• Evolutionary Psychology and Terrorism

      Taylor, Max; Roach, Jason; Pease, Ken; University of Derby (Routledge, 2016-08-24)
      The origins of this volume of collected papers lie in a series of concerns, perhaps not of great moment in themselves, but sufficient to suggest a general sense of unease about progress towards the understanding of terrorism and the terrorist. The first issue is recognition of how meagre is the contribution of psychology to that enterprise. Before the events of 9/11, terrorism was certainly recognized as a problem, but the academic response to it was limited and the topic attracted relatively few researchers from a narrow range of disciplines; there were even fewer researchers with a discipline base in psychology. Since 9/11 there has been an enormous outpouring of generously funded research, spawning papers and comment by scholars from a much wider range of disciplines. Arguably little of substance has emerged. Sageman (2014) critically commenting on the state of terrorism research, asserted that ‘……we are no closer to answering the simple question of “What leads a person to turn to political violence?” We concur. The factors that may be associated with engagement in terrorism are doubtless complex. They may be idiosyncratic, socially and or politically determined, or religiously motivated. Personally expressed reasons may be fundamental or incidental. The mosaic of reasons will vary over time. While we wallow in our ignorance, rates of recruitment into terrorism provide a striking metric suggesting that Sageman was indeed correct in his diagnosis.
    • How to morph experience into evidence.

      Roach, Jason; Pease, Ken; University of Huddersfield; Loughborough University (Routledge, 2017-04-21)
    • Police overestimation of criminal career homogeneity

      Pease, Ken; Roach, Jason; University of Derby (Wiley, 2013-10-07)
      Police presumptions about criminal career trajectories have been little studied. The exploratory study reported here involved 42 police staff of varying rank and experience. Participants were asked to complete a questionnaire that asked them to predict the type of offence that an individual with a specified prior record would most probably commit next. Participating police personnel substantially overstated the homogeneity of criminal careers, that is, the nature of prior offences determined their prediction of their next offence more than available official data would deem reasonable. An incidental finding was that officers who rated the probability of further offending highest were also those who thought criminal careers most specialised. The implications for operational police decision-making were discussed and held to be profound.
    • Self-selection policing: Theory, research and practice.

      Roach, Jason; Pease, Ken; University of Huddersfield; Loughborough University (Palgrave Macmillan, 2016)
    • Terrorism's footprint of fear

      Roach, Jason; Pease, Ken; Charlotte, Sanson; University of Derby; University of Derby (Routledge, 2016-08-24)
      Generally, when terms have extensive connotative baggage, it is wise to denude them. In the context of this paper, the only attribute we feel might be retained from the terrorism label is its implication that in such attacks, classes of people are deemed more or less equally ‘legitimate’ targets such that each citizen regards herself as a legitimate target. In the terrorist’s ideal scenario, insofar as it is thought through, the evocation of public fear of victimisation advances their cause. It leads to pressure on governments to settle or serves to destabilise the target administration by making daily life more problematic and by devoting resources to combatting terrorism’s threat that cannot be sustained indefinitely. The evolutionary context to this book leads us to consider anti-predator behaviour by prey animals alongside public fear of victimisation generated by acts of terrorism.