional leadership, this analysis traces the approaches of the different Presidents in shaping South Africa’s foreign policy and international engagement.
    • Religion and belief, equality and inequality in UK higher education

      Weller, Paul; Hooley, Tristram; University of Derby (Routledge, 2016-07-22)
    • IBSA's trilateral constellation and its development fund: Valuable pioneers in development cooperation?

      Masters, Lesley; Landsberg, Chris; University of Johannesburg, South Africa (Taylor and Francis, 2015-10-16)
      With a changing geopolitical landscape following the Northern-induced global financial meltdown, stagnation on global governance reform and failure to reach agreement on issues ranging from trade (Doha Development Round) to climate change (United Nations Convention on Climate Change), the India–Brazil–South Africa (IBSA) Dialogue Forum finds itself at the proverbial crossroads. At this point, with no summit having taken place since 2011, the future of IBSA is uncertain in part because the three IBSA partners have allowed ambivalence and lack of leadership to hold sway. Yet the current fluidity in the international environment has ironically meant that IBSA is more relevant and needed than ever before. IBSA is well placed to play a vital role in arresting the current trajectory of the global governance architecture, particularly when it comes to concerns of development. As this article argues, it is in the area of development cooperation that IBSA has found its niche in demonstrating the possibilities that development diplomacy and South–South cooperation avail, while challenging traditional norm conceptions when it comes to the future of international development financial institutions. Yet the question remains as to how this will be used going forward, as there is little strategic discussion between the trilateral partners on the future of development diplomacy and the IBSA Fund.
    • Building bridges? South African foreign policy and trilateral development cooperation

      Masters, Lesley; Institute for Global Dialogue, UNISA (Taylor and Francis, 2014-08-08)
      As questions concerning international development climb the international agenda, so countries find themselves drawn into a burgeoning number of negotiations on issues ranging from the future shape and direction of the post-2015 development agenda to ‘aid effectiveness’ and international development cooperation. Moving from the position of a ‘beneficiary’ state in the traditional donor–recipient aid hierarchy, South Africa is looking to define its own niche within the wider development diplomacy context as a development partner. This paper provides an assessment of South Africa’s evolving approach towards international development cooperation, with a particular focus on trilateral development cooperation, and what this means for Pretoria’s foreign policy in bridging the divide between developed and developing country positions within the international development regime.
    • Neoliberalisation, fast policy transfer and the management of labor market services

      Nunn, Alex; University of Derby (Taylor & Francis, 2019-06-27)
      Neoliberalism has been a core concern for IPE for several decades, but is often ill-defined. Research offering greater definitional clarity stresses the role of contingent and local level factors in diverse processes of neoliberalisation. This paper contributes to that literature, addressing a surprising gap in critical IPE knowledge; the management practices by which pressures to activate the unemployed and to make them more competitive, are implemented. The paper suggests that performance management, is significant as both a depoliticising policy coordination mechanism and a highly politicised policy implementation practice. The paper invokes a scalar-relational approach which sees the pressure to innovate and compete at lower scales as driven by the political economy of competitiveness at the system scale. The paper reports on research undertaken within the empirical frame of EU meta-governance, showing how performance management is part of lower-scale attempts to adapt to system-scale pressures. It is neoliberalising in both form and content. It concludes by showing that while performance management may be a significant component of neoliberalisation there is scope for engagement and contestation motivated by egalitarian ideals. Critical IPE scholars interested in contesting neoliberalisation should therefore engage with the political economy of management practice as well as policy design.
    • Syrian foreign policy. The alliances of a regional power.

      Belcastro, Francesco; University of Derby (Routledge, 2019-07-01)
      Syrian Foreign Policy analyses the pivotal alliances of Damascus using a theoretical framework based on neoclassical realism, an approach which incorporates domestic factors succh as the role of ideology within a realist perspective. Covering Syria’s relations with Egypt, Iraq, Jordan, Saudi Arabia, Iran and the Soviet Union, it asks the question: what led to the formation of each alliance and what has caused either its break up or its continuation? Belcastro seeks to answer this questions, but also reflects on the country’s foreign policy today and its broader implications for Syria and the whole region.
    • Money Laundering

      Hicks, David C; Graycar, Adam; University of Derby (Cambridge University Press, 2019-06)
      International crime and justice is an emerging field that covers crime and justice from a global perspective. This book introduces the nature of international and transnational crimes, theoretical foundations to understanding the relationship between social change and the waxing and waning of the crime opportunity structure, globalization, migration, culture conflicts, and the emerging legal frameworks for their prevention and control. It presents the challenges involved in delivering justice and international cooperative efforts to deter, detect, and respond to international and transnational crimes; and the need for international research and data resources to go beyond anecdote and impressionistic accounts to testing and developing theories to build the discipline that bring tangible improvements to the peace, security and well-being of the globalizing world. A timely analysis of a complex subject of international crime and justice for students, scholars, policymakers and advocates who strive for the pursuit of justice for millions of victims.
    • Classroom challenges for teaching about and addressing anti-semitism in the OSCE region

      Weller, Paul; Foster, I; University of Derby (University of Derby, 2019-05)
      This report, produced by Professor P. Weller and Dr. I. Foster of the University of Derby, United Kingdom, is based on two phases of research conducted in six OSCE participating States—Belgium, Germany, Greece, Moldova, Poland and the United States of America—between December 2016 and May 2018. The research took various forms, including focus groups, interviews, questionnaires, observations, as well as desk research based on published literature. A detailed bibliography of works consulted is provided in an appendix to the report. The report provides background information about the history of anti-Semitism in each of the countries studied, along with recent statistics concerning reported anti-Semitic incidents in each country. The report does not compare how significant an issue anti-Semitism is in these participating States; rather, it presents an overall pattern of evidence to identify a range of key challenges with at least some relevance for teaching about and addressing anti-Semitism in classroom contexts across the OSCE region as a whole, and thus provides the basis for recommendations that could inform the development of teacher resources to meet those challenges in any OSCE participating State, not just the ones studied for this report. The research has made clear that, while the incidence, frequency and forms of anti-Semitism may vary over time, it remains a reality in OSCE participating States. However, there is relatively little published research on anti-Semitism among young people as such, and even less that is specifically focused on teaching about anti-Semitism and/or addressing it in classroom contexts. Therefore, the primary research that informs this report makes a clear contribution to understanding anti-Semitism as it currently exists in a number of OSCE countries, albeit subject to certain limitations in terms of methodology, which are noted in the report’s appendices.
    • Watching the watchers: oversight channels and the democratisation of South Africa's foreign policy.

      Masters, Lesley; University of Derby (Africa Institute of South Africa/Pretoria., 2019)
      In looking at changes in the processes and practice of oversight and in South Africa's foreign policy, this chapter argues that there has been both successes and constraints in pursuit of democratic transparency and accountability. The chapter highlights the importance of linkage between the formal and informal levels in promoting oversight. This has come under pressure during the second Zuma administration (2014-2018), reflecting a growing gap that resulted in a slide away from the democratisation of foreign policy.
    • Do employment services need to be neoliberal

      Nunn, Alex; University of Derby (Routledge, 2018-12)
      There is a divide in the literature on labour market governance between that which sees ‘workfare’ policies as part of a process of neoliberalisation and a more practice-oriented literature that is concerned with the effectiveness and outcomes of ‘active labour market policies’. This chapter engages with these separate but related literatures to make the argument that the trajectory of policy and practice reform in employment services has been inherently neoliberalising over recent decades, and that there is scope to repurpose some of the processes and tools that have been involved in this to more inclusive ends. The chapter proposes that the materialist feminist concept of social reproduction offers one lens through which a more inclusive approach to employment service delivery and management can be viewed. The discussion is tailored to the ways that both national policymakers, local and lower-level implementers and progressive activists may promote a more inclusive form of employment service through their ‘policy work’.
    • Penal populism and the public thermostat: crime, public punitiveness, and public policy.

      Jennings, Will; Farrall, Stephen; Gray, Emily; Hay, Colin; University of Sheffield; Department of Politics & International Relations; University of Southampton; Centre for Criminological Research; University of Sheffield; Centre for Criminological Research; University of Sheffield; Sciences Po; Paris (Wiley, 2016-06-02)
      This article makes the case that feedback processes in democratic politics—between crime rates, public opinion, and public policy—can account for the growth of penal populism in Britain. It argues that the public recognize and respond to rising (and falling) levels of crime, and that in turn public support for being tough on crime is translated into patterns of imprisonment. This contributes to debates over the crime–opinion–policy connection, unpacking the dynamic processes by which these relationships unfold at the aggregate level. This uses the most extensive data set ever assembled on aggregate opinion on crime in Britain to construct a new over‐time measure of punitive attitudes. The analysis first tests the thermostatic responsiveness of punitive attitudes to changes in recorded crime rates as well as self‐reported victimization, and then examines the degree to which changes in mass opinion impact on criminal justice policy.