• Falling Down: The Conservative Party and the Decline of Tory Britain

      Burton-Cartledge, Phil; University of Derby (Verso, 2021-09)
      Despite winning the December 2019 General Election, the Conservative parliamentary party is a moribund organisation. It no longer speaks for, nor to, the British people. Its leadership has sacrificed the long-standing commitment to the Union to “Get Brexit Done.” And beyond this, it is an intellectual vacuum, propped up by half-baked doctrine and magical thinking. Falling Down offers an explanation for how the Tory party came to position itself on the edge of the precipice and offers a series of answers to a question seldom addressed: as the party is poised to press the self-destruct button, what kind of role and future can it have? This tipping point has been a long time coming and Burton-Cartledge offers critical analysis to this narrative. Since the era of Thatcherism, the Tories have struggled to find a popular vision for the United Kingdom. At the same time, their members have become increasingly old. Their values have not been adopted by the younger voters. The coalition between the countryside and the City interests is under pressure, and the latter is split by Brexit. The Tories are locked into a declinist spiral, and with their voters not replacing themselves the party is more dependent on a split opposition—putting into question their continued viability as the favoured vehicle of British capital.
    • Africa, the Fourth Industrial Revolution, and digital diplomacy: (Re)negotiating the international knowledge structure

      Masters, Lesley; University of Derby (Taylor and Francis, 2021-08-20)
      The Fourth Industrial Revolution (4IR) builds on the exponential growth of digital capacities, blurring the lines between the physical and digital spheres. Following its recognition as a phenomenon at the 2016 World Economic Forum, analysis has mainly focused on assessing the socio-economic challenges and benefits that advancements in science, technology and innovation hold. Yet there remains a shortfall in understanding the impact of these digital technologies from the perspective of international relations and diplomacy, particularly on questions of equality, governance, and emerging transnational relations. For Africa, participation in negotiating the international governance of digital technologies is critical in mitigating a peripheral role in the international knowledge structure, ensuring transformational rather than transactional relations when it comes to the 4IR. This article argues that analysis of digital diplomacy as diplomacy for digital technology – ie, negotiating the governance of digital technologies – provides a useful lens for critically assessing Africa vis-à-vis the 4IR .
    • Defining the Platform of Positive Peace

      Standish, Katerina; Devere, Heather; Suazo, Adan; Rafferty, Rachel; University of Otago; University of Derby (Palgrave Macmillan, 2021-07-23)
      After a brief introduction of typical notions of peace, this chapter ventures to trace the idea of positive peace in recent scholarship to establish how the term is utilized in the PACS world. It then endeavors to introduce each editorial domain within this handbook including a synopsis of each form of intervention theoretically followed immediately by a summary of the chapters that inhabit the PALGRAVE Handbook of Positive Peace.
    • Why the initiative of free childcare failed to be an effective policy implementation of universal childcare in South Korea

      Lee, Sung-Hee; University of Derby (Taylors & Francis Online, 2021-07-22)
      Free childcare (‘moo-sang-bo-yuk’ in Korean) for all children aged 0-5 was implemented for the first time in South Korea in 2012, initially being aimed at establishing universal childcare in order to alleviate parents’ childcare burden. Despite the headlines grabbing policy reform, it still remains questionable whether the policy implementation has had any positive impact on parents’ childcare burden, in terms of the state taking on more responsibility in this regard. The paper is aimed at exploring how the meaning of universal childcare was communicated during the policy initiation process. In order to do so, interpretative policy analysis was utilised as a methodological approach, whilst relevant policy documents and in-depth interviews were used for data collection. Why the policy implementation could not succeed in bringing universal childcare to the fore is critically examined. I argue that these failings occurred because the policy implementation was placed on the agenda with a lack of commitment to increasing the number of public childcare centres, as well as disengagement from understanding the gender relations necessary for delivering universal childcare effectively.
    • The Effect of Lighting on Crime Counts

      Fotios, Steve; Robbins, Chloe; Farrall, Stephen; University of Sheffield; University of Derby (MDPI, 2021-07-07)
      The influence of lighting on crime was investigated by considering the effect of ambient light level on crimes recorded in three US cities for the ten-year period 2010 to 2019. Crime counts were compared for similar times of day, before and after the biannual clock change, therefore employing an abrupt change of light level but without an obvious intervention such as improving road lighting in an area. The results suggest a significant increase in robbery during darkness, confirming previous studies. The results also suggest darkness leads to an increase in arson and curfew loitering offenses, and to a decrease in disorderly conduct, family offences (non-violent) and prostitution. Future research investigating the effectiveness of improved street lighting should consider that this may not be beneficial for all types of crime.
    • Who are the victims of electoral fraud in Great Britain? Evidence from Survey Research

      Farrall, Stephen; Wilks-Heeg, Stuart; Rober, Struthers; Gray, Emily; University of Derby; University of Liverpool; BMG Research, Birmingham (Springer, 2021-07-07)
      Interest in electoral integrity and the validity and accuracy of election results has come to the fore as a topic of concern both amongst politicians and academic researchers in the last twenty years. The literature has identified a number of key variables and processes associated with electoral fraud, and lower levels of integrity. However, one deficiency with this research is that it has relied on the perceptions of fraud and malpractice, rather than first-hand data on the extent of such behaviour. In this paper we report on the results of a novel small-scale survey of people in Britain in which respondents reported some of their direct experiences of electoral fraud in recent national elections. The results indicate that the rates of electoral fraud are currently around six to eight per cent, but that this rises for members of some ethnic minority groups. We end by raising another question: if we can identify victims of electoral fraud, how are we to redress this victimisation?
    • Darker Deals? Male Dark Tetrad preferences for female sex worker services

      Hughes, Sara; Adhikari, Joanna; Goulding, Katharine; Sheffield Hallam University; University of Derby (Elsevier BV, 2021-06-24)
      The present study explored links between male Dark Tetrad personality traits (psychopathy, Machiavellianism, narcissism, sadism) and preferences for using outdoor and indoor female sex worker services. We also investigated the mediating effects of perceiving sex workers as deviant and as victims. Heterosexual males ( N = 347) were recruited to take part in an online survey investigating personality and attitudes towards female sex workers. Path analyses revealed that psychopathy and sadism positively predicted preferences for outdoor but not indoor female sex services. Sex worker choice mediated positive links between narcissism and outdoor female sex worker preferences. Compared to indoor, outdoor sex services are associated with increased aggression and violence. Our findings highlight the importance of considering narcissism and particularly psychopathy and sadism when investigating individual male preferences for outdoor sex services that are being offered by particularly vulnerable women.
    • Beyond Expansion or Restriction? Models of Interaction between the Living Instrument and Margin of Appreciation Doctrines and the Scope of the ECHR

      Ita, Rachael; Hicks, David; De Montfort University; University of Derby (Brill, 2021-06-23)
      The living instrument doctrine of the European Court of Human Rights (ECtHR) is criticized as restricting the margin of appreciation of States and expanding the scope of the European Convention on Human Rights (ECHR). Systematic examination of this claim is usually overlooked in the context of the relationship between the admissibility and merits phase of ECtHR cases. This paper considers this claim in the context of jurisdictional arguments on incompatibility ratione materiae (subject matter outside the scope of the Convention) and the link to the merits of the case. Case law of the ECtHR from January 1979 to December 2016 is assessed to elaborate four models of interaction between the margin of appreciation and living instrument doctrines. This paper argues the need to go beyond consideration of expansion and restriction of the scope of the ECHR, and to assess the Court’s appetite for allocating new duties to States based upon the case arguments and positioning of living instrument and margin of appreciation doctrines.
    • Derbyshire Virtual School: Creative Mentoring Programme Final Report

      Nunn, Alexander; Turner, Royce; Adhikari, Joanna; Brooks, Catherine; University of Derby (Derby Virtual School, 2021-06)
    • The Problems of Starmerism

      Burton-Cartledge, Phil; University of Derby (Wiley, 2021-05-06)
      The 2017 and 2019 general elections showed a strong bedrock of Labour support among the working age population and particularly the under thirties. This is a consequence both of long-term changes to the composition of class cohorts, political events, and the experience of a decade of Conservative governments, whose policies have shielded the retired and the elderly. These conditions have not changed and, under the impact of Covid-19 are, if anything, sharpening. The challenge of the Labour Party's new leadership under Keir Starmer is keeping hold of this crucial component of the party's electoral coalition while making inroads into Tory support. Initial movement in the polls suggests he is on course for achieving the latter, but positions taken on Black Lives Matter, the government's coronavirus strategy, and a managerialist oppositional style recalls the triangulation strategy associated with the Blair years. This article considers the possibilities and dangers of adopting this approach.
    • Chasing a pot of gold: an analysis of emerging recovery-oriented addiction policies in Flanders (Belgium) and the Netherlands

      Bellaert, Lore; Martinelli, Thomas; Vanderplasschen, Wouter; Best, David; van de Mheen, Dike; Vander Laenen, Freya; Ghent University; Tilberg University, The Netherlands; University of Derby (Taylor and Francis, 2021-04-26)
      Following the paradigm shift to recovery in the Anglophone world, recovery is also gaining momentum in drug policy and practice in Flanders (Belgium) and the Netherlands. Since the meaning of recovery is being debated internationally, broadening the assessment of how the recovery framework is applied in policy discourse and how it is implemented in various international contexts is imperative. This com parative policy analysis aims to assess similarities and differences in addiction recovery vision, imple mentation, and evaluation in Flanders and the Netherlands. The thematic analysis draws upon a triangulation of different data collection methods: a focus group (n ¼ 14) and interviews (n ¼ 21) with key figures in the addictions field, followed by analyses of relevant policy documents (n ¼ 9). Our find ings show that a holistic vision of addiction recovery is endorsed in both countries. Although differen ces in policy development occurred (i.e. centrally driven in Flanders versus ‘bottom-up’ in the Netherlands), similar challenges emerged concerning recovery-oriented addiction policies. While policy makers in Flanders and the addiction sector in the Netherlands strongly proclaim recovery, structural implementation, dedicated funding, and systematic evaluation of recovery-oriented policies are lacking. This study suggests that systematic inclusion of experts by experience and aligning government and practice level funding and policies are crucial.
    • Politics, research design, and the ‘architecture’ of criminal careers studies

      Farrall, Stephen; University of Derby (Oxford University Press, 2021-04-22)
      Criminal careers research is one of the bedrocks – if not the bedrock – of criminology. It remains a key focal point of criminological research, and has embraced ideas and theorising from sociology, psychology, psychiatry and urban and community studies. Despite the widening of the landscape of what might be termed ‘the criminological enterprise’ (to include victimology, prisons research, punishment, deterrence, and environmental criminology), criminal careers (now differentiated into studies of onset, persistence and desistance) remains a key plank of criminology. This article critiques the research design of longitudinal studies of criminal careers, arguing that a key explanatory factor has been consistently overlooked in criminal careers research, due, in part, to the research design of such studies. In focussing on the role of politically-motivated changes to economic policies and the re-structuring of the industrial base this produced, I empirically relate individual offending careers to politics in way very few have done before. The article touches upon a series of suggestions for how empirical studies of criminal careers might be improved.
    • Gender differences in theory of mind, empathic understanding, and moral reasoning in an offending and a matched non-offending population

      Spenser, Karin; Bull, Ray; Betts, Lucy; Winder, Belinda; University of Derby; Nottingham Trent University (Sage, 2021-04-15)
      Previous research suggests that a lack of pro-social skills is characteristic of an offending personality. Two hundred male and female offenders and matched controls completed measures to assess: Theory of Mind, empathic understanding, and moral reasoning. Significant differences between the offenders and the control group, as well as between the male and female participants, were detected in theory of mind, empathic understanding and moral reasoning with offenders scoring lower than the control group, and with males scoring lower than females on most tests. The ability to assess Theory of Mind, empathic understanding, and moral reasoning, and subsequently to identify reduced ability, is not only useful for researchers but will also allow practitioners to tailor existing (or develop new) interventions specific to the needs of individuals. This could be particularly useful in terms of recidivism when applied to those involved in anti-social or offending behaviour.
    • Mobile agency and relational webs in women’s narratives of international study

      Anderson, Vivienne; Cone, Tiffany; Rafferty, Rachel; Inoue, Naoko; University of Otago; Asian University for Women; University of Derby; Daito Bunka University (Springer, 2021-04-14)
      Internationalisation and forced migration are rarely thought about as related phenomena in higher education (HE) literature. Internationalisation is associated with movement, choice and brand recognition, and used in international rankings methodologies as a proxy for quality. Forced migration is associated with movement, but also with lack of choice, containment, or ‘stuckness’. Some scholars have called for a rethinking of ‘the international’ through attention to students as mobile agents, and international study situated within broader mobile lives. Our study responded to these calls through exploring the educational biographies of 37 international and refugee-background women students based in two universities: 21 in New Zealand, and 16 in Bangladesh. Ten of the women were from refugee or refugee-like backgrounds, while the remainder, were international students. The women’s accounts revealed the complex ways in which circumstances shaped their educational journeys similarly and differently. One woman represented mobility in relation to autonomy and choice; but most emphasised relational webs as shaping their access to and experiences of international study, and post-study aspirations. In this paper, we draw on selected narratives to illustrate the range of ways in which family and/or community members appeared in women’s accounts of their education journeys: as a source of (1) sustenance and support; (2) inspiration and motivation; and (3) obligation, and sometimes, regulation. We conclude by suggesting that attention to the affective and embodied entanglements that shape students’ international study journeys might inform new ways of thinking about both ‘the international’ and higher education more broadly.
    • Justice capital: A model for reconciling structural and agentic determinants of desistance

      Best, David; Hamilton, Sharynne; Hall, Lauren; Bartels, Lorana; University of Derby; University of Western Australia; University of Lincoln; Australian National University (SAGE, 2021-04-08)
      The emerging literature on desistance (and recovery from addictions) has focused on key life-course transitions that can be characterised as the need for jobs (meaningful activities), friends (transitioning to pro-social) and houses (a home free from threat). The term ‘recovery capital’ is used to characterise personal, social and community resources an individual can draw upon to support their recovery, partly bridging agentic (per sonal) and structural (community) factors. The development of the concept of ‘justice capital’ furthers this reconciliation, by focusing on resources an individual can access and the resources that an institution can provide. We build on this by outlining the concept of institutional justice capital (IJC) to examine the role of criminal justice insti tutions in supporting or suppressing justice capital, particularly for marginalised groups. We use a case study approach, drawing on recent studies in prisons in Australia and the United Kingdom to develop a model of justice capital at an institutional level and discuss how this can shape reform of prisons and can be matched to the needs of offenders. The paper concludes with a discussion of future directions in implementing an IJC model, to deliver a strengths-based approach to promoting desistance and creating a metric for assessing the rehabilitative activities of institutions.
    • The Strengths and Barriers Recovery Scale (SABRS): Relationships matter in building strengths and overcoming barriers

      Best, David; Sondhi, Arun; Brown, Lorna; Nisic, Mulka; Martinelli, Thomas; van de Mheen, Dike; Vanderplasschen, Wouter; University of Derby; Therapeutic Solutions (Addictions), London; Recovered Users Network (RUN), Brussels, Belgium; et al. (Frontiers, 2021-03-26)
      There is a well-established relationship between isolation and both morbidity and mortality in the context of addiction recovery, yet the protective effects of intimate and familial relationships have not been adequately assessed. The current paper uses the European Life In Recovery database to assess the association between relationship status and living with dependent children on recovery capital of people in recovery from drug addiction, operationalised by the Strengths And Barriers Recovery Scale (SABRS). The study participants were drawn from the REC-PATH study and supplemented by a second sample recruited by the Recovered Users Network (RUN) across various European countries, resulting in a combined sample of 1,313 individuals completing the survey, primarily online. The results show that, in recovery, those who are married or co habiting reported significantly greater recovery strengths and fewer barriers to recovery, and reported greater gains in recovery capital across their recovery journeys. Similar associations are found for participants who have dependent children living with them. There is also some indication that this association is stronger for female than for male participants. Finally, having more people that one can rely on and a greater proportion of people in recovery in the social network are both linked to greater recovery capital and greater self-reported growth in recovery capital. We conclude that this study provides further evidence in favour of a “social cure” in recovery, in which close familial ties are associated with stronger recovery resources
    • WAF0042 - Inquiry: Women in the Armed Forces: From Recruitment to Civilian Life

      Spenser, Karin; Childs, Carrie; Adhikari, Joanna; University of Derby (UK Parliament, 2021-03-03)
      It is acknowledged that once military service is complete, personnel embark on a long metaphorical journey back to civilian life. Women military service leavers (WMSLs) are the fastest growing segment of the armed forces, and for them this transition can be even more traumatic than for their male counterparts. Whilst, it is recognised that to make this change seamless, they must have timely access to high quality women-centric services, it is suggested that such support is both limited and male-focused. Interviews and focus groups were conducted with eight WMSLs to gain a better understanding of the transition from military to civilian life. Thematic analysis was adopted to identify themes and subthemes. Two main themes were identified from the narratives – an environment of stress and long-term impact of service. Both themes are composed of several subthemes, which capture aspects of each main theme. Findings suggest the being in the military is stressful for all, but there is a perceived lack of support for WMSLs as they move into to civilian life. Their struggle with issues such as housing, employment and mental health was noted. Therefore, this research concludes that women need specific support during and after their military career.
    • Work-family policy expansion and the idea of social investment: the cases of Germany, England, South Korea and Japan

      Lee, Sung-Hee; Mohun Himmelweit, Samuel; University of Derby; London School of Economics (Policy Press, 2021-02-26)
    • Worrying Times: The fear of crime and nostalgia

      Farrall, Stephen; University of Derby (Taylor and Francis, 2021-02-24)
      As well as finding empirical relationships between victimisation, key socio-demographic variables, and various psychological and environmental processes, criminologists have long suspected that the feelings now identified, corralled together and labelled as ‘the fear of crime’ have roots in the wider shifts in the social, economic bases of society. In this paper, and using survey data from a nationally-representative sample of Britons aged over 16 (n = 5781), we explore the relationships between feelings of political and social nostalgia and the fear of crime. We find that nostalgia is indeed strongly related to crime fears, and, indeed, stronger even than variables such as victimisation, gender, and age (three of the frequently cited associates of fear). We go on to explore these relationships further in terms of different socio-economic classes, and relate feelings of nostalgia and fear to their recent (i.e. post-1945) historical trajectories.
    • Estimating a treatment effect on reoffending by people in prison with an alcohol use disorder: a national matched propensity score analysis

      Sondhi, Arun; Leidl, Alessandro; Best, David; Therapeutic Solutions (Addictions) London; Statistical Services Centre, Reading, UK; University of Derby (Routledge, 2021-02-23)
      Little is known as to the efficacy of treatment interventions for an alcohol use disorder (AUD) to reduce reoffending. A quasi-experimental propensity score matched observational study was deployed to calculate the average treatment effect on reoffending for people in prison with an AUD exposed to prison-based treatment compared to a matched control group. A one-to-one match without replacement followed by a marginal Cox proportional hazards time-to-event model with the treatment group only were also run. No statistically signifi cant difference in reoffending rates and risk of reoffending on release were noted. Analyses suggest that the treatment group were more likely to be treated for binge drinking than individuals assessed who commit crime due to their consump tion of alcohol. The English treatment model is an opportunity to create an enhanced system that integrates public health whilst addressing recidivism. Further work is required assess ing the effect of multiple treatments on reoffending