• Detecting truth in suspect interviews: the effect of use of evidence (early and gradual) and time delay on Criteria-Based Content Analysis, Reality Monitoring and inconsistency within suspect statements

      McDougall, Alice Jennifer; Bull, Ray; University of Leicester; University of Derby (Taylor and Francis, 2015-01-03)
      The strategic use of evidence in interviews with suspects has been shown to increase the ability of interviewers to accurately and consistently distinguish truthful from deceptive accounts. The present study considers the effect of early and gradual revelation of evidence by the interviewer, and the effect of shorter and longer delay on the verbal quality of truth-teller and liar statements within a mock crime paradigm. It was hypothesised that gradual disclosure of evidence (1) in terms of inconsistencies (a) within statements and (b) between statements and such evidence and (2) of the criteria of Criteria-Based Content Analysis (CBCA) and of Reality Monitoring (RM) would emphasise differences in the verbal quality of truth-teller and liar statements. Forty-two high school students took part in the study. The use of statement-evidence and within-statement inconsistency appears to be a robust cue to deception across interview style and delay. This indicates that gradual disclosure in interviews may increase interviewer accuracy in veracity decisions by eliciting statement inconsistencies. However, gradual revelation and delay affected the ability of CBCA and RM criteria to distinguish the veracity of suspect statements.
    • Developing a scale to measure the presence of possible prejudicial stereotyping in police interviews with suspects: The Minhas Investigative Interviewing Prejudicial Stereotyping Scale (MIIPSS)

      Minhas, Rashid Ali; Walsh, Dave; Bull, Ray; University of Derby (Taylor and Francis, 2016-10-31)
      If police interviewers hold negative feelings towards certain groups, this may affect how they interview them (either as victims, witnesses or suspects) in that they may not obtain reliable accounts, being the aim of such interviews. The Minhas Investigative Interviewing Prejudicial Stereotyping Scale (MIIPSS) has been developed to assess the level of any investigative interviewers' prejudicial stereotyping towards suspects. The current exploratory study involved semi-structured interviews with twenty people, who had previously been interviewed as suspects in England and also eight very experienced lawyers. Both their views were measured using the MIIPSS before being subjected to a Guttman analysis. Statistical analyses showed that MIIPSS satisfies the criteria for classification as a valid unidimensional and cumulative scale. Therefore, researchers could use MIIPSS as a tool to measure prejudicial stereotyping in investigative interviews. Interviewers could also use MIIPSS to monitor their own attitudes towards certain groups or individuals suspected of different types of crimes.
    • Diplomacy and the politics of fear: the 21st century challenges to the theory and practice of Diplomacy and International Relations

      Jegede, Francis; Todd, Malcolm; Stubbs, John; Hodgson, Philip; Univeristy of Derby (LHSS, University of Derby, 2016-09-12)
      Conflicts, political unrest, mass migration and the rise of violent extremism by non-state actors are features that have characterized the early 21st century. A huge challenge to world peace and security is posed by volatile economic and political conditions around the world. This situation has led to a growing tension in many inter-state relations which arguably has underpinned the rise of groups such as Al Qaeda and Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (ISIL) in the Middle East, the Boko Haram in West Africa, and Al Shabaab in East Africa. Arguably, there is a growing sense of fear and unease in every sphere of social, economic and political life. More than at any other time in human history, the future seems uncertain. Relationships and trusts between states and their citizens are breaking down; relations, mutual cooperation and connections between states are under strain; there is growing sense of disillusionment by the governed of the ability of governments and mainstream political establishments to address their concerns and meet their needs. The feeling of uncertainty and general fear for the future is real. While these may not necessarily be universally held views, there is a growing indication that people and communities around the world are feeling dissatisfied and may be threatened by mainstream political systems. Just when it is most needed, diplomacy and diplomatic practice seem to be taking the back seat in the face of growing conflicts. This conference examines the socio-economic and political environment that creates social and political discontent, political apathy, the weakening of inter-state relations, and the general sense of fear.
    • Disclosure of confidential patient information and the duty to consult: the role of the Health and Social Care Information Centre

      Grace, Jamie; Taylor, Mark; University of Derby; University of Sheffield (Oxford University Press, 2013)
    • Distributive justice and the crime drop.

      Ignatans, Dainis; Pease, Ken; University of Kent; University College London (Palgrave Macmillan, 2015)
      Data were extracted from a total of almost 600000 respondents from all sweeps of the Crime Survey for England and Wales (CSEW) 1982-2012 to determine whether victimisation was more or less concentrated across households during the crime drop. The most victimised household decile experienced the greatest absolute decline in victimisation but still accounted for over 70% of all victimisations suffered. Methodological issues underlying the patterns observed are discussed. The characteristics associated with highly victimised household are consistent across survey sweeps. Cross-national and crime type extension of work of the kind undertaken is advocated as both intrinsically important and likely to clarify the dynamics of the crime drop.
    • Do parents have a right to determine where a child patient dies?

      Cherkassky, Lisa; University of Derby (Trivent Publishing, 2019-08)
      This chapter will explore whether parents have the legal right to take their gravely ill child home to die in peace surrounded by family. Public anger surrounding the recent cases of Charlie Gard and Alfie Evans suggests that it is morally wrong to deprive parents of this final wish when medical treatment is futile and travel abroad for treatment has been ruled out. The judgments of Judge Francis (Gard) and Lady Justice King (Re C) will be examined to reveal the legal avenues available to parents of gravely ill children and whether their final wish to take their child home should be afforded more weight in futile cases.
    • Do We Need a New Legal Framework for Fighting Non-Conventional Wars? The International Law of War, Human Rights and the Global Fight Against Extremism and Terrorism

      Jegede, Francis; Todd, Malcolm; University of Derby (Global Science and Technology Forum, 2016-11-16)
      This paper examines the existing legal framework for fighting violent extremism and terrorism. Highlighting the inherent limitations of the current International Law of War in dealing with the growing challenges posed by terrorists and violent extremist groups, the paper discusses the problem facing military commanders, security agents, state actors and the international community in confronting extremist groups while upholding human rights values and respecting the law of war. The paper poses the question as to whether the current legal framework for dealing with extremist groups is sufficient without contravening the essential provisions and ethos of the International Law of War and Human Rights. Using examples, the paper examines how extremist groups flagrantly disregard the rule of law and disrespect human rights in their campaign of terror. The paper also notes instances in which the current Western strategy in fighting terrorism may be viewed or considered as conflicting with human rights and international law.
    • Dual class shares around the top global financial centres

      Huang, Flora; University of Essex (2017-04-01)
      Dual class shares (DCS) offer additional classes of shares that provide holders with greater voting rights. The article aims to investigate why leading financial centres have different attitudes towards DCS, with a focus on the recent reforms of their company law and listing rules with respect to DCS.
    • Dynamics of repeated interviews with children

      Waterhouse, Genevieve F.; Ridley, Anne M.; Bull, Ray; La Rooy, David; Wilcock, Rachel; London South Bank University; University of Derby; University of London; University of Winchester; Department of Psychology; London South Bank University; London UK; et al. (Wiley, 2016-06-10)
      Concerns regarding repeat interviews with child witnesses include greater use of suggestive questions in later interviews due to bias, and that children may appear inconsistent and, therefore, be judged as less reliable in court. UK transcripts of first and second interviews with 21 child victims/witnesses (conducted by qualified interviewers) were coded for question types and child responses. Interviewers were consistent in their proportional use of question types across interviews. Furthermore, children were as informative in second interviews as in first, mostly providing new details consistent with their prior recall. Despite the apparent lack of training in conducting repeated interviews, no negative effects were found; second interviews appeared to be conducted as well as initial interviews, and children provided new details without many contradictions. It is suggested that when a child's testimony is paramount for an investigation, a well-conducted supplementary interview may be an effective way of gaining further investigative leads.Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    • Economic interdependence in a globalised world - the effects of Greece's financial crises on Derbyshire businesses

      Jegede, Francis; University of Derby (Derby Telegraph, 2013)
      Greece, in recent years, has suffered series of financial crises that necessitated massive European bailouts to support and sustain the country's economy. The bailouts and support from the IMF and the European Central Bank came with stringent economic conditions that have caused severe political turmoil in the country. This article, published by Derby Telegraph, examines the nature and effect of economic interdependency in a globalised world. Using, the recent financial crises as case study; the article explains how the economic woes in countries like Greece and Portugal could hit Derbyshire businesses.
    • The effect of co-offender planning on verbal deception

      Chan, Stephanie; Bull, Ray; Home Team Behavioural Science Centre; University of Derby (Taylor & Francis, 2013-09-13)
      Previous deception studies have mainly examined individual mock perpetrators and their deceptive behaviours during interviews, but not all crimes are committed by single perpetrators. In the present study, 48 mock perpetrators were individually interviewed after carrying out a mock theft in pairs. The time available for co-planning prior to the interview was manipulated so as to examine its effects on participants’: (1) verbal cues to deception; (2) cognitive load; and (3) attempted speech control during the interview. Having time available for planning was associated with greater statement immediacy, plausibility and within-pair consistency, but not with cognitive load or attempted control.
    • Elderly persons' mobility situation and use of public transport in England and Wales. A logistic regression analysis.

      Jegede, Francis; University of Derby (Population Association of America, 1995-04)
      This paper examines the mobility situation of elderly people in England and Wales. The paper analyses elderly peoples' use of public transport for local movements and the degree to which each transport mode is considered "convenient" for that purpose. Using a logistic regression procedure as conceptualized in a dichotomous situation, the paper examines how elderly people's socio-medical conditions or disability could affect their "convenient" use of transport. The paper, based on a survey conducted in 1993, shows that the degree of mobility "deprivation" among elderly people depends on the type and severity of their physical/medical conditions. The study specifically reveals that mobility problems are significant among elderly people that have locomotion disability, and cardiovascular and arthritis conditions. The paper offers some practical suggestions on how the main-stream transport facilities could be improved to make them more accessible to elderly people.
    • Energy law and policy in Nigeria with reflection on the International Energy Charter and domestication of the African Charter

      Ekhator, Eghosa; Agbaitoro, Godswill; University of Derby; University of Essex (Pretoria University Press, 2019-12)
      The aim of this chapter is to examine the benefits of the International Energy Charter (IEC) to signatory countries with a view to illustrating its future relevance and potential influence in respect of energy laws and policies in Nigeria. The intended outcome of the chapter is to highlight the critical role of the IEC in global energy governance and its impact on Nigeria. Moreover, it will discuss how the IEC has contributed to the ability of signatory countries to enhance international cooperation aimed at addressing common energy challenges while enabling them to harness their full energy resource potential. The research question sought to be answered is whether the IEC has the requisite elements to transform Nigeria’s energy laws and policies so as to bring about positive outcomes in the country’s energy sector. The chapter argues that lessons can be gleaned from the successful domestication and implementation of the African Charter on Human and Peoples’ Rights (African Charter) in Nigeria in this regard.
    • Enforcement strategies in Chinese capital market

      Huang, Flora; Liu, Junhai; University of Derby (Routledge, 2020-11-25)
      This chapter discusses the varieties of enforcement channels to protect investors, especially minority shareholders in the Chinese capital market. These channels include public enforcement by regulators such as the China Securities Regulatory Authority and the stock exchanges, and private enforcement in the form of litigations enabled by corporate and securities laws. Furthermore, alternative dispute resolutions are increasingly popular to resolve disputes. In this chapter, it is argued that all these enforcement channels together function as part of a comprehensive and integrated regulatory strategy to provide the much-needed law in action to support the phenomenal economic and financial growth in the country.
    • Engaging new Law lecturers and reflections on the engagement

      Cherkassky, Lisa; Gale, Christopher; Guth, Jessica; University of Bradford (2009)
    • The enhanced cognitive interview: expressions of uncertainty, motivation and its relation with report accuracy

      Paulo, Rui M.; Albuquerque, Pedro B.; Bull, Ray; University of Derby (2015-11-11)
    • The enhanced cognitive interview: Testing appropriateness perception, memory capacity and error estimate relation with report quality

      Paulo, Rui M.; Albuquerque, Pedro B.; Saraiva, Magda; Bull, Ray; University of Derby; School of Psychology; University of Minho; Campus de Gualtar Braga Portugal; School of Psychology; University of Minho; Campus de Gualtar Braga Portugal; School of Psychology; University of Minho; Campus de Gualtar Braga Portugal; Department of Psychology; University of Portsmouth; Portsmouth United Kingdom (Wiley, 2015-04-23)
      The Enhanced Cognitive Interview (ECI) has been widely studied. However, research has overlooked witnesses’ attitudes toward the interview and how error estimate and memory capacity relate to report quality. Participants watched a mock robbery video and were interviewed 48 hours later with either the Portuguese version of the ECI or a Structured Interview (SI). Participants interviewed with the ECI provided more information without compromising accuracy, particularly in free recall. Report accuracy was stable across interview phases and information categories. A higher perception of interview appropriateness (how witnesses evaluate the appropriateness of the interview procedure used) was linked with more detailed reports and more interest in being an interviewee. Participants over-estimated their error rate, and their memory capacity was not related to witnesses’ recall. It is essential to take into account their perception of interview appropriateness and use alternative methods to evaluate report quality. Major implications for real-life investigations are discussed.
    • Enhancing the cognitive interview with an alternative procedure to witness-compatible questioning: category clustering recall

      Paulo, Rui M.; Albuquerque, Pedro B.; Vitorino, Fabiana; Bull, Ray; Bath Spa University; University of Minho; University of Derby; College of Liberal Arts, Bath Spa University, Bath, UK; School of Psychology, University of Minho, Braga, Portugal; School of Psychology, University of Minho, Braga, Portugal; et al. (Taylor and Francis, 2017-07-20)
      The Cognitive Interview (CI) is one of the most widely studied and used methods to interview witnesses. However, new component techniques for further increasing correct recall are still crucial. We focused on how a new and simpler interview strategy, Category Clustering Recall (CCR), could increase recall in comparison with witness-compatible questioning and tested if a Revised Cognitive Interview (RCI) with CCR instead of witness-compatible questioning and without the change order and change perspective mnemonics would be effective for this purpose. Participants watched a mock robbery video and were interviewed 48 hours later with either the CI or the RCI. Recalled information was classified as either correct, incorrect or confabulation. Although exclusion of the change order and change perspective mnemonics in the RCI group might have caused a slight decrease in recall during the last interview phases, the RCI group generally produced more correct information than the CI group, with a lower number of confabulations. Further analyses revealed CCR was largely responsible for this increase in correct recall. CCR is a very promising interview technique which allowed the interviewer to obtain more detailed information without additional questions and may have, in certain situations, several practical advantages over a questioning phase.
    • 'The enigmatic but unique nature of the Israeli legal system'

      Platsas, Antonios E.; University of Derby (North-West University, South Africa, 2012-09-25)
      The Israeli legal system is unique in that it straddles the two otherwise opposing worlds of tradition and innovation. This creates an enigma for the comparatist, making the exploration of this system an onerous and challenging task. The author wishes to maintain that the system in question is highly innovative and ascribes this quality to the proactive character of the Israeli Supreme Court, whose activism has had a major impact on the character of the domestic system as a whole. While the author explores the reasons why this has been the case, one of his main concerns in this paper will be to examine the innovative character of the Israeli Supreme Court per se, in comparison with equivalent courts in other parts of the world. In addition the author will seek to establish inter alia the character of the Israeli legal system by focusing on the three different elements that co-exist in the Israeli socio-legal structure (the Jewish element vis-à-vis the Arab element; the Liberal element vis-àvis the Orthodox element within the Jewish community; and the Civilian element visà-vis the Common law element). The author wishes to posit that the amalgamation of different legal and cultural traditions in Israel created a sui generis state of affairs for the legal system as a whole. This results in an overall systemic-methodological amalgamation which does not occur elsewhere in the world. The article concludes that the enigmatic and innovative characteristics of the Israeli legal system derive from the novel way in which the legal mix has occurred in this system (as opposed to the ingredients of the elements in the mix). In this respect, Israel may have contributed much to the reinvigoration of the modern comparative law agenda, and it may continue to do so in the future, as the system is not one of legal stasis (a mixed system) but one of legal kinesis (a mixing system).