• Staff reports of bullying and intervention strategies in Croatian care and correctional institutions for youth

      Sekol, Ivana; Farrington, David; Department of Criminology and Social Sciences, University of Derby; University of Cambridge (Sage, 2020-10-21)
      This study compares staff reports of bullying amongst institutionalized youth with residents’ own self-reported prevalence of bullying and victimization collected in the previous study (hereafter the Self-Report Study on Bullying in Croatian Residential Care (SSBCRC)) and staff reports of reduction strategies are compared with evidence-based proposed policy solutions arising from residents’ reports. The study also compares reduction strategies used by staff with evidence-based proposed policy solutions arising from residents’ reports arising from the SSBCRC. One hundred and forty staff from 20 Croatian youth facilities completed an anonymous questionnaire. The results revealed that staff estimates of the prevalence of bullying and victimization were significantly lower than resident reports. Staff were better aware of the prevalence of certain types of bullying, but they held stereotypical views of bullies and victims and had difficulties in recognizing the true times and places of bullying. Staff described their anti-bullying policies as being predominantly reactive, rather than proactive and evidence-based. It is concluded that more effort needs to be made in order to change the current anti-bullying policies used by staff.
    • Social reproduction strategies: Understanding compound inequality in the intergenerational transfer of capital, assets and resources

      Nunn, Alexander; Tepe-Belfrage, Daniela; University of Derby; University of Liverpool (SAGE, 2019-10-30)
      This paper focuses on the way that households respond to ‘global pressures’ by adapting their social reproduction strategies (SRS). We understand SRS to encapsulate the more or less consciously developed day-to-day and inter-generational responses to the social conditions that households confront and their own motivations and aspirations for the future. Yet, due to a range of extant inequalities of accumulated and dynamic resources – some of which are material and some of which are at once ethereal and embodied in the concrete labouring capacities of individuals – we argue that SRS and capacities to pursue them differ widely. Differences are conditioned by positionality, access to information and the construction of ‘economic imaginaries’ as well as material resources. By looking at these different expressions of SRS we highlight how they reinforce macro-scale socio-economic pressures, creating what we term ‘compound inequality’ into the future. Compound inequalities result from different behavioural responses to socio-economic conditions, inequality and (perceived or real) insecurity, which have the potential to exaggerate inequality and insecurity into the future. Inequalities do not just arise from formal economic markets then but also from the realm of social reproduction.
    • The longitudinal association between resting heart rate and psychopathic traits from a normative personality perspective

      Kavish, Nicholas; Bergstrøm, Henriette; Piquero, Alex R.; Farrington, David P.; Boutwell, Brian B.; Sam Houston University; University of Derby; The University of Texas at Dallas; University of Cambridge; University of Mississippi (Springer Science and Business Media LLC, 2019-10-23)
      A large body of research has accumulated investigating the possibility of an association between resting heart rate and psychopathic traits, with meta-analysis suggesting a modest, negative association. Some recent research suggests that prior findings of an association between heart rate and psychopathy may be influenced by inclusion of antisocial behavior in the assessment of psychopathic traits. The current study explores this possibility in a longitudinal sample of British males by comparing resting heart rate at age 18 to psychopathy assessed from a Five Factor Model perspective and from the Psychopathy Checklist: Screening Version (PCL:SV) at age 48. Our psychopathic personality scale, created using the Big Five Inventory (BFI), was significantly correlated with the PCL:SV and was most related to the antisocial factor. In correlation analyses, resting heart rate at age 18 was not significantly related to BFI psychopathy, but was positively related to BFI Openness and Conscientiousness, and these associations held up after controlling for childhood SES, BMI at 18, and whether the participant smoked during the age 18 assessment. Additional analyses controlling for smoking status were conducted to address the biasing effect of smoking on heart rate during the age 18 assessment and a significant, albeit weak, negative association between resting heart rate and BFI psychopathy emerged. Future research should replicate these results using other normative personality approaches to assess psychopathic traits.
    • The role of radical economic restructuring in truancy from school and engagement in crime

      Farrall, stephen; Gray, Emily; Jones, Philip Mike; University of Derby (Oxford University Press, 2019-07-28)
      Of late, criminologists have become acutely aware of the relationship between school outcomes and engagement in crime as an adult. This phenomenon – which has come to be known as the ‘school-to-prison-pipeline’ – has been studied in North America and the UK, and requires longitudinal datasets. Typically, these studies approach the phenomenon from an individualist perspective and examine truancy in terms of the truants’ attitudes, academic achievement or their home-life. What remains unclear however is a consideration of a) how macro-level social and economic processes may influence the incidence of truancy, and b) how structural processes fluctuate over time, and in so doing produce variations in truancy rates or the causal processes associated with truancy. Using longitudinal data from two birth cohort studies, we empirically address these blind-spots and test the role of social-structural processes in truancy, and how these may change over time
    • Council house sales, homelessness and contact with the criminal justice system: Evidence from the NCDS and BCS70 birth cohorts.

      Farrall, Stephen; Gray, Emily; Jones, Phil; University of Derby (Elsevier, 2019-07-26)
      Focussing on the changes in sitting tenants’ right to buy their council house (introduced in the UK in 1980), we explore the long-term impact of this policy change upon the lives of UK citizens. Using two longitudinal studies of UK citizens born in 1958 and 1970, we exam how policies aimed at achieving one set of goals (providing families with their own homes, reducing the control of councils and weakening the Labour Party’s voting bloc) may have also altered experiences of housing, homelessness, and contact with the criminal justice system not just for those for whom the policies were initially designed (adults living in council owned properties in the 1980s) but also for subsequent generations (most typically their children). Our contribution examines how legislative changes may have altered the lives of citizens, and highlights some of the unintended consequences of the ‘right to buy’ in the UK. We are able to investigate what happens when systems which have previously been tightly regulated suddenly become much less well regulated. Our paper utilises ideas developed by life-course theorists and historical institutionalists in order to understand in more depth how radical policy changes may shape and alter the lives of citizens.
    • Syrian foreign policy. The alliances of a regional power.

      Belcastro, Francesco; University of Derby (Routledge, 2019-07-01)
      Syrian Foreign Policy analyses the pivotal alliances of Damascus using a theoretical framework based on neoclassical realism, an approach which incorporates domestic factors succh as the role of ideology within a realist perspective. Covering Syria’s relations with Egypt, Iraq, Jordan, Saudi Arabia, Iran and the Soviet Union, it asks the question: what led to the formation of each alliance and what has caused either its break up or its continuation? Belcastro seeks to answer this questions, but also reflects on the country’s foreign policy today and its broader implications for Syria and the whole region.
    • Neoliberalisation, fast policy transfer and the management of labor market services

      Nunn, Alex; University of Derby (Taylor & Francis, 2019-06-27)
      Neoliberalism has been a core concern for IPE for several decades, but is often ill-defined. Research offering greater definitional clarity stresses the role of contingent and local level factors in diverse processes of neoliberalisation. This paper contributes to that literature, addressing a surprising gap in critical IPE knowledge; the management practices by which pressures to activate the unemployed and to make them more competitive, are implemented. The paper suggests that performance management, is significant as both a depoliticising policy coordination mechanism and a highly politicised policy implementation practice. The paper invokes a scalar-relational approach which sees the pressure to innovate and compete at lower scales as driven by the political economy of competitiveness at the system scale. The paper reports on research undertaken within the empirical frame of EU meta-governance, showing how performance management is part of lower-scale attempts to adapt to system-scale pressures. It is neoliberalising in both form and content. It concludes by showing that while performance management may be a significant component of neoliberalisation there is scope for engagement and contestation motivated by egalitarian ideals. Critical IPE scholars interested in contesting neoliberalisation should therefore engage with the political economy of management practice as well as policy design.
    • Money Laundering

      Hicks, David C; Graycar, Adam; University of Derby (Cambridge University Press, 2019-06)
      International crime and justice is an emerging field that covers crime and justice from a global perspective. This book introduces the nature of international and transnational crimes, theoretical foundations to understanding the relationship between social change and the waxing and waning of the crime opportunity structure, globalization, migration, culture conflicts, and the emerging legal frameworks for their prevention and control. It presents the challenges involved in delivering justice and international cooperative efforts to deter, detect, and respond to international and transnational crimes; and the need for international research and data resources to go beyond anecdote and impressionistic accounts to testing and developing theories to build the discipline that bring tangible improvements to the peace, security and well-being of the globalizing world. A timely analysis of a complex subject of international crime and justice for students, scholars, policymakers and advocates who strive for the pursuit of justice for millions of victims.
    • Classroom challenges for teaching about and addressing anti-semitism in the OSCE region

      Weller, Paul; Foster, I; University of Derby (University of Derby, 2019-05)
      This report, produced by Professor P. Weller and Dr. I. Foster of the University of Derby, United Kingdom, is based on two phases of research conducted in six OSCE participating States—Belgium, Germany, Greece, Moldova, Poland and the United States of America—between December 2016 and May 2018. The research took various forms, including focus groups, interviews, questionnaires, observations, as well as desk research based on published literature. A detailed bibliography of works consulted is provided in an appendix to the report. The report provides background information about the history of anti-Semitism in each of the countries studied, along with recent statistics concerning reported anti-Semitic incidents in each country. The report does not compare how significant an issue anti-Semitism is in these participating States; rather, it presents an overall pattern of evidence to identify a range of key challenges with at least some relevance for teaching about and addressing anti-Semitism in classroom contexts across the OSCE region as a whole, and thus provides the basis for recommendations that could inform the development of teacher resources to meet those challenges in any OSCE participating State, not just the ones studied for this report. The research has made clear that, while the incidence, frequency and forms of anti-Semitism may vary over time, it remains a reality in OSCE participating States. However, there is relatively little published research on anti-Semitism among young people as such, and even less that is specifically focused on teaching about anti-Semitism and/or addressing it in classroom contexts. Therefore, the primary research that informs this report makes a clear contribution to understanding anti-Semitism as it currently exists in a number of OSCE countries, albeit subject to certain limitations in terms of methodology, which are noted in the report’s appendices.
    • Executive functioning as a predictive measure of offending behaviour.

      Spenser, Karin A.; Bull, Ray; Betts, Lucy; Winder, Belinda; Nottingham Trent University, Nottingham, UK.; University of Derby, Derby, UK; University of Derby, Derby, UK; Nottingham Trent University, Nottingham, UK; Nottingham Trent University, Nottingham, UK (Emerald Group Publishing Limited., 2019-01-04)
      Prosociality is considered important in the study of offenders and associated cognitive skills: theory of mind, empathic understanding and moral reasoning, are said to enable self-control and reduce the risk of offending behaviours. Previous research has made associations between these skills and executive functioning; however, research into a link between them, in an offending population, is limited. The paper aims to discuss this issue. To further understand the practicalities of this, the present study considered the predictive abilities of the constructs believed to underpin executive functioning: working memory, cognitive flexibility and inhibitory control, in relation to theory of mind, empathic understanding and moral reasoning. In total, 200 male and female offenders completed measures in all six constructs. Using path analysis working memory was demonstrated to be predictive of theory of mind and empathic understanding, cognitive flexibility was found to be predictive of theory of mind, and inhibitory control was found to be predictive of theory of mind, empathic understanding and moral reasoning. The study focussed on offenders serving a custodial sentence of six months or less and did not differentiate between crime categories or take into consideration the socio-environmental backgrounds or ethnicity. Therefore, considering these things could further establish the generalisability of the current findings. It is noted that the more focused the intervention is to the specific needs of an offender, the greater the impact will be. Therefore, pre-screening tests for the constructs discussed may be able to more accurately assess an offenders’ suitability for a programme, or indeed tailor it to meet the specific needs of that person. These findings may enable practitioners to more accurately assess offenders’ suitability for interventions aimed at reducing offending behaviours by improving levels of prosociality and develop more focused programmes to meet the specific needs of individual offenders to reduce re-offending. As recommended in the study, a more tailored approach to offender rehabilitation may be a potential aid to reducing levels of recidivism. The present study adds to the literature as it is the first to consider whether the constructs of executive functioning can predict levels of theory of mind, empathic understanding and moral reasoning and so provide a more accurate method in assessing the cognitive abilities of offenders prior to participation in rehabilitative interventions.
    • Watching the watchers: oversight channels and the democratisation of South Africa's foreign policy.

      Masters, Lesley; University of Derby (Africa Institute of South Africa/Pretoria., 2019)
      In looking at changes in the processes and practice of oversight and in South Africa's foreign policy, this chapter argues that there has been both successes and constraints in pursuit of democratic transparency and accountability. The chapter highlights the importance of linkage between the formal and informal levels in promoting oversight. This has come under pressure during the second Zuma administration (2014-2018), reflecting a growing gap that resulted in a slide away from the democratisation of foreign policy.
    • An odd “foreign policy couple”? Syria and Saudi Arabia 1970-1989

      Belcastro, Francesco; University of Derby (Taylor & Francis, 2019)
      This paper analyses the alliance between Syria and the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia during the years 1970-1989. The relations between the two Arab powers were characterized by cooperation and support amid ideological and ‘structural’ differences. This was a stark contrast with the conflictual relations of the previous decade. The change was driven mainly by a reshaping in Syria’s regional policy. The new ‘realist’ foreign policy imposed by Hafiz Al-Assad created an overlapping of interests between Syria and the KSA. Riyadh valued Syria’s role in the region and used its support of Damascus vis-à-vis Israel as a tool to obtain domestic and regional legitimacy. On the other hand Syria benefited from the KSA’s generous economic and diplomatic help. This study will use an approach based on neoclassical realism to show how domestic and international factors led to these changes.
    • Crime, bandits, and community: how public panic shaped the social control of territory in the Ottoman Empire

      Cayli, Baris; University of Derby (Taylor and Francis, 2018-12-15)
      This study explores the role of crime, bandits, and public panic in in the nineteenth century Ottoman society by using archival documents and employing a comparative perspective. In addition to the social bandit concept of Eric Hobsbawm, there is an introduction of two new banditry forms in this study—opportunist bandits and imagined bandits. The comparison of different bandit forms clarifies that social bandits and opportunist bandits aggravated public panic and produced imagined bandits. Hence, public panic and the dissent of local people unveiled through rumors about the imagined bandits. The exploration of different forms of bandits in the Ottoman Empire is a response to the vexed issue concerning the challenges in the social control of territories in a multiethnic and multi-religious empire. This study provides new conceptual tools to rethink about the spatial dimensions in the emergence of bandits. This article shows that spatial factors in the social control of territory can be influenced by the reaction of local people from bottom-to-top and, in doing so, can determine the response of state authority. The present study, therefore, unveils the power relationship in the social control of territory whether it is manifested by physical force or public panic.
    • Do employment services need to be neoliberal

      Nunn, Alex; University of Derby (Routledge, 2018-12)
      There is a divide in the literature on labour market governance between that which sees ‘workfare’ policies as part of a process of neoliberalisation and a more practice-oriented literature that is concerned with the effectiveness and outcomes of ‘active labour market policies’. This chapter engages with these separate but related literatures to make the argument that the trajectory of policy and practice reform in employment services has been inherently neoliberalising over recent decades, and that there is scope to repurpose some of the processes and tools that have been involved in this to more inclusive ends. The chapter proposes that the materialist feminist concept of social reproduction offers one lens through which a more inclusive approach to employment service delivery and management can be viewed. The discussion is tailored to the ways that both national policymakers, local and lower-level implementers and progressive activists may promote a more inclusive form of employment service through their ‘policy work’.
    • Empowering women for positive action in an era of social injustice and gender inequality.

      Jegede, Francis; University of Derby (University of Derby, 2018-11-22)
      Empowering women for positive action in an era of social injustice and gender inequality
    • The political economy of public employment services: measurement and disempowered empowerment?

      Nunn, Alex; Morgan, Jamie; University of Derby (Taylor & Francis, 2018-11-21)
      Active labour market policies (ALMPs) and Public Employment Services are related components of European Union and member state labour market policy. Typically, PES are analysed in terms of a narrow concern with efficiency and effectiveness of service. In this paper we argue that PES are constituents in broader processes. They are not just means to facilitate employment, they are also part of transmission mechanisms for a political economy of competitiveness. They play a particular role in governance processes, and so serve to produce and reproduce power relations that are intrinsic to those processes. We argue that the technical ways that PES have been managed over recent decades has contributed to broader processes of disempowering labour, through depoliticised management practices. We argue that attempts at even limited re-empowerment of labour would require a repoliticisation of these management practices.
    • Navigating drugs at university: normalization, differentiation & drift?

      Patton, David; University of Derby (Emerald Publishing, 2018-10-08)
      Whilst drug use appears to be common amongst university students, this study moved beyond mere drug prevalence, and for the first time in the UK, used the 6 dimensions of normalisation to better understand the role and place drugs play in the lives of university students. 512 students completed a Student Lifestyle Survey. A differentiated normalisation is occurring amongst different student groups; the social supply of drugs is common, and some users are ‘drifting’ into supply roles yet such acts are neutralized. Students are ‘drug literate’ and have to navigate drugs, and their consumption, availability and marketing, as part of their everyday student life. Student drug use is not homogenous and very little is known about the nuances and diversity of their use/non-use beyond prevalence data.  Qualitative studies are needed to better understand the processes of differentiated normalisation and social supply. This is the first study in the UK to use the six dimensions of normalisation amongst a sample of university students
    • Body-worn cameras: determining the democratic habitus of policing.

      Cayli, Baris; Hargreaves, Charlotte; Hodgson, Philip; University of Derby (Emerald Group Publishing Limited, 2018-10-08)
      Purpose – This study advances our knowledge about the effectiveness of body-worn cameras (BWCs) through exploring the perceptions of English police officers in three principal areas: (i) positive perceptions, (ii) negative perceptions, and (iii) evidence-focused perceptions. In doing so, this study aims to shed new light on the democratising process in the habitus of policing. Design/methodology/approach – This study presents a novel dataset that evaluates the introduction of BWC to police officers in the East Midlands area of England. We conducted an extensive survey to explore the perceptions of 162 police officers about the BWCs. We examine our empirical data using Stata within the theoretical framework of Pierre Bourdieu concerning the concept of habitus. Findings – We have found that most police officers perceive that BWCs have a positive impact on policing practices and evidence collection. The positive perceptions and evidence-focused perceptions increase the importance of BWCs; however, there are also negative perceptions regarding effective policing, administrative functionality, and establishing a better relationship with the community. We argue that all three areas: (i) positive perceptions, (ii) negative perceptions and (iii) evidence-focused perceptions play a stimulating role to democratise the habitus of policing. On the other hand, BWCs do not guarantee the consolidation of democratic principles in the habitus of policing because of the authority of police to decide when, where, and how to use BWCs. Research limitations/implications – The research is limited to the perceptions of 162 police officers in East Midlands before they actually started using it. A future study to analyse their real-life experiences after using the BWCs may help us to compare their perceptions before using it with real-life experiences after BWCs are used. In addition, a comparative approach between countries in future research will help to explain the role of technological applications in different social geographies and legal systems Originality/value – This study offers new insights about the perceptions of police on BWCs before they started using them. We introduce the democratic habitus of policing as an innovative concept and explore power dynamics in the habitus of policing through BWCs. Our findings provide a strong empirical contribution to determine the conditions of democratic habitus of policing. In doing so, this study develops our theoretical knowledge about the habitus concept in sociology by employing BWCs in policing activities.
    • Political socialization, worry about crime and antisocial behaviour: an analysis of age, period and cohort effects.

      Gray, Emily; Grasso, Maria; Farrall, Stephen; Jennings, Will; Hay, Colin; University of Sheffield; Centre for Criminological Research, School of Law, University of Sheffield, Winter Street, Sheffield, UK; Department of Politics, University of Sheffield, Northumberland Road, Sheffield, UK; Centre for Criminological Research, School of Law, University of Sheffield, Winter Street, Sheffield, UK; Department of Politics and International Relations, University of Southampton, University Road, Southampton, UK; et al. (Oxford University Presss, 2018-08-07)
      Fear of crime occupies a substantial area of research and theorizing in criminology. Yet, it has not been examined within a longitudinal framework of political socialization. Using insights from generational modelling, we explore how political cohorts influence the fear of crime and perceptions of antisocial behaviour. This ‘age, period and cohort’ (APC) approach recognizes the distinct temporal processes of (1) individual ageing, (2) current contexts and (3) generational membership and is crucial to understanding the origins and shape of social change. We employ repeated cross-sectional data from the British Crime Survey in an APC analysis to explore how worry about crime and perceptions of antisocial behaviour were impacted by the sociopolitical environment in which respondents spent their ‘formative years’. Our results underline the theoretical significance of political socialization and the methodological consequence of longitudinal analyses when exploring public perceptions of crime. We find that political socialization can have a distinctive and enduring impression on public perceptions of crime from childhood into middle age.
    • The usefulness of psychopathy in explaining and predicting violence: discussing the utility of competing perspectives.

      Bergstrøm, Henriette; Larmour, Simon R.; Farrington, David P.; University of Derby; University of Cambridge (Elsevier, 2018-07-12)
      The current study is a review of the utility of psychopathy in violence risk assessment. Psychopathy has long been considered one of the most important factors when assessing the risk for future violence in forensic samples. Concerns about tautology have however indicated a need to critically assess the utility of psychopathy measures in risk assessment. We argue that the focus should be as much on the psychopathic personality in the explanation of violent behavior as on the psychopathic personality in the prediction of violent behavior. The main aim of this article is to contrast and discuss the utility of two different ways of conceptualizing and measuring the psychopathic personality, namely through the PCL scales and the CAPP. Existing evidence suggests that the CAPP and PCL are comparably strong predictors of violent behavior, but the CAPP is more dynamic (compared with the static PCL) and aims to measure psychopathic personality rather than past behavior. It is proposed that the CAPP is more useful in explaining violence and should be utilized more in future risk assessments for violence. Implications for future practice are discussed.