• Building Recovery Capital through Community Engagement: A Hub and Spoke Model for Peer-based Recovery Support Services in England

      Best, David; Higham, David; Pickersgill, Ged; Higham, Kerrie; Hancock, Richard; Critchlow, Theresa; University of Derby; The Well (Informa UK Limited, 2020-07-02)
      There is a growing evidence base that recovery is contagious and its primary mechanism of spread is through peer champions and groups. This paper examines a model of peer-based recovery support services from Cumbria, England, that uses a hub and spoke method to create visible recovery while actively engaging with and supporting community growth. Three case studies are used to illustrate how peer engagement, using the principles of community connection and assertive linkage, can offer core resources to a local community. The key conclusion is that sustainability of recovery communities rests on effective community engagement and meeting the needs of those communities.
    • Measuring capital in active addiction and recovery: the development of the strengths and barriers recovery scale (SABRS)

      Best, David; Vanderplasschen, Wouter; Nisic, Mulka; University of Derby; University of Ghent, Henri Dunantlaan 2, B-9000, Ghent; Belgium Recovered Users Network, Rue Archimede 17, 1000, Brussels, Belgium (Springer Science and Business Media LLC, 2020-06-16)
      The international Life In Recovery (LiR) surveys have provided an important message to the public and policy makers about the reality of change from addiction to recovery, consistently demonstrating both that there are marked gains across a range of life domains and that the longer the person is in recovery the better their recovery strengths and achievements. However, to date, no attempt has been made to quantify the Life In Recovery scales and to assess what levels of change in removing barriers and building strengths is achieved at which point in the recovery journey. The current study undertakes a preliminary analysis of strengths and barriers from the Life in Recovery measure, using data from a European survey on drug users in recovery (n = 480), and suggests that the instrument can be edited into a Strengths And Barriers Recovery Scale (SABRS). The new scale provides a single score for both current recovery strengths and barriers to recovery. The resulting data analysis shows that there are stepwise incremental changes in recovery strengths at different recovery stages, but these occur with only very limited reductions in barriers to recovery, with even those in stable recovery typically having at least two barriers to their quality of life and wellbeing. Greater strengths in active addiction are associated with greater strengths and resources in recovery. As well as demonstrating population changes in each of the domains assessed, the current study has shown the potential of the Life In Recovery Scale as a measure of recovery capital that can be used to support recovery interventions and pathways.
    • Putting ‘Justice’ in recovery capital: Yarning about hopes and futures with young people in detention

      Hamilton, Sharynne Lee; Maslen, Sarah; Best, David; Freeman, Jacinta; O'Donnell, Melissa; Reibel, Tracy; Mutch, Raewyn; Watkins, Rochelle; University of Western Australia; University of Canberra; et al. (Queensland University of Technology, 2020-01-20)
      Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander young people are over-represented in Australian youth detention centres and the justice system. In contrast to deficit-focused approaches to health and justice research, this article engages with the hopes, relationships and educational experiences of 38 detained youth in Western Australia who participated in a study of screening and diagnosis for fetal alcohol spectrum disorder. We report on a qualitative study that used a ‘social yarning’ approach. While the participants reported lives marred by substance use, crime, trauma and neurodevelopmental disability, they also spoke of strong connections to country and community, their education experiences and their future goals. In line with new efforts for a ‘positive youth justice’ and extending on models of recovery capital, we argue that we must celebrate success and hope through a process of mapping and building recovery capital in the justice context at an individual and institutional level.
    • Recovery capital pathways: Modelling the components of recovery wellbeing

      Cano, Ivan; Best, David; Edwards, Michael; Lehman, John; Sheffield Hallam University; Florida Association of Recovery Residences, United States (Elsevier BV, 2017-09-28)
      In recent years, there has been recognition that recovery is a journey that involves the growth of recovery capital. Thus, recovery capital has become a commonly used term in addiction treatment and research yet its operationalization and measurement has been limited. Due to these limitations, there is little understanding of long-term recovery pathways and their clinical application. We used the data of 546 participants from eight different recovery residences spread across Florida, USA. We calculated internal consistency for recovery capital and wellbeing, then assessed their factor structure via confirmatory factor analysis. The relationships between time, recovery barriers and strengths, wellbeing and recovery capital, as well as the moderating effect of gender, were estimated using structural equations modelling. The proposed model obtained an acceptable fit (χ2 (141, N = 546) = 533.642, p < 0.001; CMIN/DF = 3.785; CFI = 0.915; TLI = 0.896; RMSEA = 0.071). Findings indicate a pathway to recovery capital that involves greater time in residence (‘retention’), linked to an increase in meaningful activities and a reduction in barriers to recovery and unmet needs that, in turn, promote recovery capital and positive wellbeing. Gender differences were observed. We tested the pathways to recovery for residents in the recovery housing population. Our results have implications not only for retention as a predictor of sustained recovery and wellbeing but also for the importance of meaningful activities in promoting recovery capital and wellbeing.
    • Building addiction recovery capital through online participation in a recovery community

      Bliuc, Ana-Maria; Best, David; Iqbal, Muhammad; Upton, Katie; Western Sydney University; Sheffield Hallam University; Monash University; Job, Friends and Houses, UK (Elsevier BV, 2017-09-30)
      This study examines how online participation in a community of recovery contributes to personal journeys of recovery. It investigates whether recovery capital building – as indicated by increased levels and quality of online social interactions – and markers of positive identity development predict retention in a recovery program designed around fostering community involvement for early stage recovery addicts. It was predicted that online participation on the group's Facebook page and positive identity development are associated to retention in the program. To map how participants interact online, social network analysis (SNA) based on naturally occurring online data (N = 609) on the Facebook page of a recovery community was conducted. Computerised linguistic analyses evaluated sentiment of the textual data (capturing social identity markers). Linear regression analyses evaluated whether indicators of recovery capital predict program retention. To illustrate the findings in the context of the specific recovery community, presented are two case studies of key participants who moved from the periphery to the centre of the social network. By conducting in-depth interviews with these participants, personal experiences of engagement in the online community of group members who have undergone the most significant changes since joining the community are explored. Retention in the program was determined by a) the number of comment 'likes' and all ‘likes' received on the Facebook page; b) position in the social network (degree of centrality); and c) linguistic content around group identity and achievement. Positive online interactions between members of recovery communities support the recovery process through helping participants to develop recovery capital that binds them to groups supportive of positive change.
    • Estimating a treatment effect on recidivism for correctional multiple component treatment for people in prison with an alcohol use disorder in England

      Sondhi, Arun; Leidi, Alessandro; Best, David; Therapeutic Solutions (Addictions) Ltd, London, UK; Statistical Services Centre, Reading, UK; University of Derby (Springer Science and Business Media LLC, 2020-10-15)
      There is an emerging literature on the impact of correctional substance abuse treatment (SAT) on reoffending for people in prison with substance misuse issues. This study estimates a pathway effect for people in prison receiving multiple component treatments for an alcohol use disorder (AUD) to reduce reoffending by applying treatment effect estimation techniques for observational studies. Treatment groups comprised pharmacological treatments, psychosocial interventions (PSIs) and interventions that incorporate Risk Need Responsivity (RNR) programming. RNR compliant treatment matches treatment dose to the risk of reoffending, targets criminogenic need and is tailored to a person’s learning style. Multiple treatment effect estimators are provided for people in prison diagnosed with an AUD in England when compared to a derived control group for: Pharmacological treatment only; RNR compliant treatment and PSIs. The outcomes for RNR compliant treatment suggest a lower recidivism rate compared to the control group. Pharmacological only treatment results in a statistically significant higher level of reoffending relative to the control group. The creation of a universal system of ‘equivalence of care’ framed within a public health context in English correctional SAT may have had an unintended consequence of diluting approaches that reduce recidivism. There is an opportunity to develop an integrated, cross-disciplinary model for correctional SAT that unites public health and RNR compliant approaches.
    • From victimisation to restorative justice: developing the offer of restorative justice

      Shapland, Joanna; Burn, Daniel; Crawford, Adam; Gray, Emily; University of Sheffield; University of Leeds; University of Derby (Eleven International Publishing, 2020-06)
      Restorative justice services have expanded in England and Wales since the Victim’s Code 2015. Yet evidence from the Crime Survey for England and Wales shows that in 2016-2017 only 4.1 per cent of victims recall being offered such a service. This article presents the evidence from an action research project set in three police forces in England and Wales, which sought to develop the delivery of restorative justice interventions with victims of adult and youth crime. We depict the complexity intrinsic to making an offer of restorative justice and the difficulties forces experienced in practice, given the cultural, practical and administrative challenges encountered during the course of three distinct pilot projects. Points of good practice, such as institutional buy-in, uncomplicated referral processes and adopting a victim-focused mindset are highlighted. Finally, we draw the results from the different projects together to suggest a seven-point set of requirements that need to be in place for the offer of restorative practice to become an effective and familiar process in policing.
    • Gülen on dialogue

      Sleap, Frances; Shener, Oemer; Weller, Paul; University of Derby (Centre for Hizmet Studies, 2014-05)
      This booklet is about the thought and practice espoused and practised by Fethullah Gülen and the Hizmet movement. Fethullah Gülen is one of the most important Muslim scholars of our time for whom dialogue is not just about overcoming problems of our globalising world but is necessitated by our very humanity and his Islamic faith. Therefore, dialogue is an ever present and underlying theme for Gülen in addition to being a particular area of thought and practice that he seeks to promote and develop. What is significant about Gülen, however, is that he is not just a scholar and thinker but also a doer who has inspired millions to think and act alongside him in what has now emerged as a civil society movement known as the Hizmet movement. As pointed out by editor Paul Weller, "Gülen does not teach a “liberal” or “modernist” version of Islam. Rather, his teaching offers a robust renewal of Islam that is engaged with the contemporary world. It is rooted in a deep knowledge of authentically Islamic sources." The fact that Gülen bases his ideas and thought (and by extension, the movement its practice) on authentically Islamic sources is significant at a number of levels – not least because it demonstrates how Muslims can engage and respond to modern ideas, culture and society while remaining true to their identity. This booklet provides a short biography of Gülen’s life in relation to his dialogue efforts and then goes on to study the main features and characteristics of his dialogue thought such as: love, tolerance, empathetic acceptance, positive action, and humility. It then explores how Gülen’s notion of dialogue, dialogically developed and practised by the Hizmet movement, is now being put into practice in different parts of the world. The section on practice concludes with a list of the twelve ‘dialogue principles’ developed by UK registered charity the Dialogue Society from Gülen’s teachings and the Hizmet movement’s practice.
    • Brexit: A colonial boomerang in a populist world

      Weller, Paul; University of Derby; Coventry University; Regent's Park College, Oxford University (2019)
      This article argues that there are important connections between what is happening in Brexit and matters with which people in the Two Thirds World have long experience. It posits that a serious understanding of the roots of the Brexit crisis requires an analytical engagement with the cross-currents that swirl between the UK's global imperial and colonial inheritance and some of the key trends and issues arising from the highly varied, ambiguous, but also irresistible contemporary forces of globalisation resulting from what the British historian Arnold Toynbee called “the annihilation of distance”. ‘Brexit’ has shaken up political configurations and complacency about what English politicians for too long have tended to refer to in an unconsciously culturally and politically assimilationist way as “the nation” when, as a matter of both historical fact and contemporary reality, the present UK state is a specific configuration of nations within a single state that was created as part of an overall “internal” trajectory of a colonial and imperial enterprise that was rolled out into the wider world. If this analysis is accepted then it is not surprising that issues relating both to Scotland and to Northern Ireland have been playing a very big role in the present Brexit crisis. The published article is an abridged form of an unpublished longer paper on "Roots, Routes, and Times of Decision: Brexit, Populisms, Colonialism and Imperialism in Global Perspective", which is downloadable open access from https://pure.coventry.ac.uk/ws/portalfiles/portal/23840319/Roots_Routes_and_Times_of_Decision_long_form_article.pdf. Finally, the article argues that it is likely that those of us who live and work in the UK will need to call in aid against our temptation to despair, the analytical, spiritual and practical resources that sisters and brothers from the ‘Two Thirds world’ have developed over several centuries of understanding the destructive phenomena of colonialism and imperialism, and in identifying some possible ways to overcome them.
    • Tackling religion or belief-related harassment and hate incidents: a guide for higher education providers

      Aune, Kristin; Cheruvallil-Contractor, Sariya; Osmond, Jane; Peacock, Lucy; Weller, Paul; Coventry University; University of Derby; University of Oxford (Coventry University, 2020)
      Higher education is not just a context for formal, curricula-based learning. Students also learn from their wider university experiences, as they meet and interact with people from different backgrounds, beliefs and values. The university and college experience helps students become people who respect the social diversity around them and thrive in religiously diverse and multicultural environments. Higher education providers have a duty to provide safe and secure environments for formal and informal learning. An important aspect of this is to act proactively in order, as far as possible, to prevent harassment and hate incidents and to provide mechanisms for dealing with them if they occur. This guidance document focuses specifically on religion or belief-related harassment and hatred and is informed by the ‘Tackling religion-based hate crime on the multi-faith campus’ project, carried out at Coventry University as one of 11 projects funded by the Office for Students (OfS) within its Catalyst initiative to tackle religion-based hate crime and support student safety and wellbeing. This guidance was developed in consultation with the other 10 projects, Advance HE (the Higher Education sector charitable body) and the Church of England’s Education Office (with expertise and responsibility for a large number of university chaplains). The guidance helps to unpack the sometimes complex terminologies, categories and legal distinctions relevant to work in this area. It offers advice on how higher education providers can set up and promote an effective reporting system for incidents of religion or belief-harassment and hate. This can then inform institutional action and/or referral to external agencies such as the police. It offers an example that higher education providers can interpret and apply in ways that suit their contexts.
    • Learning from experience, leading to engagement: lessons from belieforama for a Europe of religion and belief diversity

      Weller, Paul; University of Derby (Peeters, 2017)
      This paper takes as its starting point a description and analysis of a concrete training programme and community of practice (Belieforama-http://www. belieforama.eu) that seeks to address and embody a focus on lived experience and narratives, while going on to identify some lessons that might be drawn from this. Belieforama includes a generic training that addresses Religious Diversity and Anti-Discrimination; specific trainings on Overcoming Islamophobia, on Overcoming Antisemitism, and on Reconciling Religion, Gender and Sexual Orientation; and, finally, on Facilitation Skills and Taking Action. Over 2,000 people have taken part. It has won prizes for quality adult learning from the European Commission's Lifelong Learning Programme, and also the BMW Group's First Prize for Intercultural Commitment. Its approach was developed with input from both "religious" and "non-religious" organisations and people. It has been tested in a variety of national, language and other contexts. It works by drawing, in an interactive and inclusive way, on the lived experience and narrative of participants, aiming to bring them into better personal consciousness and also to take responsibility for action. This article highlights the learning reported by participants in Belieforama and discusses this with reference to wider potential lessons for a Europe of religion and belief diversity as well as specific recommendations relating to the European Union.
    • Christian-Muslim and Muslim-Christian dialogue initiatives, movements and organisation

      Weller, Paul; University of Derby (Routledge, 2017-08-14)
      Since the emergence of Islam as a religion with global presence, dialogue between Christians and Muslims can be found in the common history of the relationships between these religions along, of course, with other modalities ranging from tolerance and parallelism through to pressure and violence. The focus of this chapter is not so much on the more general shape of Christian–Muslim relations as found in and between the historical societies informed by these religious traditions or on the theologically interpretive or sociologically descriptive and analytical aspects of these relations which other chapters in this book discuss. Rather, it highlights contemporary examples of specific collective forms for this relationship as manifested particularly in terms of ‘intentional’ movements, organisations and initiatives as both constituted by and concerned with dialogue between Christians and Muslims. Reference is also made to some initiatives, organisations and movements that encompass Christian–Muslim dialogue within a broader set of relationships – and especially those that involve Muslims, Christians and Jews. Space constraints dictate that what is described and discussed is necessarily selective but hopefully be illustrative in grounding the chapter’s analysis and evaluative discussion in examples from across a number of contexts.
    • Religion and belief-related hate incidents in higher education: a research and evaluation report

      Aune, Kristin; Peacock, Lucy; Cheruvallil-Contractor, Sariya; Weller, Paul; Coventry University (Coventry University, 2019)
      The research report is informed by the findings of two surveys, both of which were available both online and on paper. The surveys aimed to recruit as many Coventry University students as were interested in participating, including distance learning students, across all of its campuses. The baseline survey - which secured 612 useable responses - aimed at understanding Coventry University students’ attitudes to, direct experiences of, and experiences of witnessing hate incidents related to religion or belief, irrespective of whether or not they are themselves religious or subscribe to a particular belief system. The follow-up survey (which secured 286 responses) aimed to assess the impact of the project, including of the religion and other harassment case manager’s work, in raising the visibility of religion or belief hate crime and hate crime reporting. While the numbers involved in the surveys are too small for statistically reliable conclusions to be drawn, the results taken across the two surveys have indicative value.
    • Critical dialogues: Dialogue and conflict resolution - special issue

      Mustafa, Demir; Dunn, Deborah; Keyes, Simon; Ramsbotham, Oliver; Shener, Oemer; Weller, Paul; Coventry University; University of Derby; Regent's Park College, Oxford University (The Dialogue Society, 2019)
      This special issue addresses dialogue as a means of conflict resolution under the title of ‘Critical Dialogues: Dialogue and Conflict Resolution.’ As a tool of conflict resolution, dialogue can take on many different shapes and can be moulded to respond to each conflict. In some cases, it becomes a tent that gives shelter to both sides, creating an environment of peace and security; in some other cases, it becomes a ship that saves the parties from the results of the conflict. In all these shapes and forms, dialogue constructs an aura facilitating parties to settle their incompatible differences. The special issue contains 15 papers critically addressing the role of dialogue/s in resolution of different types/forms of conflicts, from military to inner (psychological and psychosocial) conflicts of individuals. It highlights four themes related to the concept of dialogue which are: 1. Intercultural Dialogue and Conflict; 2. Dialogue, Conflict Resolution and Peacebuilding; 3. Dialogue, Conflict and Education; and 4. Dialogue and Conflict in a Changing World. The aim of the collection is that papers and the critical application of relevant theories will help to provide new and useful insights for theorists and practitioners of Conflict Resolution and contribute to peace building efforts.
    • Muslims in the UK

      Weller, Paul; Cheruvallil-Contractor, Sariya; University of Derby (Springer, 2014-11-27)
      Muslims in the United Kingdom (UK) are diverse and heterogeneous and include different ethnicities, ‘races’, classes and identities. Britain’s colonial history (including in Muslim majority lands), years of migration, and the growth of indigenous white Muslim communities has meant that the British Muslim population is a mosaic of the global Muslim ummah. Therefore the questions that logically precede the writing of this chapter, namely: ‘who is a British Muslim?,’ or ‘what does it mean to be a Muslim in Britain,’ are necessarily complex ones which require nuanced and detailed answers, but which inevitably entail the privileging of particular aspects of these groups—their ‘Muslimness’, as well as to a certain extent, their ‘Britishness’—from within the multiple identifications to which they may subscribe.
    • Underpinning prosociality: Age related performance in theory of mind, empathic understanding, and moral reasoning

      Spenser, Karin; Bull, Ray; Betts, Lucy; Winder, Belinda; University of Derby; Nottingham Trent University (Elsevier BV, 2020-09-06)
      This paper investigates the idea that Theory of Mind (ToM), empathic understanding and moral reasoning are linked, and together contribute to prosocial behaviour. All three cognitive processes are explored in adolescents (aged 14–17 years), young-adults (aged 18–24 years) and middle-adults (aged 25–55). A statistically significant age-related difference was found on all measures between the adolescent group and the middle-adult group. Except for verbal ToM, all measures detected a statistically significant age-related difference between the adolescent group and the young adult group. However, except for verbal and visual ToM, no statistically significant age-related difference was found between the young-adult and middle-adult groups. A small to medium positive association was found between each of the five measures. These findings suggest that beyond adolescence ToM, empathic understanding, and moral reasoning might be improved which could be useful to researchers and practitioners interested in the later enhancement of prosociality in older individuals.
    • Religion and belief, discrimination and equality in England and wales religion and belief, discrimination and equality in England and Wales: interim findings and emergent themes

      Weller, Paul; Contractor, Sariya; University of Derby (2012-09-05)
      Issues around discrimination and equality in religion or belief are sensitive and highly contested, involving freedom of conscience and speech; religious activity in community and public life; employer and service provider responsibilities. They connect with understandings of religion, social policy and the law. Put alongside issues of gender and sexual orientation, there has often been tension and conflict. The “Religion and Belief, Discrimination and Equality in England and Wales: Theory, Policy and Practice (2000-2010)” research project is in its final year. It aims to be a benchmark study, including comparison with results of 1999-2001 research on “Religious Discrimination in England in Wales”. The completed research includes a national questionnaire survey of religious organisations and fieldwork among religious, public, private and voluntary sector groups (including focus groups with the “non-religious”). Review of legal cases and policy developments continues while a review on religious discrimination evidence was published in 2011 by the Equality and Human Rights Commission (http://www.equalityhumanrights.com/uploaded_files/research/research_report_73_religious_discrimination.pdf). At the conference it will be possible to present some provisional findings and emergent themes which will then be tested further during Autumn 2012 in a series of Knowledge Exchange Workshops with practitioners from the public, private, voluntary, religion and belief, and legal sectors.
    • Religion and belief, discrimination and equality in England and wales religion and belief, discrimination and equality in England and Wales: interim findings and emergent themes

      Weller, Paul; Contractor, Sariya; University of Derby (AHRC/ESRC Religion and Society Research Programme Podcasts, 2012-09-05)
      Issues around discrimination and equality in religion or belief are sensitive and highly contested, involving freedom of conscience and speech; religious activity in community and public life; employer and service provider responsibilities. They connect with understandings of religion, social policy and the law. Put alongside issues of gender and sexual orientation, there has often been tension and conflict. The “Religion and Belief, Discrimination and Equality in England and Wales: Theory, Policy and Practice (2000-2010)” research project is in its final year. It aims to be a benchmark study, including comparison with results of 1999-2001 research on “Religious Discrimination in England in Wales”. The completed research includes a national questionnaire survey of religious organisations and fieldwork among religious, public, private and voluntary sector groups (including focus groups with the “non-religious”). Review of legal cases and policy developments continues while a review on religious discrimination evidence was published in 2011 by the Equality and Human Rights Commission (http://www.equalityhumanrights.com/uploaded_files/research/research_report_73_religious_discrimination.pdf). At the conference it will be possible to present some provisional findings and emergent themes which will then be tested further during Autumn 2012 in a series of Knowledge Exchange Workshops with practitioners from the public, private, voluntary, religion and belief, and legal sectors.
    • Controversies as a lens on change

      Weller, Paul; University of Derby; Weller, P., and Winter., N. (2012). ‘Controversies as a lens on change’ [Podcast]. 16 February. Available at: http://www.religionandsociety.org.uk/publications/podcasts/show/paul_weller_controversies_as_a_lens_on_change. (AHRC/ESRC Religion and Society Research Programme Podcasts, 2012-02-16)
      “Controversies as a lens on change” is the title of the opening chapter of Religion and Change in Modern Britain (published Feb 2012 by Routledge). In this podcast Norman Winter is in conversation with one of the joint authors of this chapter, Paul Weller. Professor Weller has worked in the field of inter-faith and multi-faith studies at the University of Derby for over 20 years. He is Principal Investigator on Religion and Society project Religion and Belief, Discrimination and Equality in England and Wales: Theory, Policy and Practice (2000-2010). The co-writer of this chapter was Malory Nye, the Principal of the Al-Maktoum College of Higher Education in Dundee. In this chapter the authors view highly-publicised arguments and conflicts as markers of underlying trends, revealing the changing concerns about religion which have engaged the public from the Second World War to the present. Paul Weller talks about the changing nature of the media which has also contributed to how those conflicts and concerns have been portrayed, especially with the advent of new media which have brought new immediacy and interactivity. The chapter moves forward in time. In the early part of the period the Christian Church and its legacy were still dominant, and arguments often revolved around deviation from that tradition, for instance in the 1963 publication of “Honest to God”, or expressions of anxiety about cults and new religious movements. Debate and dispute regarding other major world faiths gradually gained prominence. In the 1970s, local residents in Hertfordsire opposed the establishment of a Hindu place of worship at Bhaktivedanta Manor. Then in 1989, some time after its original publication, Salman Rushdie’s novel “The Satanic Verses” sparked highly-publicised outrage among Muslims, with TV images of book-burning. This was fuelled further when the supreme leader of Iran, the Ayatollah Khomeini, pronounced Rushdie to be an apostate, and a bounty was put upon his death. More recent controversies have revealed further conflicts between rights and freedoms, both within faiths and between religion and society as a whole. There have been public arguments about Islamic dress and Islamist teaching. The play “Behzti” (2004) and the BBC2 screening of “Jerry Springer the Opera” (2005) provoked strong movements of opposition. New legal protections and rights, for instance in services offered to gay couples, prompted conservative Christian opposition. The chapter also describes the political and media discussion of the “failure of multiculturalism”.
    • The clash of civilisations thesis and religious responses

      Weller, Paul; University of Derby (Fatih University, 2010-12-25)
      The article describes key aspects of Samuel Huntington’s “Clash of Civilizations” thesis. It acknowledges the way in which that thesis has picked up on some key changes in relation to the role of religion in public life and, especially, in international relations. But it also critiques the thesis for its “essentializing” and “bloc” approach to cultures and societies, arguing that such an approach does not take sufficient account of the differences and sometimes fault-lines and conflicts within societies and cultural groups. For what might characterise appropriate religiously informed responses to Huntington’s thesis, the article proposes an approach based on four “keynotes” of “modesty”, “integrity”, “realism” and “distinctiveness”.