Recent Submissions

  • Why the initiative of free childcare failed to be an effective policy implementation of universal childcare in South Korea

    Lee, Sung-Hee; University of Derby (Taylors & Francis Online, 2021-07-22)
    Free childcare (‘moo-sang-bo-yuk’ in Korean) for all children aged 0-5 was implemented for the first time in South Korea in 2012, initially being aimed at establishing universal childcare in order to alleviate parents’ childcare burden. Despite the headlines grabbing policy reform, it still remains questionable whether the policy implementation has had any positive impact on parents’ childcare burden, in terms of the state taking on more responsibility in this regard. The paper is aimed at exploring how the meaning of universal childcare was communicated during the policy initiation process. In order to do so, interpretative policy analysis was utilised as a methodological approach, whilst relevant policy documents and in-depth interviews were used for data collection. Why the policy implementation could not succeed in bringing universal childcare to the fore is critically examined. I argue that these failings occurred because the policy implementation was placed on the agenda with a lack of commitment to increasing the number of public childcare centres, as well as disengagement from understanding the gender relations necessary for delivering universal childcare effectively.
  • The Effect of Lighting on Crime Counts

    Fotios, Steve; Robbins, Chloe; Farrall, Stephen; University of Sheffield; University of Derby (MDPI, 2021-07-07)
    The influence of lighting on crime was investigated by considering the effect of ambient light level on crimes recorded in three US cities for the ten-year period 2010 to 2019. Crime counts were compared for similar times of day, before and after the biannual clock change, therefore employing an abrupt change of light level but without an obvious intervention such as improving road lighting in an area. The results suggest a significant increase in robbery during darkness, confirming previous studies. The results also suggest darkness leads to an increase in arson and curfew loitering offenses, and to a decrease in disorderly conduct, family offences (non-violent) and prostitution. Future research investigating the effectiveness of improved street lighting should consider that this may not be beneficial for all types of crime.
  • Darker Deals? Male Dark Tetrad preferences for female sex worker services

    Hughes, Sara; Adhikari, Joanna; Goulding, Katharine; Sheffield Hallam University; University of Derby (Elsevier BV, 2021-06-24)
    The present study explored links between male Dark Tetrad personality traits (psychopathy, Machiavellianism, narcissism, sadism) and preferences for using outdoor and indoor female sex worker services. We also investigated the mediating effects of perceiving sex workers as deviant and as victims. Heterosexual males ( N = 347) were recruited to take part in an online survey investigating personality and attitudes towards female sex workers. Path analyses revealed that psychopathy and sadism positively predicted preferences for outdoor but not indoor female sex services. Sex worker choice mediated positive links between narcissism and outdoor female sex worker preferences. Compared to indoor, outdoor sex services are associated with increased aggression and violence. Our findings highlight the importance of considering narcissism and particularly psychopathy and sadism when investigating individual male preferences for outdoor sex services that are being offered by particularly vulnerable women.
  • Who are the victims of electoral fraud in Great Britain? Evidence from Survey Research

    Farrall, Stephen; Wilks-Heeg, Stuart; Rober, Struthers; Gray, Emily; University of Derby; University of Liverpool; BMG Research, Birmingham (Springer, 2021-07-07)
    Interest in electoral integrity and the validity and accuracy of election results has come to the fore as a topic of concern both amongst politicians and academic researchers in the last twenty years. The literature has identified a number of key variables and processes associated with electoral fraud, and lower levels of integrity. However, one deficiency with this research is that it has relied on the perceptions of fraud and malpractice, rather than first-hand data on the extent of such behaviour. In this paper we report on the results of a novel small-scale survey of people in Britain in which respondents reported some of their direct experiences of electoral fraud in recent national elections. The results indicate that the rates of electoral fraud are currently around six to eight per cent, but that this rises for members of some ethnic minority groups. We end by raising another question: if we can identify victims of electoral fraud, how are we to redress this victimisation?
  • The Problems of Starmerism

    Burton-Cartledge, Phil; University of Derby (Wiley, 2021-05-06)
    The 2017 and 2019 general elections showed a strong bedrock of Labour support among the working age population and particularly the under thirties. This is a consequence both of long-term changes to the composition of class cohorts, political events, and the experience of a decade of Conservative governments, whose policies have shielded the retired and the elderly. These conditions have not changed and, under the impact of Covid-19 are, if anything, sharpening. The challenge of the Labour Party's new leadership under Keir Starmer is keeping hold of this crucial component of the party's electoral coalition while making inroads into Tory support. Initial movement in the polls suggests he is on course for achieving the latter, but positions taken on Black Lives Matter, the government's coronavirus strategy, and a managerialist oppositional style recalls the triangulation strategy associated with the Blair years. This article considers the possibilities and dangers of adopting this approach.
  • Derbyshire Virtual School: Creative Mentoring Programme Final Report

    Nunn, Alexander; Turner, Royce; Adhikari, Joanna; Brooks, Catherine; University of Derby (Derby Virtual School, 2021-06)
  • A Multimodal Discourse Analysis of ‘Brexit’: Flagging the Nation in Political Cartoons

    Lennon, Henry; Kilby, Laura; University of Derby; Sheffield Hallam University (Palgrave, 2021-02-04)
    The rhetorical investigation of multimodality in political discourse is a growing concern for discursive researchers adopting critical approaches. The study of political cartoons is a prime example of how both visual and linguistic meaning can be constructed and interpreted based on its prevailing social, cultural and political settings. Adopting a multimodal critical discourse analysis (MCDA) approach, this chapter further pursues the study of multimodality in political communication by examining a corpus of political cartoons—drawn from the UK and beyond—concerned with the UK’s Referendum on membership of the European Union and the subsequent vote to leave in 2016. We analyse how the rhetoric of these cartoons flags the construction of national identity, otherness and belonging, lending themselves to condensed ideological messages seeking to frame Brexit. It is argued such cartoons can be seen as micro-instances of the anchoring of Brexit as a self-referential political divide defined by oppositional discourses and their accompanying intellectual legacy. A phenomenon, which, we contend, is richly explained by the rhetorical communication of the visual alongside the linguistic. We conclude the chapter by reflecting on how MCDA can assist our understanding of political communication and contribute to the critical tradition of discursive psychological work.
  • The sexual life of men with psychopathic traits

    Zara, Georgia; Bergstrøm, Henriette; Farrington, David P.; University of Turin; University of Cambridge; University of Derby (Emerald, 2020-08-03)
    This paper explores the sexuality of individuals with psychopathic traits. Sexuality is not only a physiological need, it is a way by which people connect to others. According to a Darwinian perspective, psychopathic traits are seen as adaptive responses to environmental conditions, and as a nonpathological and reproductively viable life history strategy, although superficial emotionality and a detached interpersonal style characterise individuals who are high on psychopathic traits. Data from the Cambridge Study in Delinquent Development are analyzed. This is a prospective longitudinal study of 411 London males, with face-to-face interviews from age 8 to age 48. Men who are high on psychopathic traits were likely to drift from one relationship to another, without a particular attachment to any of them, to be sexually promiscuous, and they never used contraception, which increased their likelihood of having several children from different partners. Findings provide: ▪ An insight into the non-criminal sexual behaviour of males with high psychopathic traits. ▪ Evidence on a pattern of unsafe/risky sexual relations by males with high psychopathic traits. ▪ Information on targeting risk factors to prevent the intergenerational transmission of psychopathy. These findings are significant in highlighting the impact of psychopathic traits upon interpersonal and family dynamics in community samples, since detecting the impact of problematic intimate relationships is difficult in the absence of evident criminality. Rather than completely neglecting their children, men with psychopathic traits spent time with their sons but not with their daughters.
  • Chasing a pot of gold: an analysis of emerging recovery-oriented addiction policies in Flanders (Belgium) and the Netherlands

    Bellaert, Lore; Martinelli, Thomas; Vanderplasschen, Wouter; Best, David; van de Mheen, Dike; Vander Laenen, Freya; Ghent University; Tilberg University, The Netherlands; University of Derby (Taylor and Francis, 2021-04-26)
    Following the paradigm shift to recovery in the Anglophone world, recovery is also gaining momentum in drug policy and practice in Flanders (Belgium) and the Netherlands. Since the meaning of recovery is being debated internationally, broadening the assessment of how the recovery framework is applied in policy discourse and how it is implemented in various international contexts is imperative. This com parative policy analysis aims to assess similarities and differences in addiction recovery vision, imple mentation, and evaluation in Flanders and the Netherlands. The thematic analysis draws upon a triangulation of different data collection methods: a focus group (n ¼ 14) and interviews (n ¼ 21) with key figures in the addictions field, followed by analyses of relevant policy documents (n ¼ 9). Our find ings show that a holistic vision of addiction recovery is endorsed in both countries. Although differen ces in policy development occurred (i.e. centrally driven in Flanders versus ‘bottom-up’ in the Netherlands), similar challenges emerged concerning recovery-oriented addiction policies. While policy makers in Flanders and the addiction sector in the Netherlands strongly proclaim recovery, structural implementation, dedicated funding, and systematic evaluation of recovery-oriented policies are lacking. This study suggests that systematic inclusion of experts by experience and aligning government and practice level funding and policies are crucial.
  • Justice capital: A model for reconciling structural and agentic determinants of desistance

    Best, David; Hamilton, Sharynne; Hall, Lauren; Bartels, Lorana; University of Derby; University of Western Australia; University of Lincoln; Australian National University (SAGE, 2021-04-08)
    The emerging literature on desistance (and recovery from addictions) has focused on key life-course transitions that can be characterised as the need for jobs (meaningful activities), friends (transitioning to pro-social) and houses (a home free from threat). The term ‘recovery capital’ is used to characterise personal, social and community resources an individual can draw upon to support their recovery, partly bridging agentic (per sonal) and structural (community) factors. The development of the concept of ‘justice capital’ furthers this reconciliation, by focusing on resources an individual can access and the resources that an institution can provide. We build on this by outlining the concept of institutional justice capital (IJC) to examine the role of criminal justice insti tutions in supporting or suppressing justice capital, particularly for marginalised groups. We use a case study approach, drawing on recent studies in prisons in Australia and the United Kingdom to develop a model of justice capital at an institutional level and discuss how this can shape reform of prisons and can be matched to the needs of offenders. The paper concludes with a discussion of future directions in implementing an IJC model, to deliver a strengths-based approach to promoting desistance and creating a metric for assessing the rehabilitative activities of institutions.
  • The Strengths and Barriers Recovery Scale (SABRS): Relationships matter in building strengths and overcoming barriers

    Best, David; Sondhi, Arun; Brown, Lorna; Nisic, Mulka; Martinelli, Thomas; van de Mheen, Dike; Vanderplasschen, Wouter; University of Derby; Therapeutic Solutions (Addictions), London; Recovered Users Network (RUN), Brussels, Belgium; et al. (Frontiers, 2021-03-26)
    There is a well-established relationship between isolation and both morbidity and mortality in the context of addiction recovery, yet the protective effects of intimate and familial relationships have not been adequately assessed. The current paper uses the European Life In Recovery database to assess the association between relationship status and living with dependent children on recovery capital of people in recovery from drug addiction, operationalised by the Strengths And Barriers Recovery Scale (SABRS). The study participants were drawn from the REC-PATH study and supplemented by a second sample recruited by the Recovered Users Network (RUN) across various European countries, resulting in a combined sample of 1,313 individuals completing the survey, primarily online. The results show that, in recovery, those who are married or co habiting reported significantly greater recovery strengths and fewer barriers to recovery, and reported greater gains in recovery capital across their recovery journeys. Similar associations are found for participants who have dependent children living with them. There is also some indication that this association is stronger for female than for male participants. Finally, having more people that one can rely on and a greater proportion of people in recovery in the social network are both linked to greater recovery capital and greater self-reported growth in recovery capital. We conclude that this study provides further evidence in favour of a “social cure” in recovery, in which close familial ties are associated with stronger recovery resources
  • Estimating a treatment effect on reoffending by people in prison with an alcohol use disorder: a national matched propensity score analysis

    Sondhi, Arun; Leidl, Alessandro; Best, David; Therapeutic Solutions (Addictions) London; Statistical Services Centre, Reading, UK; University of Derby (Routledge, 2021-02-23)
    Little is known as to the efficacy of treatment interventions for an alcohol use disorder (AUD) to reduce reoffending. A quasi-experimental propensity score matched observational study was deployed to calculate the average treatment effect on reoffending for people in prison with an AUD exposed to prison-based treatment compared to a matched control group. A one-to-one match without replacement followed by a marginal Cox proportional hazards time-to-event model with the treatment group only were also run. No statistically signifi cant difference in reoffending rates and risk of reoffending on release were noted. Analyses suggest that the treatment group were more likely to be treated for binge drinking than individuals assessed who commit crime due to their consump tion of alcohol. The English treatment model is an opportunity to create an enhanced system that integrates public health whilst addressing recidivism. Further work is required assess ing the effect of multiple treatments on reoffending
  • Politics, research design, and the ‘architecture’ of criminal careers studies

    Farrall, Stephen; University of Derby (Oxford University Press, 2021-04-22)
    Criminal careers research is one of the bedrocks – if not the bedrock – of criminology. It remains a key focal point of criminological research, and has embraced ideas and theorising from sociology, psychology, psychiatry and urban and community studies. Despite the widening of the landscape of what might be termed ‘the criminological enterprise’ (to include victimology, prisons research, punishment, deterrence, and environmental criminology), criminal careers (now differentiated into studies of onset, persistence and desistance) remains a key plank of criminology. This article critiques the research design of longitudinal studies of criminal careers, arguing that a key explanatory factor has been consistently overlooked in criminal careers research, due, in part, to the research design of such studies. In focussing on the role of politically-motivated changes to economic policies and the re-structuring of the industrial base this produced, I empirically relate individual offending careers to politics in way very few have done before. The article touches upon a series of suggestions for how empirical studies of criminal careers might be improved.
  • Gender differences in theory of mind, empathic understanding, and moral reasoning in an offending and a matched non-offending population

    Spenser, Karin; Bull, Ray; Betts, Lucy; Winder, Belinda; University of Derby; Nottingham Trent University (Sage, 2021-04-15)
    Previous research suggests that a lack of pro-social skills is characteristic of an offending personality. Two hundred male and female offenders and matched controls completed measures to assess: Theory of Mind, empathic understanding, and moral reasoning. Significant differences between the offenders and the control group, as well as between the male and female participants, were detected in theory of mind, empathic understanding and moral reasoning with offenders scoring lower than the control group, and with males scoring lower than females on most tests. The ability to assess Theory of Mind, empathic understanding, and moral reasoning, and subsequently to identify reduced ability, is not only useful for researchers but will also allow practitioners to tailor existing (or develop new) interventions specific to the needs of individuals. This could be particularly useful in terms of recidivism when applied to those involved in anti-social or offending behaviour.
  • WAF0042 - Inquiry: Women in the Armed Forces: From Recruitment to Civilian Life

    Spenser, Karin; Childs, Carrie; Adhikari, Joanna; University of Derby (UK Parliament, 2021-03-03)
    It is acknowledged that once military service is complete, personnel embark on a long metaphorical journey back to civilian life. Women military service leavers (WMSLs) are the fastest growing segment of the armed forces, and for them this transition can be even more traumatic than for their male counterparts. Whilst, it is recognised that to make this change seamless, they must have timely access to high quality women-centric services, it is suggested that such support is both limited and male-focused. Interviews and focus groups were conducted with eight WMSLs to gain a better understanding of the transition from military to civilian life. Thematic analysis was adopted to identify themes and subthemes. Two main themes were identified from the narratives – an environment of stress and long-term impact of service. Both themes are composed of several subthemes, which capture aspects of each main theme. Findings suggest the being in the military is stressful for all, but there is a perceived lack of support for WMSLs as they move into to civilian life. Their struggle with issues such as housing, employment and mental health was noted. Therefore, this research concludes that women need specific support during and after their military career.
  • Worrying Times: The fear of crime and nostalgia

    Farrall, Stephen; University of Derby (Taylor and Francis, 2021-02-24)
    As well as finding empirical relationships between victimisation, key socio-demographic variables, and various psychological and environmental processes, criminologists have long suspected that the feelings now identified, corralled together and labelled as ‘the fear of crime’ have roots in the wider shifts in the social, economic bases of society. In this paper, and using survey data from a nationally-representative sample of Britons aged over 16 (n = 5781), we explore the relationships between feelings of political and social nostalgia and the fear of crime. We find that nostalgia is indeed strongly related to crime fears, and, indeed, stronger even than variables such as victimisation, gender, and age (three of the frequently cited associates of fear). We go on to explore these relationships further in terms of different socio-economic classes, and relate feelings of nostalgia and fear to their recent (i.e. post-1945) historical trajectories.
  • Coal today, gone tomorrow: How jobs were replaced with prison places

    Jones, Phil Mike; Gray, Emily; Farrall, Stephen; University of Derby (Centre for Crime and Justice Studies, 2021-01-29)
  • Desistance: A utopian perspective

    Patton, David; Farrall, Stephen; University of Derby (Wiley, 2021-02-22)
    The written diaries of forty-three adult male respondents from a prison sample that had participated in a restorative justice intervention reveal a nuanced and dynamic process of desistance via their hopes and pains of anticipated desistance at the micro, meso and macro level. A utopian reading of the respondents’ hopes and pains of desistance is developed which reveal that their diaries express a utopian vision that is not just personal, but also inherently political, radical, collective and transformative. Their pains of desistance on the other hand, reveal a critique and condemnation of the current societal and structural apparatus. The necessity for radical and collective change is clear, if desisters and society are to reach their full potential.
  • Losing the discursive battle but winning the ideological war: who holds Thatcherite values now?

    Farrall, Stephen; Gray, Emily; Jones, Philip Mike; Hay, Colin; University of Derby; Sciences Po, Center for European Studies and Comparative Politics, Paris, France (Sage, 2021-02-02)
    In what ways, if at all, do past ideologies shape the values of subsequent generations of citizens? Are public attitudes in one period shaped by the discourses and constructions of an earlier generation of political leaders? Using Thatcherism – one variant of the political New Right of the 1980s – as the object of our enquiries, this paper explores the extent to which an attitudinal legacy is detectable amongst the citizens of the UK some 40 years after Margaret Thatcher first became Prime Minister. Our paper, drawing on survey data collected in early 2019 (n = 5,781), finds that younger generations express and seemingly embrace key tenets of her and her governments’ philosophies. Yet at the same time, they are keen to describe her government’s policies as having ‘gone too far’. Our contribution throws further light on the complex and often covert character of attitudinal legacies. One reading of the data suggests that younger generations do not attribute the broadly Thatcherite values that they hold to Thatcher or Thatcherism since they were socialised politically after such values had become normalised.

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