• Do We Need a New Legal Framework for Fighting Non-Conventional Wars? The International Law of War, Human Rights and the Global Fight Against Extremism and Terrorism

      Jegede, Francis; Todd, Malcolm; University of Derby (Global Science and Technology Forum, 2016-11-16)
      This paper examines the existing legal framework for fighting violent extremism and terrorism. Highlighting the inherent limitations of the current International Law of War in dealing with the growing challenges posed by terrorists and violent extremist groups, the paper discusses the problem facing military commanders, security agents, state actors and the international community in confronting extremist groups while upholding human rights values and respecting the law of war. The paper poses the question as to whether the current legal framework for dealing with extremist groups is sufficient without contravening the essential provisions and ethos of the International Law of War and Human Rights. Using examples, the paper examines how extremist groups flagrantly disregard the rule of law and disrespect human rights in their campaign of terror. The paper also notes instances in which the current Western strategy in fighting terrorism may be viewed or considered as conflicting with human rights and international law.
    • Examining the effects of violence and personality on eyewitness memory

      Pajón, Laura; Walsh, Dave; University of Derby; Department of Social Sciences, University of Derby, Derby, UK; Department of Social Sciences, University of Derby, Derby, UK (Taylor and Francis, 2017-05-24)
      Witnesses play a key role in criminal investigations. Research in estimator variables has aided criminal justice practitioners to estimate, post hoc, the likelihood of obtaining accurate testimony from a specific witness. Nonetheless, only a few studies have examined how violence and personality influence memory. The present study examines both variables with a student sample (N = 53). Participants were randomly divided between those who viewed a crime involving physical violence (n = 24) and those who watched an event that did not include physical violence (n = 29). Results found that physical violence increased the quantity of information recalled, and Honesty personality domain was positively correlated with memory performance. Nonetheless, the relationship between personality domains and memory performance appeared to be influenced and modified by the presence of physical violence. Under violent conditions personality domains of Emotionality and Openness appeared to be related with decreased memory accuracy, whereas Contentiousness appeared to be related with increased memory accuracy. This study enables a clearer picture to emerge of the effect that violence and personality have on memory and seeds the idea that claiming linear relationships between estimator variables and memory may be over-simplistic as variables appeared to be related among them when influencing eyewitness memory.
    • State vs non-state armed groups - a political economy of violence

      Jegede, Francis; Bampton, Kevin; Todd, Malcolm; University of Derby (Global Science and Technology Forum (GSTF 2015), 2015)
      The early 21st century has witnessed the rise in violent extremism with groups such as Al Qaeda and Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (ISIL) in the Middle East, the Boko Haram in West Africa, and Al Shabaab in East Africa. The activities of these and other non-state armed groups have created a general state of panic and fear that is spreading beyond their areas of operation to other parts of the political world. Rather than diminishing the influence of these groups, the states' counter extremism strategies seem to be further fuelling the extremism and creating new waves of violence that threatens global security and undermines the very essence of our collective wellbeing. This paper examines the socio-economic and political environment in which these armed groups have thrived and poses the question as to whether the failure of politics and development are to blame for the rise of extremism. The paper proposes a new approach to combating extremism that involves re-connecting people with politics and development. The basic contention of this paper is that there has been a failure of the state to satisfy the wellbeing of its citizens. The paper provides an explanation of, but by no means a justification of, the use of violent extremism in the early 21st century.