• NHS values of data management

      Grace, Jamie; University of Derby (Mark Allen Healthcare, 2009-02)
    • On whom does the burden of crime fall now? Changes over time in counts and concentration.

      Ignatans, Dainis; Pease, Ken; University of Huddersfield; University College London; University of Huddersfield, UK; University College London, UK (Sage, 2015-11-03)
      A recent publication (Ignatans and Pease, 2015) sought to examine the changed distribution of crime across households in England and Wales over a period encompassing that of the crime drop common to Western countries (1982–2012). It was found that while crime against the most victimised households declined most in absolute terms, the proportion of all crime accounted for by those most victimised increased somewhat. The characteristics associated with highly victimised households were found to be consistent across survey sweeps. The pattern suggested the continued relevance to crime reduction generally of prioritising repeat crimes against the same target. The present paper analyses the changed distribution of crime by offence type. Data were extracted from a total of almost 600,000 respondents from all sweeps of the Crime Survey for England and Wales (CSEW) 1982–2012 to determine which types of victimisation became more or less concentrated across households during the overall crime drop. Methodological issues underlying the patterns observed are discussed. Cross-national and crime type extension of work of the kind undertaken here are advocated as both intrinsically important and likely to clarify the dynamics of the crime drop.
    • One country two systems as bedrock of Hong Kong's continued success: Fiction or reality?

      Huang, Flora; Yeung, Horace; University of Essex (Boston College, 2015-05-01)
      Despite the handover of sovereignty over Hong Kong from the United Kingdom to China in 1997, the principles of “one country two systems” reaffirmed the autonomy of Hong Kong in a number of respects. In accordance with the Sino-British Joint Declaration and Basic Law of Hong Kong, the city is able to enjoy a high degree of autonomy over the systems and policies practiced locally, including social and economic systems, as well as the executive, legislative and judicial systems. Additionally, with its image as a robust financial market largely thanks to the institutions inherited from its colonial era, Hong Kong is able to attract a number of financial activities from China and has firmly established itself as a leading international financial center. Nonetheless, there have been concerns that the advantages of Hong Kong started to fade after its reunification with China. This Article seeks to analyze how Hong Kong’s capitalist system shields the city from the socialist system of China under the principles of “one country two systems,” allowing the city to maintain its position as a premier financial center. It explores the regulatory gap between Hong Kong and China, illustrating that Hong Kong’s strength stems from the operation of a strong company and financial law regime independent of the legal regime in China.
    • One way or another? Criminal investigators' beliefs regarding the disclosure of evidence in interviews with suspects in England and Wales

      Walsh, Dave; Milne, Becky; Bull, Ray; University of Derby (Springer, 2015-07-11)
      The research base concerning interviews with suspects remains to be comprehensively developed. For example, the extant literature provides differing views regarding how best to undertake the important interview task of disclosing evidence. In the current study, using a self-report questionnaire, 224 investigators based in England and Wales were asked as to their own preferred methods. Most respondents advocated a gradual method of disclosing evidence, stating that this approach would better reveal inconsistencies and obtain a complete version of events (similar to the reasoning of those who preferred disclosing evidence later). Those who advocated revealing evidence early stated this approach would more likely elicit confessions. Several respondents would not commit to one single method, arguing that their chosen strategy was contextually dependent. The study’s findings suggest that it remains arguable as to whether there is one best approach to evidence disclosure and/or whether particular circumstances should influence interviewing strategies.
    • Perceptions of psychological coercion and human trafficking in the West Midlands of England: Beginning to know the unknown

      Dando, Coral J.; Walsh, Dave; Brierley, Robin; University of Derby (Public Library of Science, 2016-05-05)
      Modern slavery is less overt than historical state-sanctioned slavery because psychological abuse is typically used to recruit and then control victims. The recent UK Draft Modern Slavery Bill, and current UK government anti-slavery strategy relies heavily on a shared understanding and public cooperation to tackle this crime. Yet, UK research investigating public understanding of modern slavery is elusive. We report community survey data from 682 residents of the Midlands of England, where modern slavery is known to occur, concerning their understanding of nonphysical coercion and human trafficking (one particular form of modern slavery). Analysis of quantitative data and themed categorization of qualitative data revealed a mismatch between theoretical frameworks and understanding of psychological coercion, and misconceptions concerning the nature of human trafficking. Many respondents did not understand psychological coercion, believed that human trafficking did not affect them, and confused trafficking with immigration. The public are one of the most influential interest groups, but only if well informed and motivated towards positive action. Our findings suggest the need for strategically targeted public knowledge exchange concerning this crime.
    • Planning ahead? An exploratory study of South Korean Investigators' beliefs about their planning for investigative interviews of suspects.

      Kim, Jihwan; Walsh, Dave; Bull, Ray; Bergstrøm, Henriette; University of Derby (Springer, 2017-11-16)
      Preparation and planning has been argued to be vitally important as to how effectively investigators undertake their interviews with suspects. Yet it has also been found in previous research that investigators admit that they plan only occasionally, often attributing insufficient time as reason for not undertaking the task. Employing a novel research paradigm that utilized theoretical foundations concerning planning, the present study explored empirically 95 South Korean financial crime investigators’ views, using a self-administered questionnaire. Through the use of second generation statistical modelling, an understanding was developed of the relative relationships between various concepts (which had themselves emerged from an established theoretical framework of planning that had been further extended to accommodate the context of the present study) The study found that perceived time pressures actually showed a very low association with interview planning. Rather, investigators self-belief as to their own capability alongside workplace culture were each found to have stronger associations with investigators’ intentions to plan for their interviews. As such, we argue that there should be more focus on improving occupational culture relating to interview planning, while developing training programs that identify, evaluate and enhance investigators’ planning skills. Implications for practice are therefore discussed.
    • Police interrogation practice in Slovenia

      Areh, Igor; Walsh, Dave; Bull, Ray; University of Derby (2015-12-23)
      Interrogation techniques are well explored, but in Slovenia it has remained unknown what interrogation techniques are used and what the basic characteristics of suspect interrogations are. The Slovenian interrogation manual proposes some coercive interrogation techniques and neglects their weaknesses. The aim of the current study was to examine Slovenian police officers’ beliefs as to the basic characteristics of their interrogations and whether techniques proposed by the manual are used in practice to begin to provide some insight into what actually happens in such interrogations. A survey instrument was used to obtain selfreport data from a sample of criminal investigators. From 86 completed questionnaires it was found that a typical interrogation of a suspect lasts around 90 minutes and is not recorded. Interviewers typically use three interrogation techniques namely (i) conducting interrogations in isolation; (ii) identifying contradictions in the suspect’s story; and (iii) confronting the suspect with evidence. Findings suggest that some coercive interrogation techniques are used in practice (e.g. offering moral justifications, alluding to have evidence of guilt, good cop/bad cop routine, and minimization). The study is the first insight into the practices of Slovenian investigators when questioning suspects. Differences among general, white-collar and organized crime investigators are also discussed.
    • Police interview of suspects in China: developments and analyses

      Zeng, Fanging; Huang, Ching-Yu; Bull, Ray; University of China; Keele University; University of Derby (Sage, 2020-08-13)
      This paper investigates the power dynamics in police interviews with suspects in China by examining a real-life sample. It first overviews some recent developments and legislation in China regarding police interviewing of suspects, followed by outlining the linguistic and psychological research which the analyses are based upon. The interviews are examined using critical discourse analysis that reveals the high-power position of the Chinese police in suspect interviews. However, the large proportion of open questions found in the interviews is encouraging, as this suggests that the regulations outlawing use of evidence obtained by torture or other illegal means is taking effect. This paper is the very first to empirically examine actual Chinese police interviews with suspects, providing valuable insights for theories and practice.
    • Police overestimation of criminal career homogeneity

      Pease, Ken; Roach, Jason; University of Derby (Wiley, 2013-10-07)
      Police presumptions about criminal career trajectories have been little studied. The exploratory study reported here involved 42 police staff of varying rank and experience. Participants were asked to complete a questionnaire that asked them to predict the type of offence that an individual with a specified prior record would most probably commit next. Participating police personnel substantially overstated the homogeneity of criminal careers, that is, the nature of prior offences determined their prediction of their next offence more than available official data would deem reasonable. An incidental finding was that officers who rated the probability of further offending highest were also those who thought criminal careers most specialised. The implications for operational police decision-making were discussed and held to be profound.
    • Police perceptions of rape victims and the impact on case decision making: A systematic review

      Sleath, Emma; Bull, Ray; Coventry University; University of Derby (Elsevier, 2017-02-24)
      Police officers are frequently perceived to hold negative attitudes about rape victims. The aim of this systematic review is to: (1) synthesise the current literature on police officers' attributions of rape victim blame, assessments of rape victim credibility, and rape myth acceptance; and, (2) examine the evidence that holding these attitudes impacts on police investigative decision making in rape cases. Twenty-four articles published between 2000 and 2016 were included following a systematic search of the available literature. The findings highlight that some police officers do hold problematic attitudes about rape victims e.g., blame, rape myth acceptance, although they are frequently noted to be at a low level. Furthermore, characteristics of the victim, e.g., alcohol intoxication and emotional expression, can affect attributions of victim credibility. Assessments of victim credibility were related to police investigative decision making e.g., recommendations to charge the perpetrator, perceptions of guilt. However, the impact of rape victim blaming and rape myth acceptance is less clear. Given that the literature was predominantly vignette-based, it is unclear how these judgements have an impact in real rape investigations.
    • Police strategies and suspect responses in real-life serious crime interviews

      Leahy-Harland, Samantha; Bull, Ray; Bournemouth University; University of Derby (Springer, 2016-09-13)
      This research focuses exclusively on real-life taped interviews with serious crime suspects and examines the strategies used and types of questions asked by police, and suspects’ responses to these. The information source was audio-tape-recorded interviews with 56 suspects. These recordings were obtained from 11 police services across England and Wales and were analysed using a specially designed coding frame. It was found that interviewers employed a range of strategies with presentation of evidence and challenge the most frequently observed. Closed questions were by far the most frequently used, and open questions, although less frequent, were found to occur more during the opening phases of the interviews. The frequency of ineffective question types (e.g. negative, repetitive, multiple) was low. A number of significant associations were observed between interviewer strategies and suspect responses. Rapport/empathy and open-type questions were associated with an increased likelihood of suspects admitting the offence whilst describing trauma, and negative questions were associated with a decreased likelihood.
    • Political discontent and the 21st Century's threats to global peace, security and human progress

      Jegede, Francis; University of Derby (College of Law, Humanities and Social Sciences, University of Derby, 2016)
      This paper examines 21st century relations between the State and the communities over which it, nominally at least, has jurisdiction. More specifically the aim of the paper is to explain both why and how so called mainstream politics is failing to engage with many peoples and communities around the world. To this end the paper identifies key areas of conflicts, tensions, mistrusts and other issues in both the domestic and international politics that could compromise the long term stability of nation states and threatens the peace, and security of peoples around the world. Cases are sited of hostile and un-diplomatic relations between states and ill-considered foreign policies that focus on narrow national interests rather than wider societal good. Based on the analysis presented, the paper concludes that the way politics is being played in the 21st century is a principal contributing factor to the current sense of despair and disconnection between the State and the governed. Tentative proposals are advanced towards forming a new politics which addresses the fear and concerns of other states, cultures and peoples as an integral part of any foreign policy and diplomatic relations.
    • The politics of migration in the UK from an artist's perspective - a conversation place No. 6, with a French artist Chris Dugrenier on migration and dance streamed live on May 5, 2015

      Jegede, Francis; University of Derby (Dance4, 2015)
      In this video, Dr Francis Jegede from the University of Derby and a Latin Dance enthusiast, explores the intersection of International Relations, Dance and Politics within the context of current debate and controversies surrounding the issue of migration in the UK. The video was produced by Dance4 under their Conversation Place project. A Conversation Place is a Dance4 project that brings together intriguing and provoking combinations of people who wouldn't normally meet face-to-face to shine a new light on the discourse that surrounds contemporary dance and choreographic practice. Project was set up with the hope that brief glimpses of the lives and ideas of Dance4 guest speakers and friends, shared online, can open up different perspectives on social issues and challenges facing society in Great Britain and beyond. Dance4 is an international centre for the development of extraordinary 21st century dance. A unique voice in the UK dance sector. Their work supports artists and practitioners who are interested in the development of dance as a tool for community development.
    • Population, resources and development

      Chrispin, Jane; Jegede, Francis; University of Derby (Collins Educational, 1996)
      Award-winning geography text covers the following themes: global wealth distribution, debt and aid; population structure, dynamics and migration; development strategies and population policies; industrialization and employment; and energy resources, commodities and trade. National Book Award - this book won the Geographical Association’s Silver Award - 1996.
    • Population, resources and development / 2nd. Ed.

      Chrispin, Jane; Jegede, Francis; University of Derby (Collins Educational, 2000)
      A completely revised edition of this popular A level text.This book covers: 1. Growth, wealth and happiness 2. Colonialism, dependency and aid 3. Population dynamics and structure 4. Population movements and urbanisation 5. Population policies and food supply 6. Human resources and industrialisation 7. Natural resources and development 8. World trade, commodities and communications 9. Regional development policies 10. Tourism as a development strategy 11. Alternative strategies for development
    • Presumed consent in organ donation: is the duty finally upon us?

      Cherkassky, Lisa; University of Bradford (2010)
    • Preventing crime and evoking altruism.

      Pease, Ken; University College London (Springer, 2014)
      The chapter describes the current movement towards the integration of a wider range of science disciplines in the understanding and prevention of crime. Circumstances have led to that integration being furthest advanced in collaborative research of crime scientists with mathematicians and geographers, among others. The sub-discipline of positive psychology, with its theoretical underpinnings in evolutionary theory, is identified as a promising partner in the burgeoning of crime science.
    • Preventing repeat and near repeat crime concentrations.

      Farrell, Graham; Pease, Ken; University of Leeds; University College London (Routledge, 2017-03-16)
    • Preventing repeat and near repeat crime concentrations.

      Farrell, Graham; Pease, Ken; University of Derby (Routledge, 2017-03-16)