• Work-family policy expansion and the idea of social investment: the cases of Germany, England, South Korea and Japan

      Lee, Sung-Hee; Mohun Himmelweit, Samuel; University of Derby; London School of Economics (Policy Press, 2021-02-26)
    • Foreign policy and EU-Africa relations: From the European security strategy to the EU global strategy

      Masters, Lesley; Landsberg, Chris; University of Johannesburg, South Africa; University of Derby (Routledge, 2020-12-31)
      In November 2017 the fifth EU-Africa summit took place in Abidjan, Cote d’Ivoire. It presented an opportunity to showcase the EU’s ‘new’ approach to international affairs, the Global Strategy (2016). As the most recent contribution to the EU’s foreign policy framework there has been a burgeoning body of analysis considering its content (what has changed, and what has stayed the same). But what does the Global Strategy really mean for the EU’s external relations? The challenge of foreign policy is that what is set out in rhetoric often finds a different form in practice. This chapter argues that it is the divergence between the stated EU foreign policy principles and what happens in practice that has resulted in cooling EU-Africa relations. Even where policy priorities convergence, as in the role of multilateralism in the promotion of principles and norms, in practice the EU and AU differ on how this should be approached. While the EU Global Strategy looks to reconcile foreign policy gaps through ‘principled pragmatism’, given the inward-looking nature of the strategy and the AU’s own emphasis on developing its international agency, EU-AU relations will continue to be adrift.
    • Changing socio-religious realities: Practical negotiation of transitions in the governance of religion or belief, state and society

      Weller, Paul; University of Derby (Peeters, 2020-12)
      This article argues for the importance of developing forms of governance with regard to the relationship between religion or belief, state and society in Europe so as to better reflect and “reality-match” the contemporary socio-religious realities characteristic of a continuing Christian inheritance along with an increasing secularity and growth in religious plurality, than do current patterns that usually embody privilege for a particular Christian Church or Churches largely derived from Christendom models. Having noted that recognising a need for change, deciding on a direction for change, and actually implementing change are three different things, the article draws on a social contextualist approach to the application of negotiation theory in relation to organizational change as developed by Charles Samuelson and David Messick (1995) in order to illuminate factors that can either hinder and / or facilitate such developments.
    • Sport, politics and the struggle over ‘normalization’ in post-Oslo Israel and Palestine

      Belcastro, Francesco; University of Derby (Taylor and Francis (Informa UK Limited), 2020-11-22)
      This article uses sport as a theoretical tool to analyse Palestinian–Israeli relations in the post-Oslo era. It does so by looking at two major sport events, the start of the Giro d’Italia cycling race and the Israel–Argentina football match. These two events were scheduled to take place in Israel and the Occupied Territories within a month of each other, in May and June of 2018, respectively. Despite frequent claims of its ‘neutral’ and ‘apolitical’ nature, sport is closely intertwined with issues of identity, representation, community and nation. This is particularly true in contexts characterized by conflict and divisions. Sport and major sport events are particularly relevant considering post-Oslo developments in Israel and the Occupied territories. With any hope of a solution within the Oslo framework now seemingly faded, and the situation on the ground clearly favouring Israel and its allies, the actors are now vying over what this article defines as ‘normalization of the status quo’. This study will show of sport events analysed are central to the strategies carried out by the main actors in the conflict, and therefore how sport can provide a unique tool to analyse recent developments in Israel and the Occupied Territories.
    • Are members of mutual aid groups better equipped for addiction recovery? European cross-sectional study into recovery capital, social networks, and commitment to sobriety

      Martinelli, Thomas F.; van de Mheen, Dike; Best, David; Vanderplasschen, Wouter; Nagelhout, Gera E.; University of Derby (Informa UK Limited, 2020-11-09)
      An increasing body of evidence shows that informal mutual aid groups benefit those in addiction recovery. However, attention for mutual aid groups in practice and policy varies internationally and is only recently emerging in continental Europe. Existing evidence is mostly limited to studies of Alcoholics Anonymous groups in the United States. The aim of this cross-sectional study is to examine the relationship between membership of a variety of mutual aid groups and recovery capital, participation in social networks, and commitment to sobriety for individuals in drug addiction recovery (N ¼ 367), living in the UK, the Netherlands, and Belgium. A convenience sample of participants completed an extensive assessment about their recovery experiences. Sixty-nine percent of participants reported lifetime (ever) membership of different mutual aid groups. Analyses reveal that membership of mutual aid groups is strongly associated with more participation and (self-reported) changes in social networks, greater levels of recovery capital, and a stronger commitment to sobriety. The findings suggest that participation in mutual aid groups may support addiction recovery through multiple mechanisms of change in favor of recovery. These findings highlight how mutual aid support may complement formal addiction treatment.
    • Staff reports of bullying and intervention strategies in Croatian care and correctional institutions for youth

      Sekol, Ivana; Farrington, David; Department of Criminology and Social Sciences, University of Derby; University of Cambridge (Sage, 2020-10-21)
      This study compares staff reports of bullying amongst institutionalized youth with residents’ own self-reported prevalence of bullying and victimization collected in the previous study (hereafter the Self-Report Study on Bullying in Croatian Residential Care (SSBCRC)) and staff reports of reduction strategies are compared with evidence-based proposed policy solutions arising from residents’ reports. The study also compares reduction strategies used by staff with evidence-based proposed policy solutions arising from residents’ reports arising from the SSBCRC. One hundred and forty staff from 20 Croatian youth facilities completed an anonymous questionnaire. The results revealed that staff estimates of the prevalence of bullying and victimization were significantly lower than resident reports. Staff were better aware of the prevalence of certain types of bullying, but they held stereotypical views of bullies and victims and had difficulties in recognizing the true times and places of bullying. Staff described their anti-bullying policies as being predominantly reactive, rather than proactive and evidence-based. It is concluded that more effort needs to be made in order to change the current anti-bullying policies used by staff.
    • Resistance and reproduction: An arts-based investigation into young people’s emotional responses to crime

      Gray, Emily; Dodsley, Thomas; University of Derby (Oxford University Press (OUP), 2020-10-21)
      This paper reports on a qualitative study of young people’s emotional responses to crime, underpinned by cultural criminology and interpretive phenomenology. It uses alternative approaches to explore young people’s ‘fears’ of crime via the use of arts-based methods, specifically performative drama and focus groups. The rationale is rooted in young people’s voices being largely absent from fear of crime research and the increased movement towards a more creative and less prescriptive criminology. The findings point towards the value of such approaches and argue that young people’s emotions about crime become highly gendered and age-relevant in youth and have multiple, overlapping spheres that are culturally constructed, resisted and reproduced.
    • Estimating a treatment effect on recidivism for correctional multiple component treatment for people in prison with an alcohol use disorder in England

      Sondhi, Arun; Leidi, Alessandro; Best, David; Therapeutic Solutions (Addictions) Ltd, London, UK; Statistical Services Centre, Reading, UK; University of Derby (Springer Science and Business Media LLC, 2020-10-15)
      There is an emerging literature on the impact of correctional substance abuse treatment (SAT) on reoffending for people in prison with substance misuse issues. This study estimates a pathway effect for people in prison receiving multiple component treatments for an alcohol use disorder (AUD) to reduce reoffending by applying treatment effect estimation techniques for observational studies. Treatment groups comprised pharmacological treatments, psychosocial interventions (PSIs) and interventions that incorporate Risk Need Responsivity (RNR) programming. RNR compliant treatment matches treatment dose to the risk of reoffending, targets criminogenic need and is tailored to a person’s learning style. Multiple treatment effect estimators are provided for people in prison diagnosed with an AUD in England when compared to a derived control group for: Pharmacological treatment only; RNR compliant treatment and PSIs. The outcomes for RNR compliant treatment suggest a lower recidivism rate compared to the control group. Pharmacological only treatment results in a statistically significant higher level of reoffending relative to the control group. The creation of a universal system of ‘equivalence of care’ framed within a public health context in English correctional SAT may have had an unintended consequence of diluting approaches that reduce recidivism. There is an opportunity to develop an integrated, cross-disciplinary model for correctional SAT that unites public health and RNR compliant approaches.
    • Underpinning prosociality: Age related performance in theory of mind, empathic understanding, and moral reasoning

      Spenser, Karin; Bull, Ray; Betts, Lucy; Winder, Belinda; University of Derby; Nottingham Trent University (Elsevier BV, 2020-09-06)
      This paper investigates the idea that Theory of Mind (ToM), empathic understanding and moral reasoning are linked, and together contribute to prosocial behaviour. All three cognitive processes are explored in adolescents (aged 14–17 years), young-adults (aged 18–24 years) and middle-adults (aged 25–55). A statistically significant age-related difference was found on all measures between the adolescent group and the middle-adult group. Except for verbal ToM, all measures detected a statistically significant age-related difference between the adolescent group and the young adult group. However, except for verbal and visual ToM, no statistically significant age-related difference was found between the young-adult and middle-adult groups. A small to medium positive association was found between each of the five measures. These findings suggest that beyond adolescence ToM, empathic understanding, and moral reasoning might be improved which could be useful to researchers and practitioners interested in the later enhancement of prosociality in older individuals.
    • Politics, social and economic change and crime: exploring the impact of contextual effects on offending trajectories

      Farrall, Stephen; Gray, Emily; Jones, Phillip Mike; University of Derby (Sage, 2020-08-11)
      Do government policies increase the likelihood that some citizens will become persistent criminals? What is the role of other organisations and institutions in mediating offending over the life-course? Using concepts derived from criminology (such as the idea of a ‘criminal career’, an individual’s repeated, longitudinal sequence of offending), and concepts such as the life-course from sociology, this paper assesses the outcome of macro-level economic policies on individuals’ engagement in crime from age 10 to 30. Whilst many studies have explored the impact of 1980s ‘New Right’ governments on welfare spending, housing and the economy, few studies in political science, sociology or criminology have directly linked macro-economic policies to individual offending careers. Employing individual-level longitudinal data, we track a sample of Britons born in 1970 from childhood to adulthood, examining their offending trajectories between ages 10 and 30, and hence through a period of dramatic economic and social change in the UK throughout the early-1980s, during which the economy was dramatically restructured. As such, we are primarily concerned with the effects of economic policies on an individual’s repeated offending. Using data from the British 1970 Birth Cohort Study, we develop a model that incorporates individuals, families and schools, and which takes account of national-level economic policies (which were driven by New Right political ideas) and which, we argue, shaped individual offending careers. Our paper suggests that processes of economic restructuring were a key causal factor in offending during this period. This broader framework also emphasises the importance of considering political and economic forces in criminal careers and related research. The paper therefore encourages criminologists to draw upon ideas from political science when developing explanations of offending careers, and shows how the choices over the political management of the economy encourage individual-level responses.
    • Building Recovery Capital through Community Engagement: A Hub and Spoke Model for Peer-based Recovery Support Services in England

      Best, David; Higham, David; Pickersgill, Ged; Higham, Kerrie; Hancock, Richard; Critchlow, Theresa; University of Derby; The Well (Informa UK Limited, 2020-07-02)
      There is a growing evidence base that recovery is contagious and its primary mechanism of spread is through peer champions and groups. This paper examines a model of peer-based recovery support services from Cumbria, England, that uses a hub and spoke method to create visible recovery while actively engaging with and supporting community growth. Three case studies are used to illustrate how peer engagement, using the principles of community connection and assertive linkage, can offer core resources to a local community. The key conclusion is that sustainability of recovery communities rests on effective community engagement and meeting the needs of those communities.
    • Comparing three stages of addiction recovery: long-term recovery and its relation to housing problems, crime, occupation situation, and substance use

      Martinelli, Thomas F.; Nagelhout, Gera E.; Bellaert, Lore; Best, David; Vanderplasschen, Wouter; van de Mheen, Dike; University of Derby (Informa UK Limited, 2020-06-24)
      Many studies on addiction recovery focus on recovery initiation and short-term outcomes for alcohol addictions. In this study, we examine associations between three recovery stages and recovery markers for persons in drug addiction recovery. Data were collected for a multi-country study (REC-PATH) among 722 individuals living in the UK, the Netherlands, and Belgium, who consider themselves in addiction recovery for a period of three months or more. We focus on typical life domains that characterize recovery: housing, crime, work or education, and substance use. The relation with time in recovery was examined for three recovery stages: early (<1 year), sustained (1–5 years), and stable (>5 years). Using the Life in Recovery survey, cross-sectional analyses reveal that participants in later recovery stages have lower odds of having housing problems, being involved in crime, and using illicit hard drugs and higher odds of having work or education, when compared to participants in the early recovery stage. This study provides further empirical support for defining drug addiction recovery as a gradual, long-term process that is associated with various life domains beyond abstinence. The findings suggest that drug policy, treatment and research need to be oriented towards long-term objectives and recovery goals that cover multiple life domains in order to support stable recovery.
    • Measuring capital in active addiction and recovery: the development of the strengths and barriers recovery scale (SABRS)

      Best, David; Vanderplasschen, Wouter; Nisic, Mulka; University of Derby; University of Ghent, Henri Dunantlaan 2, B-9000, Ghent; Belgium Recovered Users Network, Rue Archimede 17, 1000, Brussels, Belgium (Springer Science and Business Media LLC, 2020-06-16)
      The international Life In Recovery (LiR) surveys have provided an important message to the public and policy makers about the reality of change from addiction to recovery, consistently demonstrating both that there are marked gains across a range of life domains and that the longer the person is in recovery the better their recovery strengths and achievements. However, to date, no attempt has been made to quantify the Life In Recovery scales and to assess what levels of change in removing barriers and building strengths is achieved at which point in the recovery journey. The current study undertakes a preliminary analysis of strengths and barriers from the Life in Recovery measure, using data from a European survey on drug users in recovery (n = 480), and suggests that the instrument can be edited into a Strengths And Barriers Recovery Scale (SABRS). The new scale provides a single score for both current recovery strengths and barriers to recovery. The resulting data analysis shows that there are stepwise incremental changes in recovery strengths at different recovery stages, but these occur with only very limited reductions in barriers to recovery, with even those in stable recovery typically having at least two barriers to their quality of life and wellbeing. Greater strengths in active addiction are associated with greater strengths and resources in recovery. As well as demonstrating population changes in each of the domains assessed, the current study has shown the potential of the Life In Recovery Scale as a measure of recovery capital that can be used to support recovery interventions and pathways.
    • From victimisation to restorative justice: developing the offer of restorative justice

      Shapland, Joanna; Burn, Daniel; Crawford, Adam; Gray, Emily; University of Sheffield; University of Leeds; University of Derby (Eleven International Publishing, 2020-06)
      Restorative justice services have expanded in England and Wales since the Victim’s Code 2015. Yet evidence from the Crime Survey for England and Wales shows that in 2016-2017 only 4.1 per cent of victims recall being offered such a service. This article presents the evidence from an action research project set in three police forces in England and Wales, which sought to develop the delivery of restorative justice interventions with victims of adult and youth crime. We depict the complexity intrinsic to making an offer of restorative justice and the difficulties forces experienced in practice, given the cultural, practical and administrative challenges encountered during the course of three distinct pilot projects. Points of good practice, such as institutional buy-in, uncomplicated referral processes and adopting a victim-focused mindset are highlighted. Finally, we draw the results from the different projects together to suggest a seven-point set of requirements that need to be in place for the offer of restorative practice to become an effective and familiar process in policing.
    • Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19): Forecast of an emerging urgency in Pakistan

      Chaudhry, Rabia M; Hanif, Asif; Chaudhary, Muhammad; Minhas, Sadia; Mirza, Khalid; Asif, Tahira; Gilani, Syed A; Kashif, Muhammad; University of Lahore, Pakistan; University of Derby; et al. (Cureus, Inc., 2020-05-28)
      Novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a global challenge due to little available knowledge and treatment protocols. Thus, there is a great need for collecting data related to COVID-19 from all around the world. Hence, we conducted this study, collecting daily data on COVID-19, to map the epidemiology outbreak and forecast its trajectory for May 2020. The data was collected from the officially released reports of the National Institute of Health (NIH), Pakistan, and the World Health Organization (WHO). The analysis was done using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) version 23 (IBM Corp., Armonk, NY), and forecasting was done using a simple moving average in time series modeler/expert modeler. The purpose of this study is to draw the attention of international, as well as national, governing bodies to the rapidly rising number of COVID-19 cases in Pakistan, and the urgency of evaluating the efficacy of the currently implemented strategy against COVID-19. According to this study, there is now an alarming increase in the number of COVID-19 patients in Pakistan, despite a contained spread in the beginning. The predicted number of COVID-19 cases can go over 35,000 by the end of May 2020. It is crucial for governing bodies, administrators, and researchers to re-evaluate the current situation, designed policies, and implemented strategies.
    • The cross-country transmission of credit risk between sovereigns and firms in Asia

      Yiling, Zha; David, Power; Nongnuch, Tantisantiwong; University of Derby; University of Dundee; Nottingham Trent University (Elsevier, 2020-05-17)
      This paper uses Credit Default Swap (CDS) data for Asian reference entities to examine cross-country credit risk spillover effects between sovereigns and firms. Data for three East Asian countries (China, Japan and South Korea) over the period 2009-2018 are analysed. We analyse changes in the CDS spreads of a sovereign debtor and those of a foreign firm via a bivariate GARCH-full-BEKK model; thus, spillovers in mean spread changes as well as in volatility are considered. The main findings indicate that strong credit risk interdependence exists between the East Asian countries given that credit shocks from a common creditor such as Japan appear to spill over to the other two Asian nations. Compared to their non-financial counterparts, financial institutions are more sensitive than non-financial firms to changes in the credit risk of a foreign sovereign debtor; financial institutions such as banks may hold debt of foreign sovereigns which makes their CDSs sensitive to this source of credit risk.
    • Violence and the crime drop

      Ganpat, Soenita; Garius, Laura; Andromachi, Tseloni; Tilley, Nick; University of Derby; Nottingham Trent University; University College London (Sage, 2020-05-15)
      According to the Crime Survey for England and Wales, violence fell dramatically between 1995 and 2013/14. To improve understanding of the fall in violent crime, this study examines long-term crime trends in England and Wales over the past two decades, by scrutinizing the trends between (a) stranger and acquaintance violence (b) severity of violence, (c) age groups, and (d) sexes. It draws on nationally-representative, weighted data from the Crime Survey for England and Wales, and examines prevalence, incidence and crime concentration trends. The overall violence fall was driven by a decline in the victimisation of young individuals and/or males, perpetrated by acquaintances since 1995. Stranger and acquaintance violence followed different trajectories, with the former beginning to drop post 2003/04. Falls in both stranger and acquaintance violence incidence rates were led by fewer victims over time. Counting all incidents reported by the same victim (instead of capping at five incidents) significantly affects trends in stranger violence but not in acquaintance violence In relation to the distributive justice within the crime drop, this study provides unique evidence of equitable falls in acquaintance violence but inequitable falls in stranger violence. These findings highlight the need to examine violence types separately and point to a number of areas for future research.
    • The effects of local socio-political events on group cohesion in online far-right communities

      Bliuc, Ana-Maria; Betts, John M.; Faulkner, Nicholas; Vergani, Matteo; Chow, Rui Jie; Iqbal, Muhammad; Best, David; University of Dundee; Monash University, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia; Deakin University, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia; et al. (Public Library of Science (PLoS), 2020-03-30)
      In recent years, the reach and influence of far-right ideologies have been extended through online communities with devastating effects in the real world. In this research, we examine how far-right online communities can be empowered by socio-political events that are significant to them. Using over 14 years of data extracted from an Australian national sub-forum of a global online white supremacist community, we investigate whether the group cohesion of the community is affected by local race riots. Our analysis shows that the online community, not only became more cohesive after the riots, but was also reinvigorated by highly active new members who joined during the week of the riots or soon after. These changes were maintained over the longer-term, highlighting pervasive ramifications of the local socio-political context for this white supremacist community. Pre-registered analyses of data extracted from other white supremacist online communities (in South Africa and the United Kingdom) show similar effects on some of the indicators of group cohesion, but of reduced magnitude, and not as enduring as the effects found in the context of the Australian far-right online community.
    • Examining the association between childhood cognitive ability and psychopathic traits at age 48

      Kavish, Nick; Bergstrøm, Henriette; Narvey, Chelsey; Piquero, Alex R.; Farrington, David P.; Boutwell, Brian B.; Sam Houston University; University of Derby; The University of Texas at Dallas; The University of Texas at Dallas; et al. (American Psychological Association, 2020-03-01)
      Despite early theorists suggesting that psychopathic traits are associated with higher intelligence, meta-analytic work has found that global psychopathy scores are actually negatively related to intelligence, albeit weakly. Furthermore, it was reported in the same meta-analytic work that the various dimensions of psychopathy were differentially related to intelligence. Importantly, virtually all of the research to date has relied on cross-sectional associations. The current study examined whether intelligence scores (verbal comprehension, non-verbal IQ, and a global intelligence composite) at age 8 were associated with psychopathy scores at age 48 in a sample of white, urban males from London (analytical n = 292). Results suggested a significant, but weak, inverse association between intelligence and the affective, lifestyle, and antisocial facets of psychopathy and a nonsignificant association with the interpersonal facet, as assessed by the Psychopathy Checklist: Screening Version. These findings contribute to the growing body of evidence suggesting that psychopathy, as conceptualized in most modern models, is either very weakly inversely related to, or simply not a correlate of intelligence.
    • Police misconduct, protraction and the mental health of accused police officers

      McDaniel, John L.M.; Moss, Kate; Pease, Ken; Singh, Paramjit; University of Wolverhampton; University of Derby (Routledge, 2020-02-25)
      The chapter describes findings from a research project carried out in collaboration with one UK police force. The project was designed to examine and understand the force’s welfare practices towards officers accused of misconduct and the impact of prolonged misconduct investigations on the mental health and well-being of police officers, specifically police officers who were subsequently exonerated. The aim was to identify new opportunities for mental health support, points of avoidable delay, demotivation and embitterment, and stress-reducing possibilities throughout the misconduct process, and to produce a simple and clear evidence-based set of recommendations for improvement.