• Staff reports of bullying and intervention strategies in Croatian care and correctional institutions for youth

      Sekol, Ivana; Farrington, David; Department of Criminology and Social Sciences, University of Derby; University of Cambridge (Sage, 2020-10-21)
      This study compares staff reports of bullying amongst institutionalized youth with residents’ own self-reported prevalence of bullying and victimization collected in the previous study (hereafter the Self-Report Study on Bullying in Croatian Residential Care (SSBCRC)) and staff reports of reduction strategies are compared with evidence-based proposed policy solutions arising from residents’ reports. The study also compares reduction strategies used by staff with evidence-based proposed policy solutions arising from residents’ reports arising from the SSBCRC. One hundred and forty staff from 20 Croatian youth facilities completed an anonymous questionnaire. The results revealed that staff estimates of the prevalence of bullying and victimization were significantly lower than resident reports. Staff were better aware of the prevalence of certain types of bullying, but they held stereotypical views of bullies and victims and had difficulties in recognizing the true times and places of bullying. Staff described their anti-bullying policies as being predominantly reactive, rather than proactive and evidence-based. It is concluded that more effort needs to be made in order to change the current anti-bullying policies used by staff.
    • The cross-country transmission of credit risk between sovereigns and firms in Asia

      Yiling, Zha; David, Power; Nongnuch, Tantisantiwong; University of Derby; University of Dundee; Nottingham Trent University (Elsevier, 2020-05-17)
      This paper uses Credit Default Swap (CDS) data for Asian reference entities to examine cross-country credit risk spillover effects between sovereigns and firms. Data for three East Asian countries (China, Japan and South Korea) over the period 2009-2018 are analysed. We analyse changes in the CDS spreads of a sovereign debtor and those of a foreign firm via a bivariate GARCH-full-BEKK model; thus, spillovers in mean spread changes as well as in volatility are considered. The main findings indicate that strong credit risk interdependence exists between the East Asian countries given that credit shocks from a common creditor such as Japan appear to spill over to the other two Asian nations. Compared to their non-financial counterparts, financial institutions are more sensitive than non-financial firms to changes in the credit risk of a foreign sovereign debtor; financial institutions such as banks may hold debt of foreign sovereigns which makes their CDSs sensitive to this source of credit risk.
    • Violence and the crime drop

      Ganpat, Soenita; Garius, Laura; Andromachi, Tseloni; Tilley, Nick; University of Derby; Nottingham Trent University; University College London (Sage, 2020-05-15)
      According to the Crime Survey for England and Wales, violence fell dramatically between 1995 and 2013/14. To improve understanding of the fall in violent crime, this study examines long-term crime trends in England and Wales over the past two decades, by scrutinizing the trends between (a) stranger and acquaintance violence (b) severity of violence, (c) age groups, and (d) sexes. It draws on nationally-representative, weighted data from the Crime Survey for England and Wales, and examines prevalence, incidence and crime concentration trends. The overall violence fall was driven by a decline in the victimisation of young individuals and/or males, perpetrated by acquaintances since 1995. Stranger and acquaintance violence followed different trajectories, with the former beginning to drop post 2003/04. Falls in both stranger and acquaintance violence incidence rates were led by fewer victims over time. Counting all incidents reported by the same victim (instead of capping at five incidents) significantly affects trends in stranger violence but not in acquaintance violence In relation to the distributive justice within the crime drop, this study provides unique evidence of equitable falls in acquaintance violence but inequitable falls in stranger violence. These findings highlight the need to examine violence types separately and point to a number of areas for future research.
    • Examining the association between childhood cognitive ability and psychopathic traits at age 48

      Kavish, Nick; Bergstrøm, Henriette; Narvey, Chelsey; Piquero, Alex R.; Farrington, David P.; Boutwell, Brian B.; Sam Houston University; University of Derby; The University of Texas at Dallas; The University of Texas at Dallas; et al. (American Psychological Association, 2020-03-01)
      Despite early theorists suggesting that psychopathic traits are associated with higher intelligence, meta-analytic work has found that global psychopathy scores are actually negatively related to intelligence, albeit weakly. Furthermore, it was reported in the same meta-analytic work that the various dimensions of psychopathy were differentially related to intelligence. Importantly, virtually all of the research to date has relied on cross-sectional associations. The current study examined whether intelligence scores (verbal comprehension, non-verbal IQ, and a global intelligence composite) at age 8 were associated with psychopathy scores at age 48 in a sample of white, urban males from London (analytical n = 292). Results suggested a significant, but weak, inverse association between intelligence and the affective, lifestyle, and antisocial facets of psychopathy and a nonsignificant association with the interpersonal facet, as assessed by the Psychopathy Checklist: Screening Version. These findings contribute to the growing body of evidence suggesting that psychopathy, as conceptualized in most modern models, is either very weakly inversely related to, or simply not a correlate of intelligence.
    • Police misconduct, protraction and the mental health of accused police officers

      McDaniel, John L.M.; Moss, Kate; Pease, Ken; Singh, Paramjit; University of Wolverhampton; University of Derby (Routledge, 2020-02-25)
      The chapter describes findings from a research project carried out in collaboration with one UK police force. The project was designed to examine and understand the force’s welfare practices towards officers accused of misconduct and the impact of prolonged misconduct investigations on the mental health and well-being of police officers, specifically police officers who were subsequently exonerated. The aim was to identify new opportunities for mental health support, points of avoidable delay, demotivation and embitterment, and stress-reducing possibilities throughout the misconduct process, and to produce a simple and clear evidence-based set of recommendations for improvement.
    • #ThisIsDerby evaluation report

      Dodsley, Thomas; Hargreaves, Charlotte; Nunn, Alex; Price, Sophia; University of Derby (Derby County Community Trust, 2020-02-01)
      The University of Derby were asked by Derby County Community Trust to undertake a small evaluation of a large-scale intervention to expand sports and arts participation among young people in Derby – to ‘broaden their horizons’. The intervention itself ran from September 2018 and the evaluation was commissioned in February 2019. The evaluation took a mixed method and broadly ‘realist’ approach, first locating the programme in the wider literature related to social mobility, education and ‘essential life skills’, and then assessing a range of qualitative and quantitative data about the programme and its impacts on young people. The report is structured reviews the wider literature on social mobility, education and essential life skills and assesses evidence from multiple sources about the effectiveness of the #ThisIsDerby programme in developing Essential Life Skills among young people who participated.
    • Conflict narratives, action frames, and engagement in reconciliation efforts among community activists in Northern Ireland.

      Rafferty, Rachel; University of Derby (American Psychological Association (APA), 2020-02)
      Reconciliation involves a sustained change in how groups perceive and interact with one another, at all levels of society. However, in many conflict-affected societies, only a small minority of individuals work actively toward this goal and it is not clearly understood how motivations to engage in reconciliation efforts can become more widespread. This study investigates the conflict narratives and action frames of activists in a conflict-affected society, and explores how these relate to different degrees of engagement in reconciliation efforts. In-depth interviews were conducted with 27 community activists in Northern Ireland in 2014; 14 were strongly engaged in reconciliation efforts and 13 had limited or no engagement in reconciliation efforts. Thematic analysis of the interview transcripts revealed that reconciliation activists articulated conflict narratives and action frames that differed markedly from those articulated by community activists who have little or no engagement in reconciliation efforts. These findings contribute to a better understanding of the role of interpretative processes, such as narratives and framing, in alternatively supporting or reducing individuals’ motivations to work toward social reconciliation in a conflict-affected society. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2020 APA, all rights reserved)
    • Derby city joint cultural needs analysis for the derby creative arts network and reimagine projects

      Nunn, Alexander; Turner, Royce; University of Derby (University of Derby, 2020-02)
    • Behavioural thatcherism and nostalgia: tracing the everyday consequences of holding thatcherite values

      Farrall, Stephen; Gray, Emily; Jones, Phillip Mike; Hay, Colin; University of Derby; University of Sheffield (Palgrave, 2020-01-21)
      With the passing of time and the benefit of hindsight there is, again, growing interest in Thatcherism – above all in its substantive and enduring legacy. But, to date at least, and largely due to data limitations, little of that work has focussed on tracing the behavioural consequences, at the individual level, of holding Thatcherite values. That oversight we seek both to identify more clearly and to begin to address. Deploying new survey data, we use multiple linear regression and structural equation modelling to unpack the relationship between ‘attitudinal’ and ‘behavioural’ Thatcherism. In the process we reveal the considerably greater behavioural consequences of holding neo-liberal, as distinct from neo-conservative, values whilst identifying the key mediating role played by social, political and economic nostalgia. We find that neo-liberal values are positively associated with Behavioural Thatcherism, whilst neo-conservative values are negatively associated with Behavioural Thatcherism. In exploring the implications we also reveal some intriguing interaction effects between economic nostalgia and neo-conservative values in the centre-left vote for Brexit. In the conclusion we reflect on the implications of these findings for our understanding of the legacy of Thatcherism and, indeed, for Brexit itself.
    • A comparative study on social service sector workers' working conditions

      Lee, Sung-Hee; University of Derby (Korea Institute for Health and Social Affairs, 2020-01)
      This study aims to examine the characteristics of the social service labor market through the empirical analysis of international comparative perspectives on the social service labor market and to seek policy directions for improving the labor market in Korea. Theoretically discuss the relationship between welfare system and social service labor market and empirically analyze caring policy. Examine working conditions and wage decisions of social service workers from a time and space perspective. LIS data is not the continuous time series data, but 4th (1995), 5th (2000), 6th (2004), 7th (2007), 8th (2007), 9th (2013). ) And 10th order (2016), so we plan to examine the temporal flow through the order data of the main points. In the same vein, we want to analyze the wage level and determinants of workers in the social service industry and to read the implications of the Korean social service labor market from a comparative social policy perspective.
    • Understanding radicalisation: issues for practitioners, communities and the state

      Henry, Philip M.; University of Derby (Palgrave MacMillan, 2020)
    • Beyond the policy rhetoric: the limitations of gender mainstreaming in South Korea relating to women and childcare

      Lee, Sung-Hee; University of Derby (Cambridge University Press, 2019-12-26)
      This article examines the limitations of the gender mainstreaming discourse regarding the issue of childcare by women in South Korea, an area of responsibility that was transferred from the Ministry of Health and Welfare (MHW) to the Ministry of Gender Equality (MGE)1 in 2003. Through employing a discursive institutionalism approach, this article articulates that whilst the gender mainstreaming discourse has been interpreted at the surface level of politics, it has been formulated differently behind the scenes due to various policy interests. I argue that the discourse has remained at the level of superficial political rhetoric with underdeveloped understanding about the relationship between childcare and gender, thus retaining a stereotypical view of women as caregivers.
    • Rights, resources and relationships: A ‘three Rs’ framework for enhancing the resilience of refugee background youth

      Rafferty, Rachel; University of Otago (Routledge, 2019-11-08)
      This chapter argues that national education systems can reduce structural violence towards refugee background youths by acting to enhance the youths’ educational resilience. It aims to define educational resilience as the ability to overcome the significant challenges to learning and achieve positive educational outcomes. The chapter suggests for how the rights, resources, and relationships (three R) framework can be translated into educational policy and practice, and considers the case of refugee background youth within the education system of Aotearoa New Zealand, a society where decades of educational policy have been shaped by neoliberal ideology. Ecological models of resilience draw on Bronfenbrenner’s social-ecological model of human development, where the child is viewed as a social being who grows up nested within a unique ecology of social systems. The chapter outlines a number of ways that schools and education systems can translate three Rs concepts into practices that will enhance the educational resilience of refugee background students.
    • South Africa's foreign policy and evolving role conceptions: a crisis of international identity

      Masters, Lesley; Schiavon, Jorge; University of Derby (Peter Lang, 2019-10-31)
      South Africa’s transition to democracy in 1994 saw a substantial shift in the perceived international role for South Africa, from a position in defence of the domestic policy of apartheid, to the outwards orientated approach of universalism. The challenge, as this section argues, is that in the South African context the national role conception, or the image of what role the country should play in international relations, has failed to ‘settle’ despite continuity of foreign policy on paper. As Mills (1997) argues, the search for a new ‘image’ has seen Pretoria ‘leaning all over the place’ on the international stage. The result has been perceptible challenges in reconciling foreign policy ambitions and ideals with implementation in practice; where confusion around what role to adopt has made it difficult to predict the country’s international actions.
    • Social reproduction strategies: Understanding compound inequality in the intergenerational transfer of capital, assets and resources

      Nunn, Alexander; Tepe-Belfrage, Daniela; University of Derby; University of Liverpool (SAGE, 2019-10-30)
      This paper focuses on the way that households respond to ‘global pressures’ by adapting their social reproduction strategies (SRS). We understand SRS to encapsulate the more or less consciously developed day-to-day and inter-generational responses to the social conditions that households confront and their own motivations and aspirations for the future. Yet, due to a range of extant inequalities of accumulated and dynamic resources – some of which are material and some of which are at once ethereal and embodied in the concrete labouring capacities of individuals – we argue that SRS and capacities to pursue them differ widely. Differences are conditioned by positionality, access to information and the construction of ‘economic imaginaries’ as well as material resources. By looking at these different expressions of SRS we highlight how they reinforce macro-scale socio-economic pressures, creating what we term ‘compound inequality’ into the future. Compound inequalities result from different behavioural responses to socio-economic conditions, inequality and (perceived or real) insecurity, which have the potential to exaggerate inequality and insecurity into the future. Inequalities do not just arise from formal economic markets then but also from the realm of social reproduction.
    • The longitudinal association between resting heart rate and psychopathic traits from a normative personality perspective

      Kavish, Nicholas; Bergstrøm, Henriette; Piquero, Alex R.; Farrington, David P.; Boutwell, Brian B.; Sam Houston University; University of Derby; The University of Texas at Dallas; University of Cambridge; University of Mississippi (Springer Science and Business Media LLC, 2019-10-23)
      A large body of research has accumulated investigating the possibility of an association between resting heart rate and psychopathic traits, with meta-analysis suggesting a modest, negative association. Some recent research suggests that prior findings of an association between heart rate and psychopathy may be influenced by inclusion of antisocial behavior in the assessment of psychopathic traits. The current study explores this possibility in a longitudinal sample of British males by comparing resting heart rate at age 18 to psychopathy assessed from a Five Factor Model perspective and from the Psychopathy Checklist: Screening Version (PCL:SV) at age 48. Our psychopathic personality scale, created using the Big Five Inventory (BFI), was significantly correlated with the PCL:SV and was most related to the antisocial factor. In correlation analyses, resting heart rate at age 18 was not significantly related to BFI psychopathy, but was positively related to BFI Openness and Conscientiousness, and these associations held up after controlling for childhood SES, BMI at 18, and whether the participant smoked during the age 18 assessment. Additional analyses controlling for smoking status were conducted to address the biasing effect of smoking on heart rate during the age 18 assessment and a significant, albeit weak, negative association between resting heart rate and BFI psychopathy emerged. Future research should replicate these results using other normative personality approaches to assess psychopathic traits.
    • The role of radical economic restructuring in truancy from school and engagement in crime

      Farrall, stephen; Gray, Emily; Jones, Philip Mike; University of Derby (Oxford University Press, 2019-07-28)
      Of late, criminologists have become acutely aware of the relationship between school outcomes and engagement in crime as an adult. This phenomenon – which has come to be known as the ‘school-to-prison-pipeline’ – has been studied in North America and the UK, and requires longitudinal datasets. Typically, these studies approach the phenomenon from an individualist perspective and examine truancy in terms of the truants’ attitudes, academic achievement or their home-life. What remains unclear however is a consideration of a) how macro-level social and economic processes may influence the incidence of truancy, and b) how structural processes fluctuate over time, and in so doing produce variations in truancy rates or the causal processes associated with truancy. Using longitudinal data from two birth cohort studies, we empirically address these blind-spots and test the role of social-structural processes in truancy, and how these may change over time
    • Council house sales, homelessness and contact with the criminal justice system: Evidence from the NCDS and BCS70 birth cohorts.

      Farrall, Stephen; Gray, Emily; Jones, Phil; University of Derby (Elsevier, 2019-07-26)
      Focussing on the changes in sitting tenants’ right to buy their council house (introduced in the UK in 1980), we explore the long-term impact of this policy change upon the lives of UK citizens. Using two longitudinal studies of UK citizens born in 1958 and 1970, we exam how policies aimed at achieving one set of goals (providing families with their own homes, reducing the control of councils and weakening the Labour Party’s voting bloc) may have also altered experiences of housing, homelessness, and contact with the criminal justice system not just for those for whom the policies were initially designed (adults living in council owned properties in the 1980s) but also for subsequent generations (most typically their children). Our contribution examines how legislative changes may have altered the lives of citizens, and highlights some of the unintended consequences of the ‘right to buy’ in the UK. We are able to investigate what happens when systems which have previously been tightly regulated suddenly become much less well regulated. Our paper utilises ideas developed by life-course theorists and historical institutionalists in order to understand in more depth how radical policy changes may shape and alter the lives of citizens.
    • Syrian foreign policy. The alliances of a regional power.

      Belcastro, Francesco; University of Derby (Routledge, 2019-07-01)
      Syrian Foreign Policy analyses the pivotal alliances of Damascus using a theoretical framework based on neoclassical realism, an approach which incorporates domestic factors succh as the role of ideology within a realist perspective. Covering Syria’s relations with Egypt, Iraq, Jordan, Saudi Arabia, Iran and the Soviet Union, it asks the question: what led to the formation of each alliance and what has caused either its break up or its continuation? Belcastro seeks to answer this questions, but also reflects on the country’s foreign policy today and its broader implications for Syria and the whole region.
    • Neoliberalisation, fast policy transfer and the management of labor market services

      Nunn, Alex; University of Derby (Taylor & Francis, 2019-06-27)
      Neoliberalism has been a core concern for IPE for several decades, but is often ill-defined. Research offering greater definitional clarity stresses the role of contingent and local level factors in diverse processes of neoliberalisation. This paper contributes to that literature, addressing a surprising gap in critical IPE knowledge; the management practices by which pressures to activate the unemployed and to make them more competitive, are implemented. The paper suggests that performance management, is significant as both a depoliticising policy coordination mechanism and a highly politicised policy implementation practice. The paper invokes a scalar-relational approach which sees the pressure to innovate and compete at lower scales as driven by the political economy of competitiveness at the system scale. The paper reports on research undertaken within the empirical frame of EU meta-governance, showing how performance management is part of lower-scale attempts to adapt to system-scale pressures. It is neoliberalising in both form and content. It concludes by showing that while performance management may be a significant component of neoliberalisation there is scope for engagement and contestation motivated by egalitarian ideals. Critical IPE scholars interested in contesting neoliberalisation should therefore engage with the political economy of management practice as well as policy design.