Recent Submissions

  • Foreign policy and EU-Africa relations: From the European security strategy to the EU global strategy

    Masters, Lesley; Landsberg, Chris; University of Johannesburg, South Africa; University of Derby (Routledge, 2020-12-31)
    In November 2017 the fifth EU-Africa summit took place in Abidjan, Cote d’Ivoire. It presented an opportunity to showcase the EU’s ‘new’ approach to international affairs, the Global Strategy (2016). As the most recent contribution to the EU’s foreign policy framework there has been a burgeoning body of analysis considering its content (what has changed, and what has stayed the same). But what does the Global Strategy really mean for the EU’s external relations? The challenge of foreign policy is that what is set out in rhetoric often finds a different form in practice. This chapter argues that it is the divergence between the stated EU foreign policy principles and what happens in practice that has resulted in cooling EU-Africa relations. Even where policy priorities convergence, as in the role of multilateralism in the promotion of principles and norms, in practice the EU and AU differ on how this should be approached. While the EU Global Strategy looks to reconcile foreign policy gaps through ‘principled pragmatism’, given the inward-looking nature of the strategy and the AU’s own emphasis on developing its international agency, EU-AU relations will continue to be adrift.
  • Politics, social and economic change and crime: exploring the impact of contextual effects on offending trajectories

    Farrall, Stephen; Gray, Emily; Jones, Phillip Mike; University of Derby (Sage, 2020-08-11)
    Do government policies increase the likelihood that some citizens will become persistent criminals? What is the role of other organisations and institutions in mediating offending over the life-course? Using concepts derived from criminology (such as the idea of a ‘criminal career’, an individual’s repeated, longitudinal sequence of offending), and concepts such as the life-course from sociology, this paper assesses the outcome of macro-level economic policies on individuals’ engagement in crime from age 10 to 30. Whilst many studies have explored the impact of 1980s ‘New Right’ governments on welfare spending, housing and the economy, few studies in political science, sociology or criminology have directly linked macro-economic policies to individual offending careers. Employing individual-level longitudinal data, we track a sample of Britons born in 1970 from childhood to adulthood, examining their offending trajectories between ages 10 and 30, and hence through a period of dramatic economic and social change in the UK throughout the early-1980s, during which the economy was dramatically restructured. As such, we are primarily concerned with the effects of economic policies on an individual’s repeated offending. Using data from the British 1970 Birth Cohort Study, we develop a model that incorporates individuals, families and schools, and which takes account of national-level economic policies (which were driven by New Right political ideas) and which, we argue, shaped individual offending careers. Our paper suggests that processes of economic restructuring were a key causal factor in offending during this period. This broader framework also emphasises the importance of considering political and economic forces in criminal careers and related research. The paper therefore encourages criminologists to draw upon ideas from political science when developing explanations of offending careers, and shows how the choices over the political management of the economy encourage individual-level responses.
  • Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19): Forecast of an emerging urgency in Pakistan

    Chaudhry, Rabia M; Hanif, Asif; Chaudhary, Muhammad; Minhas, Sadia; Mirza, Khalid; Asif, Tahira; Gilani, Syed A; Kashif, Muhammad; University of Lahore, Pakistan; University of Derby; et al. (Cureus, Inc., 2020-05-28)
    Novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a global challenge due to little available knowledge and treatment protocols. Thus, there is a great need for collecting data related to COVID-19 from all around the world. Hence, we conducted this study, collecting daily data on COVID-19, to map the epidemiology outbreak and forecast its trajectory for May 2020. The data was collected from the officially released reports of the National Institute of Health (NIH), Pakistan, and the World Health Organization (WHO). The analysis was done using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) version 23 (IBM Corp., Armonk, NY), and forecasting was done using a simple moving average in time series modeler/expert modeler. The purpose of this study is to draw the attention of international, as well as national, governing bodies to the rapidly rising number of COVID-19 cases in Pakistan, and the urgency of evaluating the efficacy of the currently implemented strategy against COVID-19. According to this study, there is now an alarming increase in the number of COVID-19 patients in Pakistan, despite a contained spread in the beginning. The predicted number of COVID-19 cases can go over 35,000 by the end of May 2020. It is crucial for governing bodies, administrators, and researchers to re-evaluate the current situation, designed policies, and implemented strategies.
  • Understanding radicalisation: issues for practitioners, communities and the state

    Henry, Philip M.; University of Derby (Palgrave MacMillan, 2020)
  • Derby city joint cultural needs analysis for the derby creative arts network and reimagine projects

    Nunn, Alexander; Turner, Royce; University of Derby (University of Derby, 2020-02)
  • The cross-country transmission of credit risk between sovereigns and firms in Asia

    Yiling, Zha; David, Power; Nongnuch, Tantisantiwong; University of Derby; University of Dundee; Nottingham Trent University (Elsevier, 2020-05-17)
    This paper uses Credit Default Swap (CDS) data for Asian reference entities to examine cross-country credit risk spillover effects between sovereigns and firms. Data for three East Asian countries (China, Japan and South Korea) over the period 2009-2018 are analysed. We analyse changes in the CDS spreads of a sovereign debtor and those of a foreign firm via a bivariate GARCH-full-BEKK model; thus, spillovers in mean spread changes as well as in volatility are considered. The main findings indicate that strong credit risk interdependence exists between the East Asian countries given that credit shocks from a common creditor such as Japan appear to spill over to the other two Asian nations. Compared to their non-financial counterparts, financial institutions are more sensitive than non-financial firms to changes in the credit risk of a foreign sovereign debtor; financial institutions such as banks may hold debt of foreign sovereigns which makes their CDSs sensitive to this source of credit risk.
  • Violence and the crime drop

    Ganpat, Soenita; Garius, Laura; Andromachi, Tseloni; Tilley, Nick; University of Derby; Nottingham Trent University; University College London (Sage, 2020-05-15)
    According to the Crime Survey for England and Wales, violence fell dramatically between 1995 and 2013/14. To improve understanding of the fall in violent crime, this study examines long-term crime trends in England and Wales over the past two decades, by scrutinizing the trends between (a) stranger and acquaintance violence (b) severity of violence, (c) age groups, and (d) sexes. It draws on nationally-representative, weighted data from the Crime Survey for England and Wales, and examines prevalence, incidence and crime concentration trends. The overall violence fall was driven by a decline in the victimisation of young individuals and/or males, perpetrated by acquaintances since 1995. Stranger and acquaintance violence followed different trajectories, with the former beginning to drop post 2003/04. Falls in both stranger and acquaintance violence incidence rates were led by fewer victims over time. Counting all incidents reported by the same victim (instead of capping at five incidents) significantly affects trends in stranger violence but not in acquaintance violence In relation to the distributive justice within the crime drop, this study provides unique evidence of equitable falls in acquaintance violence but inequitable falls in stranger violence. These findings highlight the need to examine violence types separately and point to a number of areas for future research.
  • Charlie Hebdo and the prophet Muhammad: a multimodal critical discourse analysis of peace and violence in a satirical cartoon

    Kilby, Laura; Lennon, Henry; Sheffield Hallam University (Springer International Publishing, 2018-11-30)
    In this chapter, we examine how ideologies of peace and violence can be (re)produced and communicated via multiple semiotic forms that include, but are not restricted to, language. We grapple with the complexity and importance of the situated-ness of peace and violence, and consider, what does peace, indeed what can peace, look like in a social context where meaning and expression are both multiple and contested. To this end, we undertake a case study analysis, exploring how a multimodal text might be variously interpreted as an explicit display of peace and forgiveness, and yet simultaneously as an oppressive act which knowingly causes offense. In addressing these issues, we relate to Galtung’s (1996, p. 196) typology of violence, and we consider the issue of cultural violence, which he defines as “those aspects of culture, the symbolic sphere of our existence […] that can be used to legitimize direct or structural violence.
  • Desert island data: an investigation into researcher positionality

    Dean, Jon; Furness, Penny; Verrier, Diarmuid; Lennon, Henry; Bennett, Cinnamon; Spencer, Stephen; Sheffield Hallam University; University of Sheffield (SAGE Publications, 2017-06-22)
    The nature of qualitative research means that the personal values of an individual researcher can and do (unwittingly) shape the way in which they analyse data sets, and the resultant conclusions drawn. However this phenomenon is under-studied in social research and this article seeks to help rectify this. This article presents findings from a small research project focused on discourses of class, masculinity and work among British male comedians from working-class backgrounds, interviewed on the popular BBC Radio 4 radio programme Desert Island Discs. Six different researchers, from varying disciplinary, methodological and theoretical groundings, as well as from varying personal backgrounds, analysed three interview recordings and transcripts separately. All the researchers wrote up their individual analyses of these interviews and wrote reflexive pieces examining why they thought they approached the data as they did. The researchers then came together as a group to compare and contrast findings and approaches. The results from this study, including the discrepancies and distinctions and final group analysis, are reported alongside a thorough discussion of the project’s methodology. We find that the project evidenced how a diverse research team can bring out deeper and richer analyses, and was a refreshing way to try and answer questions of individual and collective positionality.
  • Police misconduct, protraction and the mental health of accused police officers

    McDaniel, John L.M.; Moss, Kate; Pease, Ken; Singh, Paramjit; University of Wolverhampton; University of Derby (Routledge, 2020-02-25)
    The chapter describes findings from a research project carried out in collaboration with one UK police force. The project was designed to examine and understand the force’s welfare practices towards officers accused of misconduct and the impact of prolonged misconduct investigations on the mental health and well-being of police officers, specifically police officers who were subsequently exonerated. The aim was to identify new opportunities for mental health support, points of avoidable delay, demotivation and embitterment, and stress-reducing possibilities throughout the misconduct process, and to produce a simple and clear evidence-based set of recommendations for improvement.
  • Out of sight: social control and the regulation of public space in Manchester

    Moss, Christopher J.; Moss, Kate; University of Wolverhampton (MDPI AG, 2019-05-09)
    This paper considers the history and context of the control of public spaces, how this is regulated currently and how it relates to the politics of homelessness and community governance with a specific focus on the regulation of public space in the contemporary city of Manchester.
  • A study of women rough sleepers in four European countries

    Moss, Kate; University of Wolverhampton (University of Wolverhampton, 2018-12-31)
    This paper details the findings of a two year empirical study, funded by the Daphne III Programme of the European Commission, which investigated the issue of women’s rough sleeping in four EU countries. The objectives of the research were to increase the knowledge base relating specifically to women rough sleepers who had suffered domestic abuse and to enhance knowledge and expertise in this field, thus informing future pan European policy. The research revealed specific findings about the context and nature of women’s homelessness, including the fact that many of the current issues that prevail in relation to this social problem have common themes across Europe.
  • The impact of the homelessness reduction act 2017 on women survivors who have experienced domestic abuse, Part I

    Moss, Kate; Reubens, Tilly; University of Wolverhampton (Sweet and Maxwell, 2018-10-01)
  • The impact of the homelessness reduction act 2017 on women survivors who have experienced domestic abuse, Part II

    Moss, Kate; Rubens, Tilly; University of Wolverhampton (Sweet and Maxwell, 2018)
  • Sex difference in homicide: comparing male and female violent crimes in Korea

    Sea, Jonghan; Youngs, Donna; Tkazky, Sophia; Simon Fraser University, Burnaby, British Columbia, Canada; University of Huddersfield (SAGE Publications, 2017-11-09)
    The comparison of the South Korean male and female homicide offenders’ characteristics and crime scene behaviours is presented in this study. A total of 537 cases of homicide offenders prosecuted in Korea between 2006 and 2010 were analyzed in terms of offenders’ characteristics, victim–offender interaction, places of crime, and crime scene actions. Significant differences between male and female offenders were revealed in prior criminal history, offenders’ personal characteristics, choice of victim, crime scene behaviours during and after the homicide, and choice of weapon. The parallel with the gender differences in homicides found in Western countries is discussed as well as the possible explanations for the gender-related characteristics found in this study.
  • Moral disengagement as a self-regulatory process in sexual harassment perpetration at work: a preliminary conceptualization

    Page, Thomas E.; Pina, Afroditi; University of Kent (Elsevier BV, 2015-01-13)
    Sexual harassment is recognized as a widespread form of aggressive behavior with severe consequences for victims and organizations. Yet, contemporary research and theory focusing on the motives and cognition of sexual harassment perpetrators continues to be sparse and underdeveloped. This review examines the motivations that underlie sexual harassment and the self-exonerating cognitions and behavioral techniques employed by perpetrators of sexual harassment. In this paper, we emphasize the need to understand the cognitive processes that disinhibit motivated individuals to sexually harass. Utilizing social cognitive theory as a foundation, we propose that cognitive mechanisms of moral disengagement are likely to have an important etiological role in the facilitation and reinforcement of sexually harassing behavior. A preliminary conceptual framework is presented, suggesting novel ways in which each of the various moral disengagement mechanisms may contribute to sexual harassment perpetration.
  • Justifying sexual harassment through moral disengagement: the role of in-group identification

    Page, Thomas E.; Pina, Afroditi; Giner-Sorolla, Roger; University of Kent (2014)
  • Factors associated with the quality of life of family carers of people with dementia: A systematic review

    Farina, Nicolas; Page, Thomas E.; Daley, Stephanie; Brown, Anna; Bowling, Ann; Basset, Thurstine; Livingston, Gill; Knapp, Martin; Murray, Joanna; Banerjee, Sube; et al. (Wiley, 2017-02-03)
    Family carers of people with dementia are their most important support in practical, personal, and economic terms. Carers are vital to maintaining the quality of life (QOL) of people with dementia. This review aims to identify factors related to the QOL of family carers of people with dementia. Searches on terms including “carers,” “dementia,” “family,” and “quality of life” in research databases. Findings were synthesized inductively, grouping factors associated with carer QOL into themes. A total of 909 abstracts were identified. Following screening, lateral searches, and quality appraisal, 41 studies (n = 5539) were included for synthesis. A total of 10 themes were identified: demographics; carer–patient relationship; dementia characteristics; demands of caring; carer health; carer emotional well‐being; support received; carer independence; carer self‐efficacy; and future. The quality and level of evidence supporting each theme varied. We need further research on what factors predict carer QOL in dementia and how to measure it.

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