• Anti social behaviour, community and radical moral communitarianism

      Hopkins-Burke, Roger; Hodgson, Philip; Nottingham Trent University (2015-04-13)
      This article offers an insight into the lives of individuals who are repeat victims of antisocial behaviour (ASB). Drawing on data derived from 15 case studies, the authors demonstrate the plight that such victims endure on a daily basis. The research reveals that a number of victims feel abandoned by their communities and the authorities and, how for many, there is an overwhelming sense of being “trapped” within their own homes. The article also offers evidence to support previous claims that police crime data only captures a small proportion of the actual number of incidents of ASB that occur. We conclude by proposing an emphasis on individual and community responsibility and suggest that by adopting a radical moral communitarian approach ASB could be reduced as part of rebuilding communities.
    • Applying hierarchy of expert performance (HEP) to investigative interview evaluation: strengths, challenges and future directions

      Huang, Ching-Yu; Bull, Ray; Dror, Itiel; Bournemouth University; University of Derby (Taylor and Francis, 2020-06-16)
      The purpose of this paper is to systematically examine the research literature on the decision of expert interviewers within the theoretical framework of the Hierarchy of Expert Performance (HEP, Dror, 2016). After providing an overview of the HEP framework, existing research in the investigative interviewing at each of the eight levels of the HEP framework is reviewed. The results identify areas of strength in reliability between experts’ observations (Level 2) and of weakness in reliability between experts’ conclusions (Level 6). Biases in investigative interview experts’ decision making is also revealed at biasability between expert conclusions (Level 8). Moreover, no published data is available in reliability within experts at the level of observations (Level 1) or conclusions (Level 5), biasability within or between expert observations (Level 3 and 4) and biasability within expert conclusions (Level 7). The findings highlight areas where future research and practical endeavor are much needed investigative interview.
    • Are victims of crime mostly angry or mostly afraid?

      Ignatans, Dainis; Pease, Ken; University of Derby (Springer/ Palgrave, 2019-05)
      Analysis of the Crime Survey for England and Wales identifies anger and annoyance rather than fear as the most common emotional responses to victimisation by crime, despite fear’s pre-eminence in the criminological literature. While the trend since 2003 shows an increase in fear relative to anger, anger remains more common for all crime categories and all levels of victim-rated offence seriousness. The writers contend that the mismatch between the preponderance of anger in victim accounts and the preponderance of fear in the academic literature is convenient for government and police. Subtly setting fear as the default ‘appropriate’ emotion to be evoked by victimisation makes for a populace less inclined to ‘take matters into its own hands’. Plans to develop research on victim anger are outlined.
    • Area and individual differences in personal crime victimisation incidence: The role of individual, lifestyle/routine activities and contextual predictors

      Pease, Ken; Andromachi, Tseloni; University of Derby (Sage, 2014-09-02)
      This article examines how personal crime differences between areas and between individuals are predicted by area and population heterogeneity and their synergies. It draws on lifestyle/routine activities and social disorganization theories to model the number of personal victimization incidents over individuals including routine activities and area characteristics, respectively, as well as their (cross-cluster) interactions. The methodology employs multilevel or hierarchical negative binomial regression with extra binomial variation using data from the British Crime Survey and the UK Census. Personal crime rates differ substantially across areas, reflecting to a large degree the clustering of individuals with measured vulnerability factors in the same areas. Most factors suggested by theory and previous research are conducive to frequent personal victimization except the following new results. Pensioners living alone in densely populated areas face disproportionally high numbers of personal crimes. Frequent club and pub visits are associated with more personal crimes only for males and adults living with young children, respectively. Ethnic minority individuals experience fewer personal crimes than whites. The findings suggest integrating social disorganization and lifestyle theories and prioritizing resources to the most vulnerable, rather than all,residents of poor and densely populated areas to prevent personal crimes.
    • Behavior displayed by female victims during rapes committed by lone and multiple perpetrators.

      Woodhams, Jessica; Hollin, Clive R.; Bull, Ray; Cooke, Claire; University of Birmingham; University of Leicester; University of Gloucestershire (American Psychological Association, 2012-08)
      Research with both the general public and members of the criminal justice system reports a pervasive rape myth of a violent offender and a physically resistant victim. Despite research being conducted on victims' postrape behavior, few studies have examined victim behavior during sexual assaults, and many of those which have been conducted have tended to focus on physical resistance. This article reports two studies that examined qualitatively the behavior of female rape victims during sexual assaults. The first study is an analysis of 78 stranger sexual assaults, committed in the United Kingdom, by male offenders. The second study is an analysis of 89 allegations of stranger rape, again from the United Kingdom, perpetrated by multiple male suspects. Information about victim behavior was extracted from victims' accounts made to the police. More than 100 different victim behaviors were identified in each study, and more than 80 behaviors were common across studies. Myth-congruent behaviors were present in the sample; however, the behaviors engaged in by victims were complex and diverse. Indirect and face-saving communications were used by victims and are discussed in terms of expectations regarding victim behavior and rape stereotypes. The implications of the findings for training legal professionals, educating jurors, and counseling victims are discussed.
    • Built environment attributes and crime: an automated machine learning approach

      Dakin, Kyle; Parkinson, Simon; Saad, Kahn; Monchuck, Leanne; Pease, Ken; University of Huddersfield; University of Derby (BMC, 2020-07-08)
      This paper presents the development of an automated machine learning approach to gain an understanding of the built environment and its relationship to crime. This involves the automatic capture of street-level photographs using Google Street View (GSV), followed by the use of supervised machine learning techniques (specifically image feature recognition) to recognise features of the built environment. In this exploratory proof-of-concept work, 8 key features (building, door, fence, streetlight, tree, window, hedge, and garage) are considered and a worked case-study is demonstrated for a small geographical area (8300 square kilometres) in Northern England. A total of 60,100 images were automatically collected and analysed across the area where 5288 crime incidents were reported over a twelve- month period. Dependency between features and crime incidents are measured; however, no strong correlation has been identified. This is unsurprisingly considering the high number of crime incidents in a small geographic region (8300 square kilometres), resulting in an overlap between specific features and multiple crime incidents. Further- more, due to the unknown precise location of crime instances, an approximation technique is developed to survey a crime’s local proximity. Despite the absence of a strong correlation, this paper presents a first-of-a-kind cross-disci- pline approach to attempt and use computation techniques to produce new empirical knowledge. There are many avenues of future research in this fertile and important area.
    • Certainty over clemency: English contract law in the face of financial crisis

      Huang, Flora; Yeung, Horace; University of Leicester (Springer, 2016)
      This chapter has the objective to consider the legal implications of negative economic trends under English contract law in the aftermath of the global Financial Crisis of 2007–2008. Unlike other jurisdictions, most notably in civil law countries, the English position in the law governing a fundamental change in circumstances has remained narrow, that is, no relief will be granted unless it is an exceptional situation. The English courts deal with the issue either by the doctrine of frustration or through construing contractual force majeure provisions. Following the crisis, indeed there have been an increasing number of cases going down these avenues. Apart from relying on frustration or force majeure clause, another emerging phenomenon is that there has been a growth in allegations of misrepresentation and therefore requesting a rescission of contract. In either case, the aim of claimants is apparently trying to bring the contractual obligations to an end.
    • Children and the doctrine of substituted judgement.

      Cherkassky, Lisa; University of Derby; The University of Derby, UK (Sage, 2014-12-01)
      The common law in the United Kingdom dictates that children facing medical treatment should be treated in accordance with their best interests. The Children Act 1989 also demands that the welfare of the child is paramount. However, in light of the creation of saviour siblings after the case of Quintavalle, it is disputed that the donor child is treated in accordance with his/her best interests when undergoing a non-therapeutic procedure for the benefit of another. The Human Tissue Authority (HTA) can, for example, validate a bone marrow harvest on a child created specifically for harvest without the consent of the High Court. The doctrine of substituted judgement was developed in the United States to substitute a previously competent adult decision, but it is proposed that parents of saviour siblings are reviving it in a modified form to install a speculative psychological benefit into the saviour child to satisfy the criteria for a harvest in common law. As a result, there is a glaring discrepancy between the objective jurisdiction of the courts and the validation of non-therapeutic harvesting procedures upon children by the HTA, opening the door to potential legal action.
    • Chinese companies and the Hong Kong stock market

      Huang, Flora; Yeung, Horace; University of Leicester (Routledge, 2013-10-04)
      Listing by companies from one country on the stock market of another country is a device often used both to raise capital in, and to increase bonding with, the target country. This book examines the listing by Chinese companies on the Hong Kong stock market. It discusses the extent of the phenomenon, compares the two different regulatory regimes, and explores the motivations for the cross-listing. It argues that a key factor, in addition to raising capital and bonding with the Hong Kong market, is Chinese companies’ desire to encourage legal and regulatory reforms along Hong Kong lines in mainland China, in order to develop and open up China’s domestic capital markets.
    • Combined degrees & employability: A comparative analysis of single and joint honours graduates of UK universities

      Pigden, Louise; Jegede, Francis; University of Derby (West East Institute, 2016-05)
      Over the last decade, there has been an increase in the popularity and number of combined or joint degrees in English and Welsh Universities. Combined or joint honours represent 10% of all undergraduates - 50,000 out of 500,0001 currently enrolled on all honours degrees. This significant and special way of learning therefore warrants scrutiny. Combined degrees enable students to enroll on two or more subjects, with varying levels of integration of the courses, which leads to either a BA or BSc honours joint award. The growing number of students on such degrees across universities in England and Wales has led to a debate as to the intrinsic value of such degrees especially in relation to graduate employability and career opportunities. This paper examines the nature and relative attractiveness of combined degrees and explores the employability of combined honours degree graduates in comparison with single honours degree graduates.
    • Coordinated efforts to regulate overseas listed Chinese companies: a historical perspective and recent developments

      Huang, Flora; Liu, Xinmin; Yeung, Horace; University of Essex (Taylor & Francis, 2017-07-04)
      Prestigious financial centres have attracted a number of Chinese companies seeking liquidity and international exposure (an example being the record- breaking IPO of Alibaba in the US). This article seeks to explore how the regulatory cooperation of securities commissions can be a solution to the concerns arising from the regulation of these companies, given the perceived weaknesses in the governance of Chinese companies and the difficulties of cross-border enforcement. One notable example of regulatory cooperation can be seen in how the regulators in Hong Kong and China have worked closely together. Meanwhile, other overseas exchanges have started to pay more attention to the regulatory issues arising from Chinese listings. In the literature on cross-listing, this paper is the first to present a holistic approach, taking into account both the importance and the popularity of cross-listing as well as the most recent regulatory challenges and solutions.
    • A cosmopolitan ethos within a global Law curriculum: comparative law as its promoter

      Platsas, Antonios E.; University of Derby (CGPublisher, 2009)
      In this paper the author will commence his analysis by exposing the apparent absence of a global law curriculum for law students. He will attempt to highlight the fact that lawyers around the world tend to engage themselves with national law material, when our world environment asks for a legal education of a more ecumenical character. Accordingly, the paper acts on the assumption that national law curricula tend to operate on the basis of predisposed agendas. Therefore, we, in the discipline of law, find ourselves in a clearly paradoxical situation, a situation which conflicts not only the epistemological unity of other disciplines but also the very process of globalisation. As the leading law comparatists Zweigert and Kötz have argued some time ago ‘[t]here is no such thing as “German” physics or “British” microbiology or “Canadian” geology’. But we in the discipline of law find ourselves teaching national law curricula which are the by-product of nationalisms and historical accidents. It is believed that there has to be re-alignment of the law curriculum by re-enforcing the international and comparative law elements and by reducing the national law elements thereof. In other words, we must push for a law curriculum which truly reflects a global studies state of affairs, a global law curriculum. We need to re-address the matter by promoting a law curriculum which will promote a more cosmopolitan legal ethos, a better understanding of universal truths such as legal axioms, principles and ideas which are appealing and comprehensible to legal scientists from all over the world. The analysis will conclude that the subject of comparative law acts as the driving force for a more internationalised legal education and that such a type of education is something that has to be sought in the modern academic world.
    • Course notes: Criminal Law

      Cherkassky, Lisa; University of Bradford (Routledge, 2012)
      Course Notes is designed to help you succeed in your law examinations and assessments. Each guide supports revision of an undergraduate and conversion GDL/CPE law degree module by demonstrating good practice in creating and maintaining ideal notes. Course Notes will support you in actively and effectively learning the material by guiding you through the demands of compiling the information you need.
    • Crime concentrations: Hot dots, hot spots and hot flushes.

      Ignatans, Dainis; Pease, Ken; University of Huddersfield; University College London (Oxford University Press, 2018-09-14)
      None
    • Detecting truth in suspect interviews: the effect of use of evidence (early and gradual) and time delay on Criteria-Based Content Analysis, Reality Monitoring and inconsistency within suspect statements

      McDougall, Alice Jennifer; Bull, Ray; University of Leicester; University of Derby (Taylor and Francis, 2015-01-03)
      The strategic use of evidence in interviews with suspects has been shown to increase the ability of interviewers to accurately and consistently distinguish truthful from deceptive accounts. The present study considers the effect of early and gradual revelation of evidence by the interviewer, and the effect of shorter and longer delay on the verbal quality of truth-teller and liar statements within a mock crime paradigm. It was hypothesised that gradual disclosure of evidence (1) in terms of inconsistencies (a) within statements and (b) between statements and such evidence and (2) of the criteria of Criteria-Based Content Analysis (CBCA) and of Reality Monitoring (RM) would emphasise differences in the verbal quality of truth-teller and liar statements. Forty-two high school students took part in the study. The use of statement-evidence and within-statement inconsistency appears to be a robust cue to deception across interview style and delay. This indicates that gradual disclosure in interviews may increase interviewer accuracy in veracity decisions by eliciting statement inconsistencies. However, gradual revelation and delay affected the ability of CBCA and RM criteria to distinguish the veracity of suspect statements.
    • Developing a scale to measure the presence of possible prejudicial stereotyping in police interviews with suspects: The Minhas Investigative Interviewing Prejudicial Stereotyping Scale (MIIPSS)

      Minhas, Rashid Ali; Walsh, Dave; Bull, Ray; University of Derby (Taylor and Francis, 2016-10-31)
      If police interviewers hold negative feelings towards certain groups, this may affect how they interview them (either as victims, witnesses or suspects) in that they may not obtain reliable accounts, being the aim of such interviews. The Minhas Investigative Interviewing Prejudicial Stereotyping Scale (MIIPSS) has been developed to assess the level of any investigative interviewers' prejudicial stereotyping towards suspects. The current exploratory study involved semi-structured interviews with twenty people, who had previously been interviewed as suspects in England and also eight very experienced lawyers. Both their views were measured using the MIIPSS before being subjected to a Guttman analysis. Statistical analyses showed that MIIPSS satisfies the criteria for classification as a valid unidimensional and cumulative scale. Therefore, researchers could use MIIPSS as a tool to measure prejudicial stereotyping in investigative interviews. Interviewers could also use MIIPSS to monitor their own attitudes towards certain groups or individuals suspected of different types of crimes.
    • Diplomacy and the politics of fear: the 21st century challenges to the theory and practice of Diplomacy and International Relations

      Jegede, Francis; Todd, Malcolm; Stubbs, John; Hodgson, Philip; Univeristy of Derby (LHSS, University of Derby, 2016-09-12)
      Conflicts, political unrest, mass migration and the rise of violent extremism by non-state actors are features that have characterized the early 21st century. A huge challenge to world peace and security is posed by volatile economic and political conditions around the world. This situation has led to a growing tension in many inter-state relations which arguably has underpinned the rise of groups such as Al Qaeda and Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (ISIL) in the Middle East, the Boko Haram in West Africa, and Al Shabaab in East Africa. Arguably, there is a growing sense of fear and unease in every sphere of social, economic and political life. More than at any other time in human history, the future seems uncertain. Relationships and trusts between states and their citizens are breaking down; relations, mutual cooperation and connections between states are under strain; there is growing sense of disillusionment by the governed of the ability of governments and mainstream political establishments to address their concerns and meet their needs. The feeling of uncertainty and general fear for the future is real. While these may not necessarily be universally held views, there is a growing indication that people and communities around the world are feeling dissatisfied and may be threatened by mainstream political systems. Just when it is most needed, diplomacy and diplomatic practice seem to be taking the back seat in the face of growing conflicts. This conference examines the socio-economic and political environment that creates social and political discontent, political apathy, the weakening of inter-state relations, and the general sense of fear.
    • Disclosure of confidential patient information and the duty to consult: the role of the Health and Social Care Information Centre

      Grace, Jamie; Taylor, Mark; University of Derby; University of Sheffield (Oxford University Press, 2013)