Recent Submissions

  • Beyond the policy rhetoric: the limitations of gender mainstreaming in South Korea relating to women and childcare

    Lee, Sung-Hee; University of Derby (Cambridge University Press, 2019-12-26)
    This article examines the limitations of the gender mainstreaming discourse regarding the issue of childcare by women in South Korea, an area of responsibility that was transferred from the Ministry of Health and Welfare (MHW) to the Ministry of Gender Equality (MGE)1 in 2003. Through employing a discursive institutionalism approach, this article articulates that whilst the gender mainstreaming discourse has been interpreted at the surface level of politics, it has been formulated differently behind the scenes due to various policy interests. I argue that the discourse has remained at the level of superficial political rhetoric with underdeveloped understanding about the relationship between childcare and gender, thus retaining a stereotypical view of women as caregivers.
  • South Africa's foreign policy and evolving role conceptions: a crisis of international identity

    Masters, Lesley; Schiavon, Jorge; University of Derby (Peter Lang, 2019-10-31)
    South Africa’s transition to democracy in 1994 saw a substantial shift in the perceived international role for South Africa, from a position in defence of the domestic policy of apartheid, to the outwards orientated approach of universalism. The challenge, as this section argues, is that in the South African context the national role conception, or the image of what role the country should play in international relations, has failed to ‘settle’ despite continuity of foreign policy on paper. As Mills (1997) argues, the search for a new ‘image’ has seen Pretoria ‘leaning all over the place’ on the international stage. The result has been perceptible challenges in reconciling foreign policy ambitions and ideals with implementation in practice; where confusion around what role to adopt has made it difficult to predict the country’s international actions.
  • The longitudinal association between resting heart rate and psychopathic traits from a normative personality perspective

    Kavish, Nicholas; Bergstrøm, Henriette; Piquero, Alex R.; Farrington, David P.; Boutwell, Brian B.; Sam Houston University; University of Derby; The University of Texas at Dallas; University of Cambridge; University of Mississippi (Springer Science and Business Media LLC, 2019-10-23)
    A large body of research has accumulated investigating the possibility of an association between resting heart rate and psychopathic traits, with meta-analysis suggesting a modest, negative association. Some recent research suggests that prior findings of an association between heart rate and psychopathy may be influenced by inclusion of antisocial behavior in the assessment of psychopathic traits. The current study explores this possibility in a longitudinal sample of British males by comparing resting heart rate at age 18 to psychopathy assessed from a Five Factor Model perspective and from the Psychopathy Checklist: Screening Version (PCL:SV) at age 48. Our psychopathic personality scale, created using the Big Five Inventory (BFI), was significantly correlated with the PCL:SV and was most related to the antisocial factor. In correlation analyses, resting heart rate at age 18 was not significantly related to BFI psychopathy, but was positively related to BFI Openness and Conscientiousness, and these associations held up after controlling for childhood SES, BMI at 18, and whether the participant smoked during the age 18 assessment. Additional analyses controlling for smoking status were conducted to address the biasing effect of smoking on heart rate during the age 18 assessment and a significant, albeit weak, negative association between resting heart rate and BFI psychopathy emerged. Future research should replicate these results using other normative personality approaches to assess psychopathic traits.
  • Staff reports of bullying and intervention strategies in Croatian care and correctional institutions for youth

    Sekol, Ivana; Farrington, David; Department of Criminology and Social Sciences, University of Derby; University of Cambridge (Sage, 2020-10-21)
    This study compares staff reports of bullying amongst institutionalized youth with residents’ own self-reported prevalence of bullying and victimization collected in the previous study (hereafter the Self-Report Study on Bullying in Croatian Residential Care (SSBCRC)) and staff reports of reduction strategies are compared with evidence-based proposed policy solutions arising from residents’ reports. The study also compares reduction strategies used by staff with evidence-based proposed policy solutions arising from residents’ reports arising from the SSBCRC. One hundred and forty staff from 20 Croatian youth facilities completed an anonymous questionnaire. The results revealed that staff estimates of the prevalence of bullying and victimization were significantly lower than resident reports. Staff were better aware of the prevalence of certain types of bullying, but they held stereotypical views of bullies and victims and had difficulties in recognizing the true times and places of bullying. Staff described their anti-bullying policies as being predominantly reactive, rather than proactive and evidence-based. It is concluded that more effort needs to be made in order to change the current anti-bullying policies used by staff.
  • Social reproduction strategies: Understanding compound inequality in the intergenerational transfer of capital, assets and resources

    Nunn, Alexander; Tepe-Belfrage, Daniela; University of Derby; University of Liverpool (SAGE, 2019-10-30)
    This paper focuses on the way that households respond to ‘global pressures’ by adapting their social reproduction strategies (SRS). We understand SRS to encapsulate the more or less consciously developed day-to-day and inter-generational responses to the social conditions that households confront and their own motivations and aspirations for the future. Yet, due to a range of extant inequalities of accumulated and dynamic resources – some of which are material and some of which are at once ethereal and embodied in the concrete labouring capacities of individuals – we argue that SRS and capacities to pursue them differ widely. Differences are conditioned by positionality, access to information and the construction of ‘economic imaginaries’ as well as material resources. By looking at these different expressions of SRS we highlight how they reinforce macro-scale socio-economic pressures, creating what we term ‘compound inequality’ into the future. Compound inequalities result from different behavioural responses to socio-economic conditions, inequality and (perceived or real) insecurity, which have the potential to exaggerate inequality and insecurity into the future. Inequalities do not just arise from formal economic markets then but also from the realm of social reproduction.
  • Bullying in adolescent residential care: The influence of the physical and social residential care environment

    Sekol, Ivana; Faculty of Education, University of Osijek, Croatia (Springer, 2015-10-28)
    To date, no study examined possible contributions of environmental factors to bullying and victimization in adolescent residential care facilities. By testing one part of the Multifactor Model of Bullying in Secure Setting (MMBSS; Ireland in Int J Adolesc Med Health 24(1):63–68, 2012), this research examined the way the physical and social residential environment relates to bullying and victimization in adolescent residential care. Young people aged 11–21 (N = 272) from ten residential institutions in Croatia completed: (a) an anonymous self-reported bullying questionnaire; (b) the social residential environment questionnaire; and (c) the physical residential environment questionnaire. The results demonstrated that both bullies and victims reported having significantly lower levels of perceived peer support than other residents. Male bullies also reported significantly lower levels of their overall wellbeing within their facilities and were significantly more likely than non-bullies to perceive their facilities as having problems with cleanliness and food. Male victims were significantly younger than non-victims. Female victims reported lower levels of their overall wellbeing than non-victims as well as poorer relationship with staff. The results are discussed with reference to the relevant prison and schoolbased bullying literature and directions for future research are provided. Overall, the findings of this study are consistent with the part of the MMBSS (Ireland 2012) examined and provide initial support for the notion that the special nature of the physical and social residential environment may be important in explaining bullying in care.
  • Personal characteristics of bullying victims in residential care for youth

    Sekol, Ivana; Farrington, David; Faculty of Education, University of Osijek, Croatia; University of Cambridge (Emerald, 2016-04-11)
    This research examined some personal characteristics of victims of bullying in residential care for youth. The paper aims to discuss these issues. The results demonstrated that male and female victims lacked self-esteem, presented with neurotic personality traits and were likely to believe that bullying was just part of life in residential care. Female victims also presented with lower levels of agreeableness and conscientiousness, while male victims were young and had a history of victimisation during their previous placement, in school and at the beginning of their current placements.Victims in care might benefit from programmes addressing their low self-esteem, high neuroticism and attitudes approving of bullying. Male residential groups should not accommodate young boys together with older boys. New residents who have a history of victimisation during their previous placement and in school should be supervised more intensively but in a manner that does not increase their perception of being victimised.The present study is the first work that examines individual characteristics of bullying victims in care institutions for young people. As such, the study offers some insights on how to protect residential care bullying victims.
  • The role of radical economic restructuring in truancy from school and engagement in crime

    Farrall, stephen; Gray, Emily; Jones, Philip Mike; University of Derby (Oxford University Press, 2019-07-28)
    Of late, criminologists have become acutely aware of the relationship between school outcomes and engagement in crime as an adult. This phenomenon – which has come to be known as the ‘school-to-prison-pipeline’ – has been studied in North America and the UK, and requires longitudinal datasets. Typically, these studies approach the phenomenon from an individualist perspective and examine truancy in terms of the truants’ attitudes, academic achievement or their home-life. What remains unclear however is a consideration of a) how macro-level social and economic processes may influence the incidence of truancy, and b) how structural processes fluctuate over time, and in so doing produce variations in truancy rates or the causal processes associated with truancy. Using longitudinal data from two birth cohort studies, we empirically address these blind-spots and test the role of social-structural processes in truancy, and how these may change over time
  • Council house sales, homelessness and contact with the criminal justice system: Evidence from the NCDS and BCS70 birth cohorts.

    Farrall, Stephen; Gray, Emily; Jones, Phil; University of Derby (Elsevier, 2019-07-26)
    Focussing on the changes in sitting tenants’ right to buy their council house (introduced in the UK in 1980), we explore the long-term impact of this policy change upon the lives of UK citizens. Using two longitudinal studies of UK citizens born in 1958 and 1970, we exam how policies aimed at achieving one set of goals (providing families with their own homes, reducing the control of councils and weakening the Labour Party’s voting bloc) may have also altered experiences of housing, homelessness, and contact with the criminal justice system not just for those for whom the policies were initially designed (adults living in council owned properties in the 1980s) but also for subsequent generations (most typically their children). Our contribution examines how legislative changes may have altered the lives of citizens, and highlights some of the unintended consequences of the ‘right to buy’ in the UK. We are able to investigate what happens when systems which have previously been tightly regulated suddenly become much less well regulated. Our paper utilises ideas developed by life-course theorists and historical institutionalists in order to understand in more depth how radical policy changes may shape and alter the lives of citizens.
  • Religious minorities and freedom of religion or belief in the UK

    Weller, Paul; Coventry University; University of Derby; Regent's Park College, University of Oxford (Brill, 2018-03-27)
    By particular reference to the polity of the UK, this article discusses issues and options for groups identified as "religious minorities" in relation to issues of "religious freedom". It does so by seeking to ensure that such contemporary socio-legal discussions are rooted empirically in the full diversity of the UK's contemporary religious landscape, while taking account of (especially) 19th century (mainly Christian) historical antecedents. It argues that properly to understand the expansion in scope and substance of religious freedom achieved in the 19th century that account needs to be taken of the agency of the groups that benefited from this. Finally, it argues this history can be seen as a "preconfiguration" of the way in which religious minorities have themselves acted as key drivers for change in relevant 20th and 21st century UK law and social policy and could continue to do so in possible futures post-Brexit Referendum.
  • South Africa's two track approach to science diplomacy

    Masters, Lesley; University of Johannesburg, South Africa (University of the Free State Press, 2016-06)
    While debate continues around the usefulness of the concept of Science Diplomacy, in practice international scientific relations are already facilitating diplomatic engagement, and diplomatic relations are supporting international scientific engagement. This interaction takes place in the context of the current global knowledge structure where industrialised or developed states are the “producers” of knowledge, and developing states the “consumers”. With science, technology and innovation integral to addressing transnational challenges, this article considers the expanding body of literature, which is primarily from developed states, highlighting the shortfall in understanding the role of developing states in science diplomacy. The article then considers developments in South Africa’s science diplomacy, arguing that Pretoria demonstrates a two-track approach; one that reflects the state’s pursuit of international recognition as a “producer” and exporter of knowledge at the centre of the global knowledge structure; and the second, where a shortfall in capacity and resources has increasingly seen the state as a “consumer” or importer of knowledge in meeting domestic priorities.
  • Theological ethics and interreligious relations: A baptist christian perspective

    Weller, Paul; University of Derby; Coventry University; Regent's Park College, University of Oxford (Stamfli Verlag, Switzerland, 2014-01-01)
  • South Africa’s parliamentary diplomacy and the “African agenda”

    Masters, Lesley; Nganje, Fritz; University of Johannesburg, South Africa (Brill, 2017-02-06)
  • The EU–South Africa strategic partnership: From bilateral to multilateral forums and the strategic value for South Africa

    Masters, Lesley; University of Johannesburg, South Africa (Taylor and Francis, 2017-07-06)
    Strategic partnerships are seen as a means of elevating bilateral relations between two countries, or in the case of the European Union (EU), relations between an intergovernmental organisation and its 10 identified strategic partners. There is a growing body of analysis on the value of these strategic partnerships for the two partner states, yet just what role this partnership has within wider multilateral forums is an area for further discussion. This article explores the role that the EU–South Africa Strategic Partnership plays in shaping engagement between the bilateral partners in multilateral contexts. In reviewing the partnership over the course of its first decade, the article argues that South Africa has increasingly acknowledged its potential value. However, further interrogation on how to manage the complex intersection between bilateral and multilateral relations is called for if the strategic partnership is to be used to optimal effect as a tool of foreign policy. © 2017 The South African Institute of International Affairs.
  • South Africa's post-apartheid foreign policy making and the role of the president

    Masters, Lesley; University of Johannesburg, South Africa (University of South Africa Press, 2017-01)
    Who makes South Africa’s foreign policy? This has been an area of continuous discussion following South Africa’s transition to democracy in 1994. In the foreign policy analysis discourse, considerable attention has been given to the role of the head of state and government in shaping foreign policy, particularly in developed countries. With South Africa’s own President assuming a predominant role in foreign policy, there is a need for further reflection on the impact of this position in foreign policy decision making. Using existing theory and current analysis this article highlights the different approaches adopted by South Africa’s first four democratically elected presidents, from the international statesmanship of Mandela, to the micro-management of Mbeki, the stabiliser role of Motlanthe and the consensus-building to absent leader position of Jacob Zuma. Drawing on Joseph Nye’s discussion of the characterisation of transformational and transactional leadership, this analysis traces the approaches of the different Presidents in shaping South Africa’s foreign policy and international engagement.
  • Religion and belief, equality and inequality in UK higher education

    Weller, Paul; Hooley, Tristram; University of Derby (Routledge, 2016-07-22)
  • IBSA's trilateral constellation and its development fund: Valuable pioneers in development cooperation?

    Masters, Lesley; Landsberg, Chris; University of Johannesburg, South Africa (Taylor and Francis, 2015-10-16)
    With a changing geopolitical landscape following the Northern-induced global financial meltdown, stagnation on global governance reform and failure to reach agreement on issues ranging from trade (Doha Development Round) to climate change (United Nations Convention on Climate Change), the India–Brazil–South Africa (IBSA) Dialogue Forum finds itself at the proverbial crossroads. At this point, with no summit having taken place since 2011, the future of IBSA is uncertain in part because the three IBSA partners have allowed ambivalence and lack of leadership to hold sway. Yet the current fluidity in the international environment has ironically meant that IBSA is more relevant and needed than ever before. IBSA is well placed to play a vital role in arresting the current trajectory of the global governance architecture, particularly when it comes to concerns of development. As this article argues, it is in the area of development cooperation that IBSA has found its niche in demonstrating the possibilities that development diplomacy and South–South cooperation avail, while challenging traditional norm conceptions when it comes to the future of international development financial institutions. Yet the question remains as to how this will be used going forward, as there is little strategic discussion between the trilateral partners on the future of development diplomacy and the IBSA Fund.
  • Building bridges? South African foreign policy and trilateral development cooperation

    Masters, Lesley; Institute for Global Dialogue, UNISA (Taylor and Francis, 2014-08-08)
    As questions concerning international development climb the international agenda, so countries find themselves drawn into a burgeoning number of negotiations on issues ranging from the future shape and direction of the post-2015 development agenda to ‘aid effectiveness’ and international development cooperation. Moving from the position of a ‘beneficiary’ state in the traditional donor–recipient aid hierarchy, South Africa is looking to define its own niche within the wider development diplomacy context as a development partner. This paper provides an assessment of South Africa’s evolving approach towards international development cooperation, with a particular focus on trilateral development cooperation, and what this means for Pretoria’s foreign policy in bridging the divide between developed and developing country positions within the international development regime.
  • Neoliberalisation, fast policy transfer and the management of labor market services

    Nunn, Alex; University of Derby (Taylor & Francis, 2019-06-27)
    Neoliberalism has been a core concern for IPE for several decades, but is often ill-defined. Research offering greater definitional clarity stresses the role of contingent and local level factors in diverse processes of neoliberalisation. This paper contributes to that literature, addressing a surprising gap in critical IPE knowledge; the management practices by which pressures to activate the unemployed and to make them more competitive, are implemented. The paper suggests that performance management, is significant as both a depoliticising policy coordination mechanism and a highly politicised policy implementation practice. The paper invokes a scalar-relational approach which sees the pressure to innovate and compete at lower scales as driven by the political economy of competitiveness at the system scale. The paper reports on research undertaken within the empirical frame of EU meta-governance, showing how performance management is part of lower-scale attempts to adapt to system-scale pressures. It is neoliberalising in both form and content. It concludes by showing that while performance management may be a significant component of neoliberalisation there is scope for engagement and contestation motivated by egalitarian ideals. Critical IPE scholars interested in contesting neoliberalisation should therefore engage with the political economy of management practice as well as policy design.
  • Syrian foreign policy. The alliances of a regional power.

    Belcastro, Francesco; University of Derby (Routledge, 2019-07-01)
    Syrian Foreign Policy analyses the pivotal alliances of Damascus using a theoretical framework based on neoclassical realism, an approach which incorporates domestic factors succh as the role of ideology within a realist perspective. Covering Syria’s relations with Egypt, Iraq, Jordan, Saudi Arabia, Iran and the Soviet Union, it asks the question: what led to the formation of each alliance and what has caused either its break up or its continuation? Belcastro seeks to answer this questions, but also reflects on the country’s foreign policy today and its broader implications for Syria and the whole region.

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