Recent Submissions

  • Analysing the discursive psychology used within digital media to influence public opinions concerning female child-killers

    Harris, Kessia; Adhikari, Joanna; Wallace, Louise; University of Derby (CDS Press, 2022-01-05)
    Discursive psychology is used to invoke emotion and social action within receivers, and widespread media is notorious for utilizing these linguistic features to negatively skew the public opinion of an individual or group. This study aims to investigate through discursive thematic analysis the ways in which digitised media articles utilise linguistic features and discursive devices to invoke emotion within readers, and in turn influence their opinions concerning female child-killers. The data gathered for this piece of research were 9 digital newspaper articles published between 2017 and 2021 by any of the top 10 most-read titles according to YouGov (2021) and were sourced using Google Chrome. The key terms used to locate these articles were the names “Rachel Henry”, “Tracey Connelly” and “Louise Porton” followed by the names of the top 10 most-read titles (e.g., “Rachel Henry Daily Mail”). The themes identified suggest a consistent aim within the media to negatively influence the public opinion of the offenders in question by using discursive devices and psychological categories to attack and invalidate these offenders and portray them as being evil, inhuman, delusional individuals who are inherently different from “normal” members of society. The findings produced within this research may have implications regarding the future of mainstream media reporting, as they suggest an excessive use of strategically influential linguistic features within digital newspapers to create extreme negative representations of women who offend, which may prove detrimental to their future access to, and experience of reformation and rehabilitation.
  • Governing Against the Tide: Populism, Power and the Party Conference

    Guiney, Tom; Farrall, Stephen; University of Nottingham; University of Derby (Sage, 2022-02-24)
    In this paper we argue that a tendency to treat populism as a ubiquitous, mechanistic characteristic of contemporary penality has impeded systematic theoretical discussion of how populist ideologies find contingent expression within national penal systems. Drawing upon an agonistic perspective we seek to show that the intersection between populism and punishment must be understood as a structured process that is shaped by struggle between actors with different types, and amounts, of political power. We illustrate these claims with reference to a historical case study of the 1981 British Conservative Party Conference; a political calendar ritual that facilitated symbolic conflict and provided an institutional point of entry for populist movements seeking to disrupt the prevailing liberal consensus on crime and secure substantive policy concessions from government.
  • The long arm of welfare retrenchment: how New Right socio-economic policies in the 1980s affected contact with the criminal justice system in adulthood.

    Gray, Emily; Farrall, Stephen; Jones, Phil Mike; University of Derby (Oxford University Press, 2022)
    The socio-economic policies of the British ‘New Right’ administrations have been associated with increases in crime using aggregate data. This paper assesses if the trend remains when we test individual-level relationships using two British cohort studies (the National Child Development Study 1958 and the British Cohort Study 1970). Our results point to a set of long-term ‘period effects’ in which those reliant on the welfare state at specific time-points in the 1980 and 1990s (regardless of their age) were more likely to be drawn into the criminal justice system in adulthood (circa 2000). This paper considers i) how British ‘New Right’ welfare policies may have had unintended, but lasting consequences for individuals in receipt of social security assistance and ii) the interplay between micro and macro criminological analysis.
  • Disciplinary Neo-liberalisation and the New Politics of Inequality

    Nunn, Alexander; Tepe, Daniela; University of Derby (Oxford University Press, 2022)
    Overlaps exist between critical Criminology and critical International Political Economy (IPE). However, while criminologists are keen to engage with political economy, there has been less interest in criminology from scholars in IPE. Recently, though, a literature started to emerge within IPE that focusses on discipline, including research which focusses on ‘authoritarian neoliberalism’ yet without explicitly engaging with the criminological literature. This paper engages with criminological research to demonstrate areas of shared interest, particularly in understanding the role of discipline and consent in the structuring of the ‘social ensemble’ thereby offering something of a corrective to the literature on ‘authoritarian neoliberalism’. We argue that combining insights from Gramscian and (critical) Feminist social theory can help to explain the social reproduction of ‘hegemony’ in which discipline – including self-discipline – plays an important role. Long-term trends in the fracturing of the hegemonic post-war social ensemble were displaced by temporary ‘fixes’ related to consumerism, credit and discipline (including in state institutions, changing economic and ideological structures). However, in the wake of the Global Financial Crisis of 2008 – the limits of these fixes are revealed and social polarisation is the result. In this context, disciplinary processes in and beyond state institutions are becoming more visible.
  • The intellectual and institutional challenges for International Political Economy in the UK: Findings from Practitioner Survey Data

    Nunn, Alex; Sheilds, Stuart; University of Derby; University of Manchester (Cambridge University Press (CUP), 2022-01-14)
    This article asks whether there is a discrepancy between the field of International Political Economy (IPE) as we know it from recent debates about its role, distinctiveness, and contribution compared to the experience of its practitioners on the ground? Intellectually IPE is needed more than ever to engage real world events but faces constraining institutional imperatives. We have two interrelated objectives related to this: (1) to assess the extent to which the patterns in recent interventions are replicated when you ask those who self-identify as IPE scholars in the UK (2) to appraise survey data on the reproduction of a particular community of practice within the field as it evolves intellectually and institutionally. Rather than imposing our interpretation of IPE through publications, citation practices, conference attendance, or textbook content we offer two distinct contributions. First, to report new empirical data on IPE as a ‘field of inquiry’ in UK universities; and, second, to develop a critical intervention on the indisciplined nature of IPE as a field of inquiry in the UK. We conclude that the widely acknowledged and long-standing fertile intellectual advantages of IPE's ‘open range’, unlimited intellectual borders and transgressive enquiry bring institutional disadvantages with them.
  • Describing Disclosure of Cybervictimization in Adolescents from the United Kingdom: The Role of Age, Gender, Involvement in Cyberbullying, and Time Spent Online

    Betts, Lucy, R.; Spencer, Karin, A.; Baguley, Thom; Nottingham Trent University; University of Derby (Informa UK Limited, 2021-11-30)
    Disclosing experiences of cybervictimization is an important first step in many anti-bullying interventions. Gender, age, cybervictimization experiences, cyberbullying behaviors, and time spent online were examined as factors that describe: (a) disclosing cybervictimization and (b) perceptions of helpfulness following disclosure. The sample comprised 750 (384 boys and 365 girls, Mage = 12.57 years, SDage = 1.25 years) 11- to 15-year-olds recruited from two schools. Participants completed self-report measures of cybervictimization experiences, cyberbullying behaviors, intent to disclose cybervictimization, who they thought would be helpful following disclosing cybervictimization, and technology use. Over 88% of the sample reported that they would disclose cybervictimization. Girls and those experiencing low levels of cybervictimization reported they would disclose cybervictimization. Those who were older, and girls reported that they thought friends would be helpful following a disclosure of cybervictimization, whereas those who were younger reported that parents and the police would be helpful. A Gaussian graphical model was used to further explore perceptions of helpfulness following disclosure of cybervictimization and highlighted a complex pattern between targets. The findings add to the growing evidence of the complexity around adolescents' propensity to disclose experiences of cybervictimization which has implications for anti-bullying interventions.
  • When words are not enough: Combined textual and visual multimodal analysis as a Critical Discursive Psychology undertaking

    Kilby, Laura; Lennon, Henry; Sheffield Hallam University; University of Derby (Elsevier, 2021-09-02)
    In this paper we sketch out the progress of our recent work, concentrating on methodological developments and insights we have gained along the way. Broadly, we situate ourselves in the field of Critical Discursive Psychology (CDP), but the focus of this paper extends to the study of combined semiotic realms, hence we describe our work as Multimodal Critical Discourse Analysis (MCDA). By outlining MCDA and sharing some insight from our own engagement with it, we hope to connect with growing interest amongst qualitative psychologists, and discursive psychologists in particular, to examine discourse beyond just text and talk, and offer a practical example of how to apply MCDA. We begin by briefly outlining discursive psychology and CDP, before introducing MCDA as an analytic method that initially developed in the field of critical linguistics. We reflect on our work in MCDA combining visual and textual modalities to show how this approach can enable exploration of different semiotic formsin a manner that aligns with the ambitions of CDP. We argue that MCDAs novel insights illustrate both a need and value in undertaking discursive psychology of this kind (cf. Byford, 2018). We conclude by emphasising that meaning potentials availed through the visual and textual components of a multimodal discourse are more than the sum of individual components. The combination of modalities fosters a liminal space where meaning potentials expand beyond the additive combination of individual components and are instead rooted in holistic affordances of the multimodal discourse.
  • Global Pressures, Household Social Reproduction Strategies and Compound Inequality

    Farrall, Stephen; Gray, Emily; Nunn, Alex; Tepe-Belfrage, Daniela; University of Derby; University of Liverpool (Taylor and Francis, 2021-12-22)
    There is increasing interest in social reproduction and the international political economy of the everyday and the ways that the global economy rests on domestic foundations not just including state institutions but micro-social structures such as households and families. This paper uses data derived from the UK Millennium Cohort Study to explore the way that different types of household (using proxies for social class) one aspect of their social reproduction strategies. It argues that under conditions of increased global competitiveness, the UK state has successfully embedded a politics of competitiveness at the household scale. Households of all types are aspirational for their children and invest parental time in helping their children with educational activities. However, parents in middle class occupations, with higher levels of qualifications and income have advantageous informational, cultural and financial resources and use these in a variety of ways to support their social reproduction strategies. The result is that agential responses to competitiveness result in ‘compound inequalities’. We theorise this as demonstrating variegation across different household social reproduction strategies and embodying the violence of social reproduction, even where there is no violent intent. We speculate that compound inequality may be causing a breakdown in the stable reproduction of society as a whole.
  • Time wasters? The Dark Tetrad and active procrastination

    Hughes, Sara; Adhikari, Joanna; University of Derby; Sheffield Hallam University (Hogrefe Publishing Group, 2021-12-10)
    The Dark Triad personality traits have previously been linked with dysfunctional types of procrastination (i.e., delaying certain tasks). From an evolutionary perspective, procrastination is recognized for facilitating a fast life history strategy. The present study investigated links between active and passive procrastination and the extended Dark Tetrad personality traits (psychopathy, Machiavellianism, narcissism, sadism). Participants (N = 357) were invited via Prolific data collection platform and Survey Circle research sites to participate in an online survey exploring personality and procrastination. Path analyses revealed that all Dark Tetrad traits positively predicted several aspects of active procrastination only. Narcissism emerged as the only negative predictor of passive procrastination. Rather than linking these traits with dysfunctional procrastination types only, our results highlight the importance of considering the Dark Tetrad about functional forms of procrastination, which may be more beneficial for facilitating a fast life history strategy
  • ThisIsDerby – Reimagine, Year 2 Report

    Nunn, Alexander; Bowers-Brown, Tamsin; Turner, Royce; University of Derby (Derby Theatre, 2021-10)
  • The power of PES partnerships

    Davern, Eamonn; Nunn, Alex; Scoppetta, Anette; University of Derby; European Centre for Social Welfare (European Union, 2021-07)
    The labour market is changing very rapidly. Prior to the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic, the labour mar- ket across Europe was performing strongly overall, and across most member states. Nevertheless, high levels of employment co-existed with some important problems such as inequalities of skills, employment, conditions and pay in relation to gender, ethnicity, disability and partic- ular challenges faced by specific social groups such as migrants or ex-offenders or some ethnic minorities (Eu- ropean Commission, 2020a). Young people have been particularly negatively affected by changes in job security and wages in the so called ‘gig economy’. The current COVID crisis is adding to these vulnerabili- ties, increasing unemployment generally and particular- ly among the insecurely employed, temporary workers, young people and the low to medium skilled. It has in- creased youth unemployment, and the rate of those Not in Employment, Education or Training and households have lost considerable income, especially at lower lev- els of the income distribution (European Commission, 2020b). Further, the range of anticipated future changes that go under the banner of ‘The Future of Work’ may further compound inequalities and insecurities faced by sections of the population. The OECD predicts that around 14% of jobs are at risk due to automation, with signifi- cant variation of this risk between OECD member states, between sectors and occupational roles, with workers in manufacturing, agriculture, food preparation or commu- nications occupations (postal, courier etc) most at risk (Nedelkoska, & Quintini, 2018). While new waves of au- tomation over the last decade have not yet led to signif- icant employment losses in any country, it is influencing" "employment growth between occupations and the skills demands within them. The lowest skilled are becoming more concentrated in the most vulnerable sectors and occupations (OECD, 2021). On the upside, technology acted to protect large numbers of jobs in the Covid 19 crisis, enabling workers to continue even when lockdowns prevented them physically going to work. The uptake of telework will likely lead to accelerated use of new tech- nology after the crisis. While recent job retention schemes have been effective at reducing and slowing redundancies and sustaining employment and business viability, they come at a cost to fiscal balances. The likelihood of slow output growth for several years and the need for further restorative public spending (for e.g., on physical and mental health and education services) will put public finances under considerable pressure for several years to come. All this will have an ongoing impact on PES and acceler- ate pressures that they were already experiencing and responding to. PES will need to continue to demonstrate increasing effectiveness and efficiency and deliver re- sults in helping the workforce and employers to adjust and ‘build back better’. One means of PES responding to the multiple challenges that they and the labour market face is through further development of partnerships. This will involve review of existing partnership arrangements and further learning from the many strong examples of PES facilitating closer working across organisational boundaries. By sharing good examples and best practice PES can highlight and encourage further positive en- gagement between stakeholders in enhancing social and labour market inclusion through delivery of increasingly citizen centric services.
  • Falling Down: The Conservative Party and the Decline of Tory Britain

    Burton-Cartledge, Phil; University of Derby (Verso, 2021-09)
    Despite winning the December 2019 General Election, the Conservative parliamentary party is a moribund organisation. It no longer speaks for, nor to, the British people. Its leadership has sacrificed the long-standing commitment to the Union to “Get Brexit Done.” And beyond this, it is an intellectual vacuum, propped up by half-baked doctrine and magical thinking. Falling Down offers an explanation for how the Tory party came to position itself on the edge of the precipice and offers a series of answers to a question seldom addressed: as the party is poised to press the self-destruct button, what kind of role and future can it have? This tipping point has been a long time coming and Burton-Cartledge offers critical analysis to this narrative. Since the era of Thatcherism, the Tories have struggled to find a popular vision for the United Kingdom. At the same time, their members have become increasingly old. Their values have not been adopted by the younger voters. The coalition between the countryside and the City interests is under pressure, and the latter is split by Brexit. The Tories are locked into a declinist spiral, and with their voters not replacing themselves the party is more dependent on a split opposition—putting into question their continued viability as the favoured vehicle of British capital.
  • Africa, the Fourth Industrial Revolution, and digital diplomacy: (Re)negotiating the international knowledge structure

    Masters, Lesley; University of Derby (Taylor and Francis, 2021-08-20)
    The Fourth Industrial Revolution (4IR) builds on the exponential growth of digital capacities, blurring the lines between the physical and digital spheres. Following its recognition as a phenomenon at the 2016 World Economic Forum, analysis has mainly focused on assessing the socio-economic challenges and benefits that advancements in science, technology and innovation hold. Yet there remains a shortfall in understanding the impact of these digital technologies from the perspective of international relations and diplomacy, particularly on questions of equality, governance, and emerging transnational relations. For Africa, participation in negotiating the international governance of digital technologies is critical in mitigating a peripheral role in the international knowledge structure, ensuring transformational rather than transactional relations when it comes to the 4IR. This article argues that analysis of digital diplomacy as diplomacy for digital technology – ie, negotiating the governance of digital technologies – provides a useful lens for critically assessing Africa vis-à-vis the 4IR .
  • Narratives Of Navigation: Refugee-Background Women’s Higher Education Journeys In Bangladesh And New Zealand

    Anderson, Vivienne; Cone, Tiffany; Inoue, Naoko; Rafferty, Rachel; University of Otago; Asian University for Women; Daito Bunka University; University of Derby (Sites: New Series, Association of Social Anthropologists of Aotearoa New Zealand, 2020-12-30)
    Navigating higher education (HE) is a complex exercise for many students, including those from refugee backgrounds. Internationally, only a very small percentage of refugee-background students access HE. In a 2018 study, we explored 37 women students’ narrative accounts of international study in Bangladesh and New Zealand. Our participants included 10 women from refugee backgrounds. Theoretically, our research was a response to calls from critical scholars to consider the different circumstances that shape students’ international study, and the ethical and pedagogical implications of these for ‘host’ institutions. In this article, we explore the refugee-background women’s accounts of accessing, navigating, and thinking beyond HE, and their thoughts on factors that support refugee-background students’ success in HE. We argue for the need to: reject ‘grand narratives’ in relation to refugee-background students; acknowledge students’ ‘necessary skillfulness’ while supporting their capacity to navigate HE; and recognise refugee-background students’ commitments and influence beyond HE institutions.
  • Defining the Platform of Positive Peace

    Standish, Katerina; Devere, Heather; Suazo, Adan; Rafferty, Rachel; University of Otago; University of Derby (Palgrave Macmillan, 2021-07-23)
    After a brief introduction of typical notions of peace, this chapter ventures to trace the idea of positive peace in recent scholarship to establish how the term is utilized in the PACS world. It then endeavors to introduce each editorial domain within this handbook including a synopsis of each form of intervention theoretically followed immediately by a summary of the chapters that inhabit the PALGRAVE Handbook of Positive Peace.
  • Mobile agency and relational webs in women’s narratives of international study

    Anderson, Vivienne; Cone, Tiffany; Rafferty, Rachel; Inoue, Naoko; University of Otago; Asian University for Women; University of Derby; Daito Bunka University (Springer, 2021-04-14)
    Internationalisation and forced migration are rarely thought about as related phenomena in higher education (HE) literature. Internationalisation is associated with movement, choice and brand recognition, and used in international rankings methodologies as a proxy for quality. Forced migration is associated with movement, but also with lack of choice, containment, or ‘stuckness’. Some scholars have called for a rethinking of ‘the international’ through attention to students as mobile agents, and international study situated within broader mobile lives. Our study responded to these calls through exploring the educational biographies of 37 international and refugee-background women students based in two universities: 21 in New Zealand, and 16 in Bangladesh. Ten of the women were from refugee or refugee-like backgrounds, while the remainder, were international students. The women’s accounts revealed the complex ways in which circumstances shaped their educational journeys similarly and differently. One woman represented mobility in relation to autonomy and choice; but most emphasised relational webs as shaping their access to and experiences of international study, and post-study aspirations. In this paper, we draw on selected narratives to illustrate the range of ways in which family and/or community members appeared in women’s accounts of their education journeys: as a source of (1) sustenance and support; (2) inspiration and motivation; and (3) obligation, and sometimes, regulation. We conclude by suggesting that attention to the affective and embodied entanglements that shape students’ international study journeys might inform new ways of thinking about both ‘the international’ and higher education more broadly.
  • Beyond Expansion or Restriction? Models of Interaction between the Living Instrument and Margin of Appreciation Doctrines and the Scope of the ECHR

    Ita, Rachael; Hicks, David; De Montfort University; University of Derby (Brill, 2021-06-23)
    The living instrument doctrine of the European Court of Human Rights (ECtHR) is criticized as restricting the margin of appreciation of States and expanding the scope of the European Convention on Human Rights (ECHR). Systematic examination of this claim is usually overlooked in the context of the relationship between the admissibility and merits phase of ECtHR cases. This paper considers this claim in the context of jurisdictional arguments on incompatibility ratione materiae (subject matter outside the scope of the Convention) and the link to the merits of the case. Case law of the ECtHR from January 1979 to December 2016 is assessed to elaborate four models of interaction between the margin of appreciation and living instrument doctrines. This paper argues the need to go beyond consideration of expansion and restriction of the scope of the ECHR, and to assess the Court’s appetite for allocating new duties to States based upon the case arguments and positioning of living instrument and margin of appreciation doctrines.
  • Do we really offer refuge? Using Galtung's concept of structural violence to interrogate refugee resettlement support in Aotearoa New Zealand

    Rafferty, Rachel; Burgin, Anna; Anderson, Vivienne; University of Derby; University of Otago (Sites: New Series, Association of Social Anthropologists of Aotearoa New Zealand, 2020-12-12)
    Decades after the first refugee convention was signed, the global community is still failing to meet its commitment to protect refugees from harm. In this article, we draw on Galtung’s concept of structural violence to highlight how harm can be caused not only by physical violence but also by social structures in resettlement contexts, including economic systems, legal frameworks and government institutions. We examine how recognising the exposure of resettled refugees to structural violence in their host countries can help us interrogate the quality of the ‘refuge’ offered and point to significant gaps in national resettlement systems. We consider Aotearoa New Zealand as a case where there is an extensive refugee resettlement support system, but argue that it fails to adequately acknowledge and address the exposure of refugees to forms of structural violence caused by factors such as institutionalised monoculturalism and economic inequality. We conclude by calling for an expanded understanding of ‘refuge’ that would reorient resettlement systems towards identifying and addressing structural violence while supporting refugees to overcome the harmful impacts of both physical and structural violence in their lives.
  • Why the initiative of free childcare failed to be an effective policy implementation of universal childcare in South Korea

    Lee, Sung-Hee; University of Derby (Taylors & Francis Online, 2021-07-22)
    Free childcare (‘moo-sang-bo-yuk’ in Korean) for all children aged 0-5 was implemented for the first time in South Korea in 2012, initially being aimed at establishing universal childcare in order to alleviate parents’ childcare burden. Despite the headlines grabbing policy reform, it still remains questionable whether the policy implementation has had any positive impact on parents’ childcare burden, in terms of the state taking on more responsibility in this regard. The paper is aimed at exploring how the meaning of universal childcare was communicated during the policy initiation process. In order to do so, interpretative policy analysis was utilised as a methodological approach, whilst relevant policy documents and in-depth interviews were used for data collection. Why the policy implementation could not succeed in bringing universal childcare to the fore is critically examined. I argue that these failings occurred because the policy implementation was placed on the agenda with a lack of commitment to increasing the number of public childcare centres, as well as disengagement from understanding the gender relations necessary for delivering universal childcare effectively.
  • The Effect of Lighting on Crime Counts

    Fotios, Steve; Robbins, Chloe; Farrall, Stephen; University of Sheffield; University of Derby (MDPI, 2021-07-07)
    The influence of lighting on crime was investigated by considering the effect of ambient light level on crimes recorded in three US cities for the ten-year period 2010 to 2019. Crime counts were compared for similar times of day, before and after the biannual clock change, therefore employing an abrupt change of light level but without an obvious intervention such as improving road lighting in an area. The results suggest a significant increase in robbery during darkness, confirming previous studies. The results also suggest darkness leads to an increase in arson and curfew loitering offenses, and to a decrease in disorderly conduct, family offences (non-violent) and prostitution. Future research investigating the effectiveness of improved street lighting should consider that this may not be beneficial for all types of crime.

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