• Measuring capital in active addiction and recovery: the development of the strengths and barriers recovery scale (SABRS)

      Best, David; Vanderplasschen, Wouter; Nisic, Mulka; University of Derby; University of Ghent, Henri Dunantlaan 2, B-9000, Ghent; Belgium Recovered Users Network, Rue Archimede 17, 1000, Brussels, Belgium (Springer Science and Business Media LLC, 2020-06-16)
      The international Life In Recovery (LiR) surveys have provided an important message to the public and policy makers about the reality of change from addiction to recovery, consistently demonstrating both that there are marked gains across a range of life domains and that the longer the person is in recovery the better their recovery strengths and achievements. However, to date, no attempt has been made to quantify the Life In Recovery scales and to assess what levels of change in removing barriers and building strengths is achieved at which point in the recovery journey. The current study undertakes a preliminary analysis of strengths and barriers from the Life in Recovery measure, using data from a European survey on drug users in recovery (n = 480), and suggests that the instrument can be edited into a Strengths And Barriers Recovery Scale (SABRS). The new scale provides a single score for both current recovery strengths and barriers to recovery. The resulting data analysis shows that there are stepwise incremental changes in recovery strengths at different recovery stages, but these occur with only very limited reductions in barriers to recovery, with even those in stable recovery typically having at least two barriers to their quality of life and wellbeing. Greater strengths in active addiction are associated with greater strengths and resources in recovery. As well as demonstrating population changes in each of the domains assessed, the current study has shown the potential of the Life In Recovery Scale as a measure of recovery capital that can be used to support recovery interventions and pathways.
    • From victimisation to restorative justice: developing the offer of restorative justice

      Shapland, Joanna; Burn, Daniel; Crawford, Adam; Gray, Emily; University of Sheffield; University of Leeds; University of Derby (Eleven International Publishing, 2020-06)
      Restorative justice services have expanded in England and Wales since the Victim’s Code 2015. Yet evidence from the Crime Survey for England and Wales shows that in 2016-2017 only 4.1 per cent of victims recall being offered such a service. This article presents the evidence from an action research project set in three police forces in England and Wales, which sought to develop the delivery of restorative justice interventions with victims of adult and youth crime. We depict the complexity intrinsic to making an offer of restorative justice and the difficulties forces experienced in practice, given the cultural, practical and administrative challenges encountered during the course of three distinct pilot projects. Points of good practice, such as institutional buy-in, uncomplicated referral processes and adopting a victim-focused mindset are highlighted. Finally, we draw the results from the different projects together to suggest a seven-point set of requirements that need to be in place for the offer of restorative practice to become an effective and familiar process in policing.
    • Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19): Forecast of an emerging urgency in Pakistan

      Chaudhry, Rabia M; Hanif, Asif; Chaudhary, Muhammad; Minhas, Sadia; Mirza, Khalid; Asif, Tahira; Gilani, Syed A; Kashif, Muhammad; University of Lahore, Pakistan; University of Derby; et al. (Cureus, Inc., 2020-05-28)
      Novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a global challenge due to little available knowledge and treatment protocols. Thus, there is a great need for collecting data related to COVID-19 from all around the world. Hence, we conducted this study, collecting daily data on COVID-19, to map the epidemiology outbreak and forecast its trajectory for May 2020. The data was collected from the officially released reports of the National Institute of Health (NIH), Pakistan, and the World Health Organization (WHO). The analysis was done using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) version 23 (IBM Corp., Armonk, NY), and forecasting was done using a simple moving average in time series modeler/expert modeler. The purpose of this study is to draw the attention of international, as well as national, governing bodies to the rapidly rising number of COVID-19 cases in Pakistan, and the urgency of evaluating the efficacy of the currently implemented strategy against COVID-19. According to this study, there is now an alarming increase in the number of COVID-19 patients in Pakistan, despite a contained spread in the beginning. The predicted number of COVID-19 cases can go over 35,000 by the end of May 2020. It is crucial for governing bodies, administrators, and researchers to re-evaluate the current situation, designed policies, and implemented strategies.
    • The cross-country transmission of credit risk between sovereigns and firms in Asia

      Yiling, Zha; David, Power; Nongnuch, Tantisantiwong; University of Derby; University of Dundee; Nottingham Trent University (Elsevier, 2020-05-17)
      This paper uses Credit Default Swap (CDS) data for Asian reference entities to examine cross-country credit risk spillover effects between sovereigns and firms. Data for three East Asian countries (China, Japan and South Korea) over the period 2009-2018 are analysed. We analyse changes in the CDS spreads of a sovereign debtor and those of a foreign firm via a bivariate GARCH-full-BEKK model; thus, spillovers in mean spread changes as well as in volatility are considered. The main findings indicate that strong credit risk interdependence exists between the East Asian countries given that credit shocks from a common creditor such as Japan appear to spill over to the other two Asian nations. Compared to their non-financial counterparts, financial institutions are more sensitive than non-financial firms to changes in the credit risk of a foreign sovereign debtor; financial institutions such as banks may hold debt of foreign sovereigns which makes their CDSs sensitive to this source of credit risk.
    • Violence and the crime drop

      Ganpat, Soenita; Garius, Laura; Andromachi, Tseloni; Tilley, Nick; University of Derby; Nottingham Trent University; University College London (Sage, 2020-05-15)
      According to the Crime Survey for England and Wales, violence fell dramatically between 1995 and 2013/14. To improve understanding of the fall in violent crime, this study examines long-term crime trends in England and Wales over the past two decades, by scrutinizing the trends between (a) stranger and acquaintance violence (b) severity of violence, (c) age groups, and (d) sexes. It draws on nationally-representative, weighted data from the Crime Survey for England and Wales, and examines prevalence, incidence and crime concentration trends. The overall violence fall was driven by a decline in the victimisation of young individuals and/or males, perpetrated by acquaintances since 1995. Stranger and acquaintance violence followed different trajectories, with the former beginning to drop post 2003/04. Falls in both stranger and acquaintance violence incidence rates were led by fewer victims over time. Counting all incidents reported by the same victim (instead of capping at five incidents) significantly affects trends in stranger violence but not in acquaintance violence In relation to the distributive justice within the crime drop, this study provides unique evidence of equitable falls in acquaintance violence but inequitable falls in stranger violence. These findings highlight the need to examine violence types separately and point to a number of areas for future research.
    • The effects of local socio-political events on group cohesion in online far-right communities

      Bliuc, Ana-Maria; Betts, John M.; Faulkner, Nicholas; Vergani, Matteo; Chow, Rui Jie; Iqbal, Muhammad; Best, David; University of Dundee; Monash University, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia; Deakin University, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia; et al. (Public Library of Science (PLoS), 2020-03-30)
      In recent years, the reach and influence of far-right ideologies have been extended through online communities with devastating effects in the real world. In this research, we examine how far-right online communities can be empowered by socio-political events that are significant to them. Using over 14 years of data extracted from an Australian national sub-forum of a global online white supremacist community, we investigate whether the group cohesion of the community is affected by local race riots. Our analysis shows that the online community, not only became more cohesive after the riots, but was also reinvigorated by highly active new members who joined during the week of the riots or soon after. These changes were maintained over the longer-term, highlighting pervasive ramifications of the local socio-political context for this white supremacist community. Pre-registered analyses of data extracted from other white supremacist online communities (in South Africa and the United Kingdom) show similar effects on some of the indicators of group cohesion, but of reduced magnitude, and not as enduring as the effects found in the context of the Australian far-right online community.
    • Examining the association between childhood cognitive ability and psychopathic traits at age 48

      Kavish, Nick; Bergstrøm, Henriette; Narvey, Chelsey; Piquero, Alex R.; Farrington, David P.; Boutwell, Brian B.; Sam Houston University; University of Derby; The University of Texas at Dallas; The University of Texas at Dallas; et al. (American Psychological Association, 2020-03-01)
      Despite early theorists suggesting that psychopathic traits are associated with higher intelligence, meta-analytic work has found that global psychopathy scores are actually negatively related to intelligence, albeit weakly. Furthermore, it was reported in the same meta-analytic work that the various dimensions of psychopathy were differentially related to intelligence. Importantly, virtually all of the research to date has relied on cross-sectional associations. The current study examined whether intelligence scores (verbal comprehension, non-verbal IQ, and a global intelligence composite) at age 8 were associated with psychopathy scores at age 48 in a sample of white, urban males from London (analytical n = 292). Results suggested a significant, but weak, inverse association between intelligence and the affective, lifestyle, and antisocial facets of psychopathy and a nonsignificant association with the interpersonal facet, as assessed by the Psychopathy Checklist: Screening Version. These findings contribute to the growing body of evidence suggesting that psychopathy, as conceptualized in most modern models, is either very weakly inversely related to, or simply not a correlate of intelligence.
    • Police misconduct, protraction and the mental health of accused police officers

      McDaniel, John L.M.; Moss, Kate; Pease, Ken; Singh, Paramjit; University of Wolverhampton; University of Derby (Routledge, 2020-02-25)
      The chapter describes findings from a research project carried out in collaboration with one UK police force. The project was designed to examine and understand the force’s welfare practices towards officers accused of misconduct and the impact of prolonged misconduct investigations on the mental health and well-being of police officers, specifically police officers who were subsequently exonerated. The aim was to identify new opportunities for mental health support, points of avoidable delay, demotivation and embitterment, and stress-reducing possibilities throughout the misconduct process, and to produce a simple and clear evidence-based set of recommendations for improvement.
    • Conflict narratives, action frames, and engagement in reconciliation efforts among community activists in Northern Ireland.

      Rafferty, Rachel; University of Derby (American Psychological Association (APA), 2020-02)
      Reconciliation involves a sustained change in how groups perceive and interact with one another, at all levels of society. However, in many conflict-affected societies, only a small minority of individuals work actively toward this goal and it is not clearly understood how motivations to engage in reconciliation efforts can become more widespread. This study investigates the conflict narratives and action frames of activists in a conflict-affected society, and explores how these relate to different degrees of engagement in reconciliation efforts. In-depth interviews were conducted with 27 community activists in Northern Ireland in 2014; 14 were strongly engaged in reconciliation efforts and 13 had limited or no engagement in reconciliation efforts. Thematic analysis of the interview transcripts revealed that reconciliation activists articulated conflict narratives and action frames that differed markedly from those articulated by community activists who have little or no engagement in reconciliation efforts. These findings contribute to a better understanding of the role of interpretative processes, such as narratives and framing, in alternatively supporting or reducing individuals’ motivations to work toward social reconciliation in a conflict-affected society. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2020 APA, all rights reserved)
    • Behavioural thatcherism and nostalgia: tracing the everyday consequences of holding thatcherite values

      Farrall, Stephen; Gray, Emily; Jones, Phillip Mike; Hay, Colin; University of Derby; University of Sheffield (Palgrave, 2020-01-21)
      With the passing of time and the benefit of hindsight there is, again, growing interest in Thatcherism – above all in its substantive and enduring legacy. But, to date at least, and largely due to data limitations, little of that work has focussed on tracing the behavioural consequences, at the individual level, of holding Thatcherite values. That oversight we seek both to identify more clearly and to begin to address. Deploying new survey data, we use multiple linear regression and structural equation modelling to unpack the relationship between ‘attitudinal’ and ‘behavioural’ Thatcherism. In the process we reveal the considerably greater behavioural consequences of holding neo-liberal, as distinct from neo-conservative, values whilst identifying the key mediating role played by social, political and economic nostalgia. We find that neo-liberal values are positively associated with Behavioural Thatcherism, whilst neo-conservative values are negatively associated with Behavioural Thatcherism. In exploring the implications we also reveal some intriguing interaction effects between economic nostalgia and neo-conservative values in the centre-left vote for Brexit. In the conclusion we reflect on the implications of these findings for our understanding of the legacy of Thatcherism and, indeed, for Brexit itself.
    • Putting ‘Justice’ in recovery capital: Yarning about hopes and futures with young people in detention

      Hamilton, Sharynne Lee; Maslen, Sarah; Best, David; Freeman, Jacinta; O'Donnell, Melissa; Reibel, Tracy; Mutch, Raewyn; Watkins, Rochelle; University of Western Australia; University of Canberra; et al. (Queensland University of Technology, 2020-01-20)
      Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander young people are over-represented in Australian youth detention centres and the justice system. In contrast to deficit-focused approaches to health and justice research, this article engages with the hopes, relationships and educational experiences of 38 detained youth in Western Australia who participated in a study of screening and diagnosis for fetal alcohol spectrum disorder. We report on a qualitative study that used a ‘social yarning’ approach. While the participants reported lives marred by substance use, crime, trauma and neurodevelopmental disability, they also spoke of strong connections to country and community, their education experiences and their future goals. In line with new efforts for a ‘positive youth justice’ and extending on models of recovery capital, we argue that we must celebrate success and hope through a process of mapping and building recovery capital in the justice context at an individual and institutional level.
    • A comparative study on social service sector workers' working conditions

      Lee, Sung-Hee; University of Derby (Korea Institute for Health and Social Affairs, 2020-01)
      This study aims to examine the characteristics of the social service labor market through the empirical analysis of international comparative perspectives on the social service labor market and to seek policy directions for improving the labor market in Korea. Theoretically discuss the relationship between welfare system and social service labor market and empirically analyze caring policy. Examine working conditions and wage decisions of social service workers from a time and space perspective. LIS data is not the continuous time series data, but 4th (1995), 5th (2000), 6th (2004), 7th (2007), 8th (2007), 9th (2013). ) And 10th order (2016), so we plan to examine the temporal flow through the order data of the main points. In the same vein, we want to analyze the wage level and determinants of workers in the social service industry and to read the implications of the Korean social service labor market from a comparative social policy perspective.
    • Understanding radicalisation: issues for practitioners, communities and the state

      Henry, Philip M.; University of Derby (Palgrave MacMillan, 2020)
    • Tackling religion or belief-related harassment and hate incidents: a guide for higher education providers

      Aune, Kristin; Cheruvallil-Contractor, Sariya; Osmond, Jane; Peacock, Lucy; Weller, Paul; Coventry University; University of Derby; University of Oxford (Coventry University, 2020)
      Higher education is not just a context for formal, curricula-based learning. Students also learn from their wider university experiences, as they meet and interact with people from different backgrounds, beliefs and values. The university and college experience helps students become people who respect the social diversity around them and thrive in religiously diverse and multicultural environments. Higher education providers have a duty to provide safe and secure environments for formal and informal learning. An important aspect of this is to act proactively in order, as far as possible, to prevent harassment and hate incidents and to provide mechanisms for dealing with them if they occur. This guidance document focuses specifically on religion or belief-related harassment and hatred and is informed by the ‘Tackling religion-based hate crime on the multi-faith campus’ project, carried out at Coventry University as one of 11 projects funded by the Office for Students (OfS) within its Catalyst initiative to tackle religion-based hate crime and support student safety and wellbeing. This guidance was developed in consultation with the other 10 projects, Advance HE (the Higher Education sector charitable body) and the Church of England’s Education Office (with expertise and responsibility for a large number of university chaplains). The guidance helps to unpack the sometimes complex terminologies, categories and legal distinctions relevant to work in this area. It offers advice on how higher education providers can set up and promote an effective reporting system for incidents of religion or belief-harassment and hate. This can then inform institutional action and/or referral to external agencies such as the police. It offers an example that higher education providers can interpret and apply in ways that suit their contexts.
    • Beyond the policy rhetoric: the limitations of gender mainstreaming in South Korea relating to women and childcare

      Lee, Sung-Hee; University of Derby (Cambridge University Press, 2019-12-26)
      This article examines the limitations of the gender mainstreaming discourse regarding the issue of childcare by women in South Korea, an area of responsibility that was transferred from the Ministry of Health and Welfare (MHW) to the Ministry of Gender Equality (MGE)1 in 2003. Through employing a discursive institutionalism approach, this article articulates that whilst the gender mainstreaming discourse has been interpreted at the surface level of politics, it has been formulated differently behind the scenes due to various policy interests. I argue that the discourse has remained at the level of superficial political rhetoric with underdeveloped understanding about the relationship between childcare and gender, thus retaining a stereotypical view of women as caregivers.
    • Rights, resources and relationships: A ‘three Rs’ framework for enhancing the resilience of refugee background youth

      Rafferty, Rachel; University of Otago (Routledge, 2019-11-08)
      This chapter argues that national education systems can reduce structural violence towards refugee background youths by acting to enhance the youths’ educational resilience. It aims to define educational resilience as the ability to overcome the significant challenges to learning and achieve positive educational outcomes. The chapter suggests for how the rights, resources, and relationships (three R) framework can be translated into educational policy and practice, and considers the case of refugee background youth within the education system of Aotearoa New Zealand, a society where decades of educational policy have been shaped by neoliberal ideology. Ecological models of resilience draw on Bronfenbrenner’s social-ecological model of human development, where the child is viewed as a social being who grows up nested within a unique ecology of social systems. The chapter outlines a number of ways that schools and education systems can translate three Rs concepts into practices that will enhance the educational resilience of refugee background students.
    • South Africa's foreign policy and evolving role conceptions: a crisis of international identity

      Masters, Lesley; Schiavon, Jorge; University of Derby (Peter Lang, 2019-10-31)
      South Africa’s transition to democracy in 1994 saw a substantial shift in the perceived international role for South Africa, from a position in defence of the domestic policy of apartheid, to the outwards orientated approach of universalism. The challenge, as this section argues, is that in the South African context the national role conception, or the image of what role the country should play in international relations, has failed to ‘settle’ despite continuity of foreign policy on paper. As Mills (1997) argues, the search for a new ‘image’ has seen Pretoria ‘leaning all over the place’ on the international stage. The result has been perceptible challenges in reconciling foreign policy ambitions and ideals with implementation in practice; where confusion around what role to adopt has made it difficult to predict the country’s international actions.
    • Social reproduction strategies: Understanding compound inequality in the intergenerational transfer of capital, assets and resources

      Nunn, Alexander; Tepe-Belfrage, Daniela; University of Derby; University of Liverpool (SAGE, 2019-10-30)
      This paper focuses on the way that households respond to ‘global pressures’ by adapting their social reproduction strategies (SRS). We understand SRS to encapsulate the more or less consciously developed day-to-day and inter-generational responses to the social conditions that households confront and their own motivations and aspirations for the future. Yet, due to a range of extant inequalities of accumulated and dynamic resources – some of which are material and some of which are at once ethereal and embodied in the concrete labouring capacities of individuals – we argue that SRS and capacities to pursue them differ widely. Differences are conditioned by positionality, access to information and the construction of ‘economic imaginaries’ as well as material resources. By looking at these different expressions of SRS we highlight how they reinforce macro-scale socio-economic pressures, creating what we term ‘compound inequality’ into the future. Compound inequalities result from different behavioural responses to socio-economic conditions, inequality and (perceived or real) insecurity, which have the potential to exaggerate inequality and insecurity into the future. Inequalities do not just arise from formal economic markets then but also from the realm of social reproduction.
    • The longitudinal association between resting heart rate and psychopathic traits from a normative personality perspective

      Kavish, Nicholas; Bergstrøm, Henriette; Piquero, Alex R.; Farrington, David P.; Boutwell, Brian B.; Sam Houston University; University of Derby; The University of Texas at Dallas; University of Cambridge; University of Mississippi (Springer Science and Business Media LLC, 2019-10-23)
      A large body of research has accumulated investigating the possibility of an association between resting heart rate and psychopathic traits, with meta-analysis suggesting a modest, negative association. Some recent research suggests that prior findings of an association between heart rate and psychopathy may be influenced by inclusion of antisocial behavior in the assessment of psychopathic traits. The current study explores this possibility in a longitudinal sample of British males by comparing resting heart rate at age 18 to psychopathy assessed from a Five Factor Model perspective and from the Psychopathy Checklist: Screening Version (PCL:SV) at age 48. Our psychopathic personality scale, created using the Big Five Inventory (BFI), was significantly correlated with the PCL:SV and was most related to the antisocial factor. In correlation analyses, resting heart rate at age 18 was not significantly related to BFI psychopathy, but was positively related to BFI Openness and Conscientiousness, and these associations held up after controlling for childhood SES, BMI at 18, and whether the participant smoked during the age 18 assessment. Additional analyses controlling for smoking status were conducted to address the biasing effect of smoking on heart rate during the age 18 assessment and a significant, albeit weak, negative association between resting heart rate and BFI psychopathy emerged. Future research should replicate these results using other normative personality approaches to assess psychopathic traits.
    • Nations as zones of conflict, nations as zones of selection: A Darwinian social evolutionary engagement with John Hutchinson's ‘Culture Wars’

      Kerr, William; University of Edinburgh (Wiley, 2019-09-12)
      This paper explores the use of Darwinian social evolutionary theory towards understanding the formation of nations through a specific engagement with John Hutchinson's Nations as Zones of Conflict, particularly the idea of ‘culture wars’. After outlining Hutchinson's framework and the principles of Darwinian social evolutionary theory – namely, the key concepts of inheritance, variation, and selection within an environmental context – I make a case for Darwinian concepts being able to support and expand on Hutchinson's ethno‐symbolic approach. I argue that Darwinian social evolutionary theory offers a powerful explanation for why particular myths, symbols, traditions, and memories endure and are revived and revitalized in nationalist contexts. The development of nationalism in Meiji Japan is used as an example to explore these ideas.