• Whatever happened to repeat victimisation?

      Pease, Ken; Ignatans, Dainis; Batty, Lauren; University of Derby (Springer Link, 2018-10-04)
      Crime is concentrated at the individual level (hot dots) as well as at area level (hot spots). Research on repeat victimisation affords rich prevention opportunities but has been increasingly marginalised by policy makers and implementers despite repeat victims accounting for increasing proportions of total crime. The present paper seeks to trigger a resurgence of interest in research and initiatives based on the prevention of repeat victimisation.
    • Improving the enhanced cognitive interview with a new interview strategy: category clustering recall.

      Paulo, Rui M.; Albuquerque, Pedro B.; Bull, Ray; University of Minho; School of Psychology; University of Minho; Braga Portugal; School of Psychology; University of Minho; Braga Portugal; School of Law and Criminology; University of Derby; Derby UK (Wiley, 2016-06-30)
      Increasing recall is crucial for investigative interviews. The enhanced cognitive interview (ECI) has been widely used for this purpose and found to be generally effective. We focused on further increasing recall with a new interview strategy, category clustering recall (CCR). Participants watched a mock robbery video and were interviewed 48 hours later with either the (i) ECI; (ii) revised enhanced cognitive interview 1 (RECI1) — with CCR instead of the change order mnemonic during the second recall; or (iii) revised enhanced cognitive interview 2 (RECI2) — also with CCR but conjunctly used with ‘eye closure’ and additional open‐ended follow up questions. Participants interviewed with CCR (RECI1 and RECI2) produced more information without compromising accuracy; thus, CCR was effective. Eye closure and additional open‐ended follow up questions did not further influence recall when using CCR. Major implications for real‐life investigations are discussed.
    • International licensing agreements: IP, technology transfer and competition law.

      Meiselles, Michala; Wharton, Hugo; University of Derby (Wolters Kluwer, 2018-10-16)
      About this book: A guide to the complex world of international licensing agreements grouping together all the essential materials needed when considering cross-border licensing agreements. What’s in this book: As a step-by-step guide to drafting international licensing agreements, this book ensures that the needs of each contracting party are addressed. This expert guide covers the following: business models that may be used by the contracting parties; standard provisions encountered in an array of international licensing agreements; analysis of the key clauses in various international licensing agreements inter alia trademark, software, franchise and technology licences with provisions as affected by jurisdiction; effect of competition law in a variety of jurisdictions; ensuring trademark protection at both national and international levels; clear explanation of key franchising terminology and disclosure rules; and effect of international dispute resolution rules in a range of jurisdictions. Alongside contract analysis, this book details numerous case studies from an array of industries that ensure the accommodation of sector-specific issues. For practitioners operating within or representing medium to large firms who normally have to prepare or provide advice on international licence arrangements. The book’s thorough incorporation of detailed contract analysis will also be welcomed by professionals working for universities, industry, interest groups, government departments and international organisations.
    • Mapping repeated interviews

      Waterhouse, Genevieve F.; Ridley, Anne M.; Bull, Ray; La Rooy, David; Wilcock, Rachel; University of Derby; University of Winchester; London South Bank University; University of London (Springer, 2018-09-14)
      The present study introduces an adaptation of the Griffiths Question Map (GQM; Griffiths & Milne, 2006) which extends the chronological, visual map of question types used in an investigative interview to include child interviewee’s responses (through the addition of the Interview Answer Grid, IAG). Furthermore, it provides a rare evaluation of repeated interviews with children. From a sample of transcripts of Scottish repeated interviews with child victims, two ‘good’ and two ‘poor’ first interviews were chosen based on interviewer question types. First and second investigative interviews of these four children were mapped using the GQM and IAG in order to examine across the two interviews the similarity of interviewer and interviewee behaviours and the consistency and investigative-relevance of information provided. Both ‘good’ and ‘poor’ interviews were found to include practices discouraged by interviewing guidelines, which would not have been identified by examining question proportions alone. Furthermore, ‘good’ first interviews were followed by second interviews which began with poor question types, suggesting a possible impact of confirmation bias. Social support was also assessed and found to be used infrequently, mainly in response to the child being informative rather than pre-emptively by interviewers in an attempt to encourage this. Children were also found to disclose throughout their second interviews, suggesting that rapport-maintenance is vital for single and multiple interviews. The use of the GQM and IAG are encouraged as techniques for determining interview quality.
    • Is it just a guessing game? The application of crime prevention through environmental design (CPTED) to predict burglary.

      Monchuk, Leanne; Pease, Ken; Armitage, Rachel; University of Huddersfield; University College London; Applied Criminology & Policing Centre, University of Huddersfield, Huddersfield, UK; UCL Jill Dando Institute of Security and Crime Science, London, UK; Applied Criminology & Policing Centre, University of Huddersfield, Huddersfield, UK (Taylor and Francis, 2018-08-27)
      Crime prevention through environmental design (CPTED) aims to reduce crime through the design of the built environment. Designing out crime officers (DOCOs) are responsible for the delivery of CPTED by assessing planning applications, identifying criminogenic design features and offering remedial advice. Twenty-eight experienced DOCOs from across England and Wales assessed the site plan for one residential development (which had been built a decade earlier) and identified crime risk locations. Predictions of likely locations were compared with 4 years’ police recorded crime data. DOCOs are, to varying extents, able to identify locations which experienced higher levels of crime and disorder. However, they varied widely in the number of locations in which they anticipated burglary would occur.
    • Jail inmates’ perspectives on police interrogation.

      Cleary, Hayley M. D.; Bull, Ray; Virginia Commonwealth University; University of Derby; Department of Criminal Justice, L. Douglas Wilder School of Government and Public Affairs, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA, USA; Department of Law, Criminology, and Social Sciences, University of Derby, Derby, UK (Taylor and Francis, 2018-07-26)
      Few studies have examined police interrogation strategies from suspects’ perspectives, yet assessing suspects’ views about interviewer approaches could provide important insights regarding confession decision making. The current study is the first American survey to assess a diverse sample of adult jail inmates’ views on police interrogation tactics and approaches. The study explored US jail inmates’ (N = 418) perspectives about how police should conduct interrogations. Potential dimensionality among 26 survey items pertaining to police tactics was examined using exploratory factor analysis. Group differences according to demographic and criminological variables were also explored. Four factors emerged, conceptualized as Dominance/Control, Humanity/Integrity, Sympathy/Perspective-Taking, and Rapport. Respondents most strongly endorsed Humanity/Integrity and Rapport strategies and were unsupportive of approaches involving Dominance/Control. Gender differences emerged for Dominance/Control and Humanity/Integrity, and Black respondents were more likely to value strategies related to Sympathy/Perspective-Taking. Suspects endorsed interrogation strategies characterized by respect, dignity, voice, and a commitment to the truth; they reported aversions to the false evidence ploy and approaches involving aggression. Overall, results from this incarcerated sample suggest that interviewees may be more responsive to rapport-building, non-adversarial strategies.
    • Crime concentrations: Hot dots, hot spots and hot flushes.

      Ignatans, Dainis; Pease, Ken; University of Huddersfield; University College London (Oxford University Press, 2018-09-14)
      None
    • Preventing repeat and near repeat crime concentrations.

      Farrell, Graham; Pease, Ken; University of Leeds; University College London (Routledge, 2017-03-16)
    • Repeat victimisation.

      Farrell, Graham; Pease, Ken; University of Leeds; Loughborough University (Routledge, 2016-11-01)
    • What have criminologists done for us lately?

      Farrell, Graham; Pease, Ken; University College London (Palgrave Macmillan, 2014)
    • A situational approach to heritage crime prevention.

      Grove, Louise; Pease, Ken; University College London (Palgrave Macmillan, 2014)
    • Preventing crime and evoking altruism.

      Pease, Ken; University College London (Springer, 2014)
      The chapter describes the current movement towards the integration of a wider range of science disciplines in the understanding and prevention of crime. Circumstances have led to that integration being furthest advanced in collaborative research of crime scientists with mathematicians and geographers, among others. The sub-discipline of positive psychology, with its theoretical underpinnings in evolutionary theory, is identified as a promising partner in the burgeoning of crime science.
    • Distributive justice and the crime drop.

      Ignatans, Dainis; Pease, Ken; University of Kent; University College London (Palgrave Macmillan, 2015)
      Data were extracted from a total of almost 600000 respondents from all sweeps of the Crime Survey for England and Wales (CSEW) 1982-2012 to determine whether victimisation was more or less concentrated across households during the crime drop. The most victimised household decile experienced the greatest absolute decline in victimisation but still accounted for over 70% of all victimisations suffered. Methodological issues underlying the patterns observed are discussed. The characteristics associated with highly victimised household are consistent across survey sweeps. Cross-national and crime type extension of work of the kind undertaken is advocated as both intrinsically important and likely to clarify the dynamics of the crime drop.
    • How to morph experience into evidence.

      Roach, Jason; Pease, Ken; University of Huddersfield; Loughborough University (Routledge, 2017-04-21)
    • Self-selection policing: Theory, research and practice.

      Roach, Jason; Pease, Ken; University of Huddersfield; Loughborough University (Palgrave Macmillan, 2016)
    • Using modeling to predict and prevent victimization.

      Pease, Ken; Tseloni, Andromachi; Loughborough University (Springer, 2014)
    • Preventing repeat and near repeat crime concentrations.

      Farrell, Graham; Pease, Ken; University of Derby (Routledge, 2017-03-16)
    • On whom does the burden of crime fall now? Changes over time in counts and concentration.

      Ignatans, Dainis; Pease, Ken; University of Huddersfield; University College London; University of Huddersfield, UK; University College London, UK (Sage, 2015-11-03)
      A recent publication (Ignatans and Pease, 2015) sought to examine the changed distribution of crime across households in England and Wales over a period encompassing that of the crime drop common to Western countries (1982–2012). It was found that while crime against the most victimised households declined most in absolute terms, the proportion of all crime accounted for by those most victimised increased somewhat. The characteristics associated with highly victimised households were found to be consistent across survey sweeps. The pattern suggested the continued relevance to crime reduction generally of prioritising repeat crimes against the same target. The present paper analyses the changed distribution of crime by offence type. Data were extracted from a total of almost 600,000 respondents from all sweeps of the Crime Survey for England and Wales (CSEW) 1982–2012 to determine which types of victimisation became more or less concentrated across households during the overall crime drop. Methodological issues underlying the patterns observed are discussed. Cross-national and crime type extension of work of the kind undertaken here are advocated as both intrinsically important and likely to clarify the dynamics of the crime drop.
    • Human tissue authority new draft code: Supporting child donors or supporting parents?

      Cherkassky, Lisa; University of Derby (The UK Law and Society Association, 2017-10-29)
      The Human Tissue Authority has very recently posted seven new Codes of Practice to update its guidance on human tissue legislation. Code G - Donation of Allogeneic Bone Marrow and Peripheral Blood Stem Cells for Transplantation - aims to improve the regulation of offences, referrals, and the interview process for children donating bone marrow. Code G comes under criticism in this article for not properly taking into account the welfare of very young saviour siblings. It introduces minor changes to consent procedures but disappointingly, parents of saviour siblings can still enjoy significant discretion to consent to a potentially harmful trespass upon their child without a welfare test or court approval. This article suggests that a stronger emphasis should be placed upon the objective provisions of the welfare test under section 1(3) of the Children Act 1989 and its adjoining common law before a decision to harvest a very young child for bone marrow is made. This would better protect the “saviour sibling” from unnecessary physical and psychiatric harm.
    • Children and the doctrine of substituted judgement.

      Cherkassky, Lisa; University of Derby; The University of Derby, UK (Sage, 2014-12-01)
      The common law in the United Kingdom dictates that children facing medical treatment should be treated in accordance with their best interests. The Children Act 1989 also demands that the welfare of the child is paramount. However, in light of the creation of saviour siblings after the case of Quintavalle, it is disputed that the donor child is treated in accordance with his/her best interests when undergoing a non-therapeutic procedure for the benefit of another. The Human Tissue Authority (HTA) can, for example, validate a bone marrow harvest on a child created specifically for harvest without the consent of the High Court. The doctrine of substituted judgement was developed in the United States to substitute a previously competent adult decision, but it is proposed that parents of saviour siblings are reviving it in a modified form to install a speculative psychological benefit into the saviour child to satisfy the criteria for a harvest in common law. As a result, there is a glaring discrepancy between the objective jurisdiction of the courts and the validation of non-therapeutic harvesting procedures upon children by the HTA, opening the door to potential legal action.