• Underpinning prosociality: Age related performance in theory of mind, empathic understanding, and moral reasoning

      Spenser, Karin; Bull, Ray; Betts, Lucy; Winder, Belinda; University of Derby; Nottingham Trent University (Elsevier BV, 2020-09-06)
      This paper investigates the idea that Theory of Mind (ToM), empathic understanding and moral reasoning are linked, and together contribute to prosocial behaviour. All three cognitive processes are explored in adolescents (aged 14–17 years), young-adults (aged 18–24 years) and middle-adults (aged 25–55). A statistically significant age-related difference was found on all measures between the adolescent group and the middle-adult group. Except for verbal ToM, all measures detected a statistically significant age-related difference between the adolescent group and the young adult group. However, except for verbal and visual ToM, no statistically significant age-related difference was found between the young-adult and middle-adult groups. A small to medium positive association was found between each of the five measures. These findings suggest that beyond adolescence ToM, empathic understanding, and moral reasoning might be improved which could be useful to researchers and practitioners interested in the later enhancement of prosociality in older individuals.
    • Religion and belief, discrimination and equality in England and wales religion and belief, discrimination and equality in England and Wales: interim findings and emergent themes

      Weller, Paul; Contractor, Sariya; University of Derby (2012-09-05)
      Issues around discrimination and equality in religion or belief are sensitive and highly contested, involving freedom of conscience and speech; religious activity in community and public life; employer and service provider responsibilities. They connect with understandings of religion, social policy and the law. Put alongside issues of gender and sexual orientation, there has often been tension and conflict. The “Religion and Belief, Discrimination and Equality in England and Wales: Theory, Policy and Practice (2000-2010)” research project is in its final year. It aims to be a benchmark study, including comparison with results of 1999-2001 research on “Religious Discrimination in England in Wales”. The completed research includes a national questionnaire survey of religious organisations and fieldwork among religious, public, private and voluntary sector groups (including focus groups with the “non-religious”). Review of legal cases and policy developments continues while a review on religious discrimination evidence was published in 2011 by the Equality and Human Rights Commission (http://www.equalityhumanrights.com/uploaded_files/research/research_report_73_religious_discrimination.pdf). At the conference it will be possible to present some provisional findings and emergent themes which will then be tested further during Autumn 2012 in a series of Knowledge Exchange Workshops with practitioners from the public, private, voluntary, religion and belief, and legal sectors.
    • Religion and belief, discrimination and equality in England and wales religion and belief, discrimination and equality in England and Wales: interim findings and emergent themes

      Weller, Paul; Contractor, Sariya; University of Derby (AHRC/ESRC Religion and Society Research Programme Podcasts, 2012-09-05)
      Issues around discrimination and equality in religion or belief are sensitive and highly contested, involving freedom of conscience and speech; religious activity in community and public life; employer and service provider responsibilities. They connect with understandings of religion, social policy and the law. Put alongside issues of gender and sexual orientation, there has often been tension and conflict. The “Religion and Belief, Discrimination and Equality in England and Wales: Theory, Policy and Practice (2000-2010)” research project is in its final year. It aims to be a benchmark study, including comparison with results of 1999-2001 research on “Religious Discrimination in England in Wales”. The completed research includes a national questionnaire survey of religious organisations and fieldwork among religious, public, private and voluntary sector groups (including focus groups with the “non-religious”). Review of legal cases and policy developments continues while a review on religious discrimination evidence was published in 2011 by the Equality and Human Rights Commission (http://www.equalityhumanrights.com/uploaded_files/research/research_report_73_religious_discrimination.pdf). At the conference it will be possible to present some provisional findings and emergent themes which will then be tested further during Autumn 2012 in a series of Knowledge Exchange Workshops with practitioners from the public, private, voluntary, religion and belief, and legal sectors.
    • Controversies as a lens on change

      Weller, Paul; University of Derby; Weller, P., and Winter., N. (2012). ‘Controversies as a lens on change’ [Podcast]. 16 February. Available at: http://www.religionandsociety.org.uk/publications/podcasts/show/paul_weller_controversies_as_a_lens_on_change. (AHRC/ESRC Religion and Society Research Programme Podcasts, 2012-02-16)
      “Controversies as a lens on change” is the title of the opening chapter of Religion and Change in Modern Britain (published Feb 2012 by Routledge). In this podcast Norman Winter is in conversation with one of the joint authors of this chapter, Paul Weller. Professor Weller has worked in the field of inter-faith and multi-faith studies at the University of Derby for over 20 years. He is Principal Investigator on Religion and Society project Religion and Belief, Discrimination and Equality in England and Wales: Theory, Policy and Practice (2000-2010). The co-writer of this chapter was Malory Nye, the Principal of the Al-Maktoum College of Higher Education in Dundee. In this chapter the authors view highly-publicised arguments and conflicts as markers of underlying trends, revealing the changing concerns about religion which have engaged the public from the Second World War to the present. Paul Weller talks about the changing nature of the media which has also contributed to how those conflicts and concerns have been portrayed, especially with the advent of new media which have brought new immediacy and interactivity. The chapter moves forward in time. In the early part of the period the Christian Church and its legacy were still dominant, and arguments often revolved around deviation from that tradition, for instance in the 1963 publication of “Honest to God”, or expressions of anxiety about cults and new religious movements. Debate and dispute regarding other major world faiths gradually gained prominence. In the 1970s, local residents in Hertfordsire opposed the establishment of a Hindu place of worship at Bhaktivedanta Manor. Then in 1989, some time after its original publication, Salman Rushdie’s novel “The Satanic Verses” sparked highly-publicised outrage among Muslims, with TV images of book-burning. This was fuelled further when the supreme leader of Iran, the Ayatollah Khomeini, pronounced Rushdie to be an apostate, and a bounty was put upon his death. More recent controversies have revealed further conflicts between rights and freedoms, both within faiths and between religion and society as a whole. There have been public arguments about Islamic dress and Islamist teaching. The play “Behzti” (2004) and the BBC2 screening of “Jerry Springer the Opera” (2005) provoked strong movements of opposition. New legal protections and rights, for instance in services offered to gay couples, prompted conservative Christian opposition. The chapter also describes the political and media discussion of the “failure of multiculturalism”.
    • The clash of civilisations thesis and religious responses

      Weller, Paul; University of Derby (Fatih University, 2010-12-25)
      The article describes key aspects of Samuel Huntington’s “Clash of Civilizations” thesis. It acknowledges the way in which that thesis has picked up on some key changes in relation to the role of religion in public life and, especially, in international relations. But it also critiques the thesis for its “essentializing” and “bloc” approach to cultures and societies, arguing that such an approach does not take sufficient account of the differences and sometimes fault-lines and conflicts within societies and cultural groups. For what might characterise appropriate religiously informed responses to Huntington’s thesis, the article proposes an approach based on four “keynotes” of “modesty”, “integrity”, “realism” and “distinctiveness”.
    • Social and transitional identity: exploring social networks and their significance in a therapeutic community setting

      Best, David; I. Lubman, Dan; Savic, Michael; Wilson, Ann; Dingle, Genevieve; Alexander Haslam, S.; Haslam, Catherine; Jetten, Jolanda; Turning Point Alcohol and Drug Centre, Eastern Health: Eastern Health, Fitzroy, Australia and Eastern Health Clinical School, Monash University, Melbourne, Australia; University of Queensland, Brisbane, Australia (Emerald, 2014-04-08)
      There is considerable literature indicating the importance of social connectedness and its relationship to wellbeing. For problem substance users, a similar literature emphasises the importance of the transition from a social network supportive of use to one that fosters recovery. Within this framework, the therapeutic community (TC) is seen as a critical location for adopting a transitional identity (i.e. from a “drug user” to a “member of the TC”), as part of the emergence of a “recovery identity” following treatment. The purpose of this paper is to outline a model for conceptualising and measuring identity based on the theories of social identity and recovery capital, and pilots this model within a TC setting. A social identity mapping was used with TC residents to test their identification with “using” and “TC” groups, and their relationship to recovery capital. The network mapping method was acceptable to TC residents, and provided valuable insights into the social networks and social identity of TC residents. This paper explores issues around mapping social identity and its potential in the TC and other residential settings. The paper integrates a number of conceptual models to create a new framework for understanding transitions in social networks during treatment and reports on a novel measurement method underpinning this.
    • A model for predicting clinician satisfaction with clinical supervision

      Best, David; White, Edward; Cameron, Jacqui; Guthrie, Anna; Hunter, Barbara; Hall, Kate; Leicester, Steve; Lubman, Dan I.; Monash University, Melbourne, VIC, Australia; University of New South Wales, Sidney, Australia; et al. (Informa UK Limited, 2014-01-06)
      Clinical supervision can improve staff satisfaction and reduce stress and burnout within the workplace and can be a component of organizational readiness to implement evidence-based practice. This study explores clinical supervision processes in alcohol and drug counselors working in telephone and online services, assessing how their experiences of supervision link to workplace satisfaction and well-being. Standardized surveys (Manchester Clinical Supervision Scale and the TCU Survey of Organizational Functioning) were completed by 43 alcohol and drug telephone counselors. Consistency of supervisors and good communication were the strongest predictors of satisfaction with clinical supervision, and satisfaction with supervision was a good predictor of overall workplace satisfaction.
    • Identity, politics, and the future(s) of religion in the UK: the case of the religion questions in the 2001 decennial census

      Weller, Paul; University of Derby (Taylor and Francis, 2004-01)
      With the publication of the results of the United Kingdom's decennial Census questions on religion it is important to situate this data within the wider social and religious contexts that led to the inclusion of these questions in the Census. This includes engagement with some of the issues likely to affect both the data itself and the uses to which it might be put. The varied forms of the questions on religion as asked in different parts of the UK are outlined within the context of a discussion of the scholarly taxonomy of religions. The questions are also explored in the light of the interplay between the varied categories of religions and the official ‘recognition’ implied by their use within the Census. Finally, the place of religious statistics within the ‘politics of identity’ as well as their potential contribution to the development of a communalist ‘identity politics’ are critically explored.
    • Foreign policy and EU-Africa relations: From the European security strategy to the EU global strategy

      Masters, Lesley; Landsberg, Chris; University of Johannesburg, South Africa; University of Derby (Routledge, 2020-12-31)
      In November 2017 the fifth EU-Africa summit took place in Abidjan, Cote d’Ivoire. It presented an opportunity to showcase the EU’s ‘new’ approach to international affairs, the Global Strategy (2016). As the most recent contribution to the EU’s foreign policy framework there has been a burgeoning body of analysis considering its content (what has changed, and what has stayed the same). But what does the Global Strategy really mean for the EU’s external relations? The challenge of foreign policy is that what is set out in rhetoric often finds a different form in practice. This chapter argues that it is the divergence between the stated EU foreign policy principles and what happens in practice that has resulted in cooling EU-Africa relations. Even where policy priorities convergence, as in the role of multilateralism in the promotion of principles and norms, in practice the EU and AU differ on how this should be approached. While the EU Global Strategy looks to reconcile foreign policy gaps through ‘principled pragmatism’, given the inward-looking nature of the strategy and the AU’s own emphasis on developing its international agency, EU-AU relations will continue to be adrift.
    • Politics, social and economic change and crime: exploring the impact of contextual effects on offending trajectories

      Farrall, Stephen; Gray, Emily; Jones, Phillip Mike; University of Derby (Sage, 2020-08-11)
      Do government policies increase the likelihood that some citizens will become persistent criminals? What is the role of other organisations and institutions in mediating offending over the life-course? Using concepts derived from criminology (such as the idea of a ‘criminal career’, an individual’s repeated, longitudinal sequence of offending), and concepts such as the life-course from sociology, this paper assesses the outcome of macro-level economic policies on individuals’ engagement in crime from age 10 to 30. Whilst many studies have explored the impact of 1980s ‘New Right’ governments on welfare spending, housing and the economy, few studies in political science, sociology or criminology have directly linked macro-economic policies to individual offending careers. Employing individual-level longitudinal data, we track a sample of Britons born in 1970 from childhood to adulthood, examining their offending trajectories between ages 10 and 30, and hence through a period of dramatic economic and social change in the UK throughout the early-1980s, during which the economy was dramatically restructured. As such, we are primarily concerned with the effects of economic policies on an individual’s repeated offending. Using data from the British 1970 Birth Cohort Study, we develop a model that incorporates individuals, families and schools, and which takes account of national-level economic policies (which were driven by New Right political ideas) and which, we argue, shaped individual offending careers. Our paper suggests that processes of economic restructuring were a key causal factor in offending during this period. This broader framework also emphasises the importance of considering political and economic forces in criminal careers and related research. The paper therefore encourages criminologists to draw upon ideas from political science when developing explanations of offending careers, and shows how the choices over the political management of the economy encourage individual-level responses.
    • Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19): Forecast of an emerging urgency in Pakistan

      Chaudhry, Rabia M; Hanif, Asif; Chaudhary, Muhammad; Minhas, Sadia; Mirza, Khalid; Asif, Tahira; Gilani, Syed A; Kashif, Muhammad; University of Lahore, Pakistan; University of Derby; et al. (Cureus, Inc., 2020-05-28)
      Novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a global challenge due to little available knowledge and treatment protocols. Thus, there is a great need for collecting data related to COVID-19 from all around the world. Hence, we conducted this study, collecting daily data on COVID-19, to map the epidemiology outbreak and forecast its trajectory for May 2020. The data was collected from the officially released reports of the National Institute of Health (NIH), Pakistan, and the World Health Organization (WHO). The analysis was done using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) version 23 (IBM Corp., Armonk, NY), and forecasting was done using a simple moving average in time series modeler/expert modeler. The purpose of this study is to draw the attention of international, as well as national, governing bodies to the rapidly rising number of COVID-19 cases in Pakistan, and the urgency of evaluating the efficacy of the currently implemented strategy against COVID-19. According to this study, there is now an alarming increase in the number of COVID-19 patients in Pakistan, despite a contained spread in the beginning. The predicted number of COVID-19 cases can go over 35,000 by the end of May 2020. It is crucial for governing bodies, administrators, and researchers to re-evaluate the current situation, designed policies, and implemented strategies.
    • Understanding radicalisation: issues for practitioners, communities and the state

      Henry, Philip M.; University of Derby (Palgrave MacMillan, 2020)
    • Derby city joint cultural needs analysis for the derby creative arts network and reimagine projects

      Nunn, Alexander; Turner, Royce; University of Derby (University of Derby, 2020-02)
    • The cross-country transmission of credit risk between sovereigns and firms in Asia

      Yiling, Zha; David, Power; Nongnuch, Tantisantiwong; University of Derby; University of Dundee; Nottingham Trent University (Elsevier, 2020-05-17)
      This paper uses Credit Default Swap (CDS) data for Asian reference entities to examine cross-country credit risk spillover effects between sovereigns and firms. Data for three East Asian countries (China, Japan and South Korea) over the period 2009-2018 are analysed. We analyse changes in the CDS spreads of a sovereign debtor and those of a foreign firm via a bivariate GARCH-full-BEKK model; thus, spillovers in mean spread changes as well as in volatility are considered. The main findings indicate that strong credit risk interdependence exists between the East Asian countries given that credit shocks from a common creditor such as Japan appear to spill over to the other two Asian nations. Compared to their non-financial counterparts, financial institutions are more sensitive than non-financial firms to changes in the credit risk of a foreign sovereign debtor; financial institutions such as banks may hold debt of foreign sovereigns which makes their CDSs sensitive to this source of credit risk.
    • Violence and the crime drop

      Ganpat, Soenita; Garius, Laura; Andromachi, Tseloni; Tilley, Nick; University of Derby; Nottingham Trent University; University College London (Sage, 2020-05-15)
      According to the Crime Survey for England and Wales, violence fell dramatically between 1995 and 2013/14. To improve understanding of the fall in violent crime, this study examines long-term crime trends in England and Wales over the past two decades, by scrutinizing the trends between (a) stranger and acquaintance violence (b) severity of violence, (c) age groups, and (d) sexes. It draws on nationally-representative, weighted data from the Crime Survey for England and Wales, and examines prevalence, incidence and crime concentration trends. The overall violence fall was driven by a decline in the victimisation of young individuals and/or males, perpetrated by acquaintances since 1995. Stranger and acquaintance violence followed different trajectories, with the former beginning to drop post 2003/04. Falls in both stranger and acquaintance violence incidence rates were led by fewer victims over time. Counting all incidents reported by the same victim (instead of capping at five incidents) significantly affects trends in stranger violence but not in acquaintance violence In relation to the distributive justice within the crime drop, this study provides unique evidence of equitable falls in acquaintance violence but inequitable falls in stranger violence. These findings highlight the need to examine violence types separately and point to a number of areas for future research.
    • Charlie Hebdo and the prophet Muhammad: a multimodal critical discourse analysis of peace and violence in a satirical cartoon

      Kilby, Laura; Lennon, Henry; Sheffield Hallam University (Springer International Publishing, 2018-11-30)
      In this chapter, we examine how ideologies of peace and violence can be (re)produced and communicated via multiple semiotic forms that include, but are not restricted to, language. We grapple with the complexity and importance of the situated-ness of peace and violence, and consider, what does peace, indeed what can peace, look like in a social context where meaning and expression are both multiple and contested. To this end, we undertake a case study analysis, exploring how a multimodal text might be variously interpreted as an explicit display of peace and forgiveness, and yet simultaneously as an oppressive act which knowingly causes offense. In addressing these issues, we relate to Galtung’s (1996, p. 196) typology of violence, and we consider the issue of cultural violence, which he defines as “those aspects of culture, the symbolic sphere of our existence […] that can be used to legitimize direct or structural violence.
    • Desert island data: an investigation into researcher positionality

      Dean, Jon; Furness, Penny; Verrier, Diarmuid; Lennon, Henry; Bennett, Cinnamon; Spencer, Stephen; Sheffield Hallam University; University of Sheffield (SAGE Publications, 2017-06-22)
      The nature of qualitative research means that the personal values of an individual researcher can and do (unwittingly) shape the way in which they analyse data sets, and the resultant conclusions drawn. However this phenomenon is under-studied in social research and this article seeks to help rectify this. This article presents findings from a small research project focused on discourses of class, masculinity and work among British male comedians from working-class backgrounds, interviewed on the popular BBC Radio 4 radio programme Desert Island Discs. Six different researchers, from varying disciplinary, methodological and theoretical groundings, as well as from varying personal backgrounds, analysed three interview recordings and transcripts separately. All the researchers wrote up their individual analyses of these interviews and wrote reflexive pieces examining why they thought they approached the data as they did. The researchers then came together as a group to compare and contrast findings and approaches. The results from this study, including the discrepancies and distinctions and final group analysis, are reported alongside a thorough discussion of the project’s methodology. We find that the project evidenced how a diverse research team can bring out deeper and richer analyses, and was a refreshing way to try and answer questions of individual and collective positionality.
    • Police misconduct, protraction and the mental health of accused police officers

      McDaniel, John L.M.; Moss, Kate; Pease, Ken; Singh, Paramjit; University of Wolverhampton; University of Derby (Routledge, 2020-02-25)
      The chapter describes findings from a research project carried out in collaboration with one UK police force. The project was designed to examine and understand the force’s welfare practices towards officers accused of misconduct and the impact of prolonged misconduct investigations on the mental health and well-being of police officers, specifically police officers who were subsequently exonerated. The aim was to identify new opportunities for mental health support, points of avoidable delay, demotivation and embitterment, and stress-reducing possibilities throughout the misconduct process, and to produce a simple and clear evidence-based set of recommendations for improvement.
    • Out of sight: social control and the regulation of public space in Manchester

      Moss, Christopher J.; Moss, Kate; University of Wolverhampton (MDPI AG, 2019-05-09)
      This paper considers the history and context of the control of public spaces, how this is regulated currently and how it relates to the politics of homelessness and community governance with a specific focus on the regulation of public space in the contemporary city of Manchester.
    • A study of women rough sleepers in four European countries

      Moss, Kate; University of Wolverhampton (University of Wolverhampton, 2018-12-31)
      This paper details the findings of a two year empirical study, funded by the Daphne III Programme of the European Commission, which investigated the issue of women’s rough sleeping in four EU countries. The objectives of the research were to increase the knowledge base relating specifically to women rough sleepers who had suffered domestic abuse and to enhance knowledge and expertise in this field, thus informing future pan European policy. The research revealed specific findings about the context and nature of women’s homelessness, including the fact that many of the current issues that prevail in relation to this social problem have common themes across Europe.