• Absence of aggressive and violent defining characteristics in the descriptions of successful and ideal teachers

      Rački, Željko; Sablić, Marija; Sekol, Ivana; University of Osijek (Faculty of Philosophy in Split, 2014)
      Violence in the educational system arises not only from peer relations, but also from the relationship between students and teachers. Teachers who are aggressive towards their students (e.g. who are rough, cold, who yell, insult, ridicule, discriminate, favorize, underestimate, exclude, gossip or spread fear), actually demonstrate aggressive or violent behavior directed against the current and long-term well-being of students. The aim of this study was to examine the incidence of teachers’ aggressive behaviors in describing and defi ning characteristics of both successful/ideal teachers and unsuccessful/aggressive teachers. The participants were students of pedagogical-psychological and didactic-methodical training of teachers in Osijek, Slavonski Brod and Koprivnica (N = 119), and third year students of Teacher Studies in Slavonski Brod (N = 41). Participants were asked to recall three good, successful or ‘ideal’ teachers from their previous education as well as to think of three teachers of poor quality they previously had. With an overall frequency of 1120 positive descriptions, 145 unique positive defining characteristics were found. Out of overall frequency of 770 negative descriptions, 174 unique negative defining characteristics were found. Two frames of data analysis were used: a) consensually agreed upon thematic areas of teacher defining characteristics (methodical performance or teaching competence, intelligence and creativity, character and morality, and emotional competence), and b) Croatian bipolar markers of a five-factor model of personality. The results demonstrated an absence of aggressive or violent behaviors in the descriptions of ideal teachers, and the presence of aggressive behaviors in unsuccessful teachers of poor quality. The results were interpreted in accordance with professional requirements and conformity of personality constellation of teachers (friendly and open, methodically and emotionally competent, and moral) with methodical performance or teaching competence and an optimal achievement of educational objectives, as well as the protection of the students.
    • Adaptation and developments in Western Buddhism: Socially engaged Buddhism in the UK

      Henry, Philip M.; University of Derby (Bloomsbury Academic, 2015)
      In recent years, there has been a growing academic acknowledgment around the world of a contemporary Buddhist phenomenon described as Engaged, or Socially Engaged Buddhism (SEB). It is a contested phenomenon variously associated with finding Buddhist solutions for social, political and ecological problems. The debate about its origins, practice and legitimacy has stirred academics and practitioners alike. Firstly, does such an approach to Buddhist practice constitute a departure with the past, in which case a new expression of an ancient practice is being experienced all around us? Or is this really a continuity of practice, adapted to inform current understanding given that some would describe Buddhism as always having been engaged? Adaptation and Developments in Western Buddhism examines the UK Socially Engaged Buddhist experience captured through a series of five case studies of Buddhist groups and a survey undertaken over two years in the field. The volume is a ground-breaking and benchmark analysis of Socially Engaged Buddhism in the UK, drawing for the first time on evidence from practitioner's experiences with which to characterise the previously dichotomous academic debate. Ultimately, the volume locates Socially Engaged Buddhism in the UK and places it within the broader and global context of an emerging “Western Buddhism”, characterising the phenomenon and its relationships to the wider Buddhist world.
    • Addressing religious discrimination and Islamophobia: Muslims and liberal democracies, the case of the United Kingdom

      Weller, Paul; University of Derby (2011-12-06)
      The article examines contemporary claims of Islamophobia and religious discrimination against Muslims in the United Kingdom in the context of the broader dynamics of religious discrimination in British history. How the ‘struggle for existence’ of religious groups who were initially concerned with ‘establishing an identity of their own’ became ‘ the struggle for equality’ among both nonconformist religious minority groups in the nineteenth century as well as among twentieth century Muslim UK citizens of predominantly migrant and minority ethnic origin is examined. The identification of ‘Islamophobia’ as a specific form of discrimination and hatred of ‘the other’ is located in the rise of a late twentieth century ‘politics of identity’ as it emerges from the impact of ‘globalization’. The relationship between the distinctive features of the Muslim experience of discrimination on the basis of religion and that of other groups is explored by reference to the findings of the UK Government Home Office commissioned Religious Discrimination in England and Wales Research Project conducted during 1999–2001, as well as by reference to Orientalist and Islamophobic imagery. This article considers strategies for combating religious discrimination and hatred, from public education through to legal instruments, such as the Human Rights Act 1998 and the Employment Equality (Religion of Belief) Regulations 2003. The visceral and deeply embedded nature of ‘Islamophobia’ is illuminated by reference to the deep-seated and multi-layered admixture of religion and politics in Northern Irish ‘sectarianism’. The article concludes by advocating that it is the responsibility of all groups, of good governance in society, and in the ultimate interests of all, to tackle the phenomenon of religious discrimination and hatred under whatever guise it appears.
    • Adolescents’ involvement in cyber bullying and perceptions of school: The importance of perceived peer acceptance for female adolescents.

      Betts, Lucy R.; Spenser, Karin A.; Gardner, Sarah E.; Nottingham Trent University (Springer, 2017-03-15)
      Young people are spending increasing amounts of time using digital technology and, as such, are at great risk of being involved in cyber bullying as a victim, bully, or bully/victim. Despite cyber bullying typically occurring outside the school environment, the impact of being involved in cyber bullying is likely to spill over to school. Fully 285 11- to 15-year-olds (125 male and 160 female, M age = 12.19 years, SD = 1.03) completed measures of cyber bullying involvement, self-esteem, trust, perceived peer acceptance, and perceptions of the value of learning and the importance of school. For young women, involvement in cyber bullying as a victim, bully, or bully/victim negatively predicted perceptions of learning and school, and perceived peer acceptance mediated this relationship. The results indicated that involvement in cyber bullying negatively predicted perceived peer acceptance which, in turn, positively predicted perceptions of learning and school. For young men, fulfilling the bully/victim role negatively predicted perceptions of learning and school. Consequently, for young women in particular, involvement in cyber bullying spills over to impact perceptions of learning. The findings of the current study highlight how stressors external to the school environment can adversely impact young women’s perceptions of school and also have implications for the development of interventions designed to ameliorate the effects of cyber bullying.
    • America: The great prison nation

      Teague, Michael; Teesside University (Centre for Crime and Justice Studies, 2008)
      America leads the world in custody. The country’s 5,000 jails and prisons hold a staggering 2.24 million prisoners. Though home to just 1 in 20 of the global population, the USA incarcerates a quarter of the world’s prisoners. America’s proportional imprisonment rate of is 6–10 times greater than that of most developed, industrialised nations. In a typical year, some 13.5 million US citizens (out of a total population of 300 million) spend time in either jail or prison.This discussion outlines multiple areas of concern about the sheer scale and functioning of the US prison system, framed through the prism of UK comparisons.
    • Area and individual differences in personal crime victimization incidence.

      Tseloni, Andromachi; Pease, Ken; Loughborough University; Loughborough University, UK; Loughborough University, UK (Sage, 2014-09-02)
      This article examines how personal crime differences between areas and between individuals are predicted by area and population heterogeneity and their synergies. It draws on lifestyle/routine activities and social disorganization theories to model the number of personal victimization incidents over individuals including routine activities and area characteristics, respectively, as well as their (cross-cluster) interactions. The methodology employs multilevel or hierarchical negative binomial regression with extra binomial variation using data from the British Crime Survey and the UK Census. Personal crime rates differ substantially across areas, reflecting to a large degree the clustering of individuals with measured vulnerability factors in the same areas. Most factors suggested by theory and previous research are conducive to frequent personal victimization except the following new results. Pensioners living alone in densely populated areas face disproportionally high numbers of personal crimes. Frequent club and pub visits are associated with more personal crimes only for males and adults living with young children, respectively. Ethnic minority individuals experience fewer personal crimes than whites. The findings suggest integrating social disorganization and lifestyle theories and prioritizing resources to the most vulnerable, rather than all, residents of poor and densely populated areas to prevent personal crimes.
    • The arts of desistance: Evaluation of the Koestler trust arts mentoring programme for former prisoners

      Sekol, Ivana; Cheliotis, L; Jordanoska, A; University of Osijek (The Koestler Trust, 2014)
      This report presents and discusses the findings of an evaluation of an arts-based mentoring scheme that aims to prolong and enhance crime desistance through providing former prisoners with opportunities to continue engaging with the arts after release. The evaluation focused both on the implementation and effectiveness of the scheme as the former influenced the latter. Different yet complementary research techniques (observation of mentoring sessions, interviews with mentors and mentees, analysis of mentor reports, and survey-based quasi-experimental design incorporating control groups) were employed to enhance the validity of the data and improve their interpretation.
    • Assessing risk factors for homicide victimisation in the Netherlands.

      Ganpat, Soenita Minakoemarie; van der Leun, Joanne; Nieuwbeerta, Paul; Nottingham Trent University; Leiden University (2017-03-01)
      This study explains why certain violent events end lethally while others do not. Is it on account of certain personal characteristics of those involved in these events – in particular, do offenders and/or victims have a criminal propensity, possibly reflected in their criminal history records? Or does it relate to certain immediate situational factors occurring during these incidents, such as weapon use, alcohol use, the presence of third parties or actors’ behaviour? Or does a combination of both types of factors – i.e., criminal history and immediate situational factors – play a key role in differentiating lethal from non-lethal violent events? Although these questions are important for the understanding of serious violence in general, so far criminologists have not often addressed these questions simultaneously. This study – conducted in The Netherlands – has been designed to start filling this gap by focusing on the relationship between offenders’ and victims’ criminal history, immediate situational factors and lethal versus non-lethal outcomes of violent events. Based on data from criminal records and court files, findings show that immediate situational factors appear to be the most influential factor that contribute to the outcome of violent events, even more so than offenders’ and victims’ characteristics.
    • An assessment of the prevent strategy within UK counter terrrorism and the implications for policy makers, communities and law enforcement

      Henry, Philip M.; University of Derby (University of Derby, 2016-09-12)
      Prevent - the strategy - has become embedded in counter terrorism policy in the UK since 2007. It was reviewed and re-written in 2011 and has taken on even greater significance at the level of addressing questions of how to challenge and prevent 'radicalisation' in the context of managing security in the nation? This paper examines the tensions associated with the Prevent strategy and its legacy in the UK since 2007. It will explore the juxtaposition of policy making, which on one hand sees the means-ends solutions of avoiding further instances of terrorism at all costs, set against a potential community-based and local authority engagement model that foregrounds safeguarding against radicalisation and extremism in all its forms as a priority when working with communities across the country. There are apparent tensions in the emphasis of implementation and deliver of this strategy, which continue to challenge perceptions against the growing strengthening of fears associated with the erosion of civil liberties. The paper argues for a significant change in awareness of the behaviours and attitudes associated with 'radicalisation' and suggests policy could better reflect practice as we move through the second decade of the century.
    • Balancing within three dimensions.

      Weller, Paul; University of Derby (2017)
      Arising out of UK empirical research into religion, belief and discrimination, this paper argues that the three dimensional approach taken by the project to understanding and applying its findings is potentially applicable also in the wider European context. Arguably such an approach will enable a theological and social policy connection with respect to the Christian, secular, and religiously plural context of interreligious and wider social relations. In contrast to such an approach, a call for Christianity to retain a privileged central position within such social policy milieu does not adequately take account of the realities of a growing religious plurality as well as increasingly non-religious or otherwise secular dimensions of today's world. At the same time, strident campaigns for secular measures to be given priority do not take sufficient account of the substantial numbers of those who continue to identify with a religion in varied ways, or the relatively highly valued significance of religion found especially among cultural minorities. Further, any attempt to try to equalize the various religious traditions will run into the clearly different historical and social position of Christianity within Europe; while any of the apparently seductive options for the religions to form a united front, either apart from or over and against the secular, would likely result in damage to the theological and social health of all the religions. In contrast to these approaches, I argue that in both theology and social policy, a balancing of the Christian, secular and religiously plural dimensions is capable of facilitating the kind of evolutionary development that can mediate constructively between the importance of historical inheritance and the need for adaptive and creative change within interreligious and wider social relations.
    • Barack Obama: changing American criminal justice?

      Teague, Michael; Teesside University (Taylor and Francis, 2009-12)
      Barack Obama's election as the USA's 44th president signalled the end of an era of entrenched conservatism in American government. Following his inauguration on 20 January 2009, one fundamental question confronts anyone concerned with the state of American criminal justice. Energised by a wave of popular support, will the new president go down in history as someone who radically reformed America's overloaded criminal justice system?
    • Behavioural thatcherism and nostalgia: tracing the everyday consequences of holding thatcherite values

      Farrall, Stephen; Gray, Emily; Jones, Phillip Mike; Hay, Colin; University of Derby; University of Sheffield (Palgrave, 2020-01-21)
      With the passing of time and the benefit of hindsight there is, again, growing interest in Thatcherism – above all in its substantive and enduring legacy. But, to date at least, and largely due to data limitations, little of that work has focussed on tracing the behavioural consequences, at the individual level, of holding Thatcherite values. That oversight we seek both to identify more clearly and to begin to address. Deploying new survey data, we use multiple linear regression and structural equation modelling to unpack the relationship between ‘attitudinal’ and ‘behavioural’ Thatcherism. In the process we reveal the considerably greater behavioural consequences of holding neo-liberal, as distinct from neo-conservative, values whilst identifying the key mediating role played by social, political and economic nostalgia. We find that neo-liberal values are positively associated with Behavioural Thatcherism, whilst neo-conservative values are negatively associated with Behavioural Thatcherism. In exploring the implications we also reveal some intriguing interaction effects between economic nostalgia and neo-conservative values in the centre-left vote for Brexit. In the conclusion we reflect on the implications of these findings for our understanding of the legacy of Thatcherism and, indeed, for Brexit itself.
    • Behind the confession: Relating false confession, interrogative compliance, personality traits, and psychopathy

      Larmour, Simon R.; Bergstrøm, Henriette; Gillen, Christopher T. A.; Forth, Adelle E.; Carleton University; Institute of Criminology (Springer, 2014)
      The present study further supports the established notion that personality traits contribute to the phenomenon of false confessions and compliance in an interrogative setting. Furthermore, the study provides an investigation into the more recent interest in the potential effect of psychopathic traits in this context. A sample of university students (N = 607) completed questionnaires measuring psychopathic traits, interrogative compliance, and the big five personality factors. Of these, only 4.9% (n=30) claimed to have falsely confessed to an academic or criminal offense, with no participant taking the blame for both types of offense. Across measures the big five personality traits were the strongest predictors of compliance. The five personality traits accounted for 17.9 % of the total variance in compliance, with neuroticism being the strongest predictor, followed by openness and agreeableness. Psychopathy accounted for 3.3% of variance, with the lifestyle facet being the only significant predictor. After controlling for the big five personality factors, psychopathy only accounted for a small percentage of interrogative compliance, indicating that interrogators should take into account a person’s personality traits during the interrogation.
    • Beyond the policy rhetoric: the limitations of gender mainstreaming in South Korea relating to women and childcare

      Lee, Sung-Hee; University of Derby (Cambridge University Press, 2019-12-26)
      This article examines the limitations of the gender mainstreaming discourse regarding the issue of childcare by women in South Korea, an area of responsibility that was transferred from the Ministry of Health and Welfare (MHW) to the Ministry of Gender Equality (MGE)1 in 2003. Through employing a discursive institutionalism approach, this article articulates that whilst the gender mainstreaming discourse has been interpreted at the surface level of politics, it has been formulated differently behind the scenes due to various policy interests. I argue that the discourse has remained at the level of superficial political rhetoric with underdeveloped understanding about the relationship between childcare and gender, thus retaining a stereotypical view of women as caregivers.
    • The bitter end: apocalypse and conspiracy in white nationalist responses to the Islamic State attacks in Paris.

      Wilson, Andrew Fergus; University of Derby (Taylor and Francis, 2017-11-21)
      Wilson's article examines how apocalyptic thinking converges with the use of conspiracy theory in white nationalist world-views at a time of crisis. Apocalyptic thinking is, typically, a religious response to secular threats to the faith community that prophesize, or are attendant on, the End. These millenarian outlooks provide communities in crisis a promise of confirmation of the object of their faith, the vanquishing of enemies and, crucially, continuity for the community in a better world to come. In the latter half of the twentieth century and the early years of the twenty-first, apocalypticism and conspiracy theory have tended to coincide. The tendency towards a binary distinction between terms of absolute good and absolute evil, and the revelation of secrets relating to human destiny through prophesy or ‘truth-seeking’ provide a broad transposability between the two interpretative strategies. An increasing amalgamation of political paranoia and eschatology have given rise to what has been termed ‘conspirituality’. Much recent white nationalist rhetoric can be understood as emerging from this discursive position, and Wilson's analysis will demonstrate how one white nationalist community drew on conspiratorial apocalypticism in its response to the multiple attacks by Islamic State in Paris on 13–14 November 2015.
    • Body-worn cameras: determining the democratic habitus of policing.

      Cayli, Baris; Hargreaves, Charlotte; Hodgson, Philip; University of Derby (Emerald Group Publishing Limited, 2018-10-08)
      Purpose – This study advances our knowledge about the effectiveness of body-worn cameras (BWCs) through exploring the perceptions of English police officers in three principal areas: (i) positive perceptions, (ii) negative perceptions, and (iii) evidence-focused perceptions. In doing so, this study aims to shed new light on the democratising process in the habitus of policing. Design/methodology/approach – This study presents a novel dataset that evaluates the introduction of BWC to police officers in the East Midlands area of England. We conducted an extensive survey to explore the perceptions of 162 police officers about the BWCs. We examine our empirical data using Stata within the theoretical framework of Pierre Bourdieu concerning the concept of habitus. Findings – We have found that most police officers perceive that BWCs have a positive impact on policing practices and evidence collection. The positive perceptions and evidence-focused perceptions increase the importance of BWCs; however, there are also negative perceptions regarding effective policing, administrative functionality, and establishing a better relationship with the community. We argue that all three areas: (i) positive perceptions, (ii) negative perceptions and (iii) evidence-focused perceptions play a stimulating role to democratise the habitus of policing. On the other hand, BWCs do not guarantee the consolidation of democratic principles in the habitus of policing because of the authority of police to decide when, where, and how to use BWCs. Research limitations/implications – The research is limited to the perceptions of 162 police officers in East Midlands before they actually started using it. A future study to analyse their real-life experiences after using the BWCs may help us to compare their perceptions before using it with real-life experiences after BWCs are used. In addition, a comparative approach between countries in future research will help to explain the role of technological applications in different social geographies and legal systems Originality/value – This study offers new insights about the perceptions of police on BWCs before they started using them. We introduce the democratic habitus of policing as an innovative concept and explore power dynamics in the habitus of policing through BWCs. Our findings provide a strong empirical contribution to determine the conditions of democratic habitus of policing. In doing so, this study develops our theoretical knowledge about the habitus concept in sociology by employing BWCs in policing activities.
    • Building bridges? South African foreign policy and trilateral development cooperation

      Masters, Lesley; Institute for Global Dialogue, UNISA (Taylor and Francis, 2014-08-08)
      As questions concerning international development climb the international agenda, so countries find themselves drawn into a burgeoning number of negotiations on issues ranging from the future shape and direction of the post-2015 development agenda to ‘aid effectiveness’ and international development cooperation. Moving from the position of a ‘beneficiary’ state in the traditional donor–recipient aid hierarchy, South Africa is looking to define its own niche within the wider development diplomacy context as a development partner. This paper provides an assessment of South Africa’s evolving approach towards international development cooperation, with a particular focus on trilateral development cooperation, and what this means for Pretoria’s foreign policy in bridging the divide between developed and developing country positions within the international development regime.
    • Bullying in adolescent residential care: The influence of the physical and social residential care environment

      Sekol, Ivana; Faculty of Education, University of Osijek, Croatia (Springer, 2015-10-28)
      To date, no study examined possible contributions of environmental factors to bullying and victimization in adolescent residential care facilities. By testing one part of the Multifactor Model of Bullying in Secure Setting (MMBSS; Ireland in Int J Adolesc Med Health 24(1):63–68, 2012), this research examined the way the physical and social residential environment relates to bullying and victimization in adolescent residential care. Young people aged 11–21 (N = 272) from ten residential institutions in Croatia completed: (a) an anonymous self-reported bullying questionnaire; (b) the social residential environment questionnaire; and (c) the physical residential environment questionnaire. The results demonstrated that both bullies and victims reported having significantly lower levels of perceived peer support than other residents. Male bullies also reported significantly lower levels of their overall wellbeing within their facilities and were significantly more likely than non-bullies to perceive their facilities as having problems with cleanliness and food. Male victims were significantly younger than non-victims. Female victims reported lower levels of their overall wellbeing than non-victims as well as poorer relationship with staff. The results are discussed with reference to the relevant prison and schoolbased bullying literature and directions for future research are provided. Overall, the findings of this study are consistent with the part of the MMBSS (Ireland 2012) examined and provide initial support for the notion that the special nature of the physical and social residential environment may be important in explaining bullying in care.
    • Charlie Hebdo and the prophet Muhammad: a multimodal critical discourse analysis of peace and violence in a satirical cartoon

      Kilby, Laura; Lennon, Henry; Sheffield Hallam University (Springer International Publishing, 2018-11-30)
      In this chapter, we examine how ideologies of peace and violence can be (re)produced and communicated via multiple semiotic forms that include, but are not restricted to, language. We grapple with the complexity and importance of the situated-ness of peace and violence, and consider, what does peace, indeed what can peace, look like in a social context where meaning and expression are both multiple and contested. To this end, we undertake a case study analysis, exploring how a multimodal text might be variously interpreted as an explicit display of peace and forgiveness, and yet simultaneously as an oppressive act which knowingly causes offense. In addressing these issues, we relate to Galtung’s (1996, p. 196) typology of violence, and we consider the issue of cultural violence, which he defines as “those aspects of culture, the symbolic sphere of our existence […] that can be used to legitimize direct or structural violence.
    • Class politics and the revenge of the future.

      Burton-Cartledge, Phil; University of Derby (Lawrence and Wishart, 2017-09)