• Applying hierarchy of expert performance (HEP) to investigative interview evaluation: strengths, challenges and future directions

      Huang, Ching-Yu; Bull, Ray; Dror, Itiel; Bournemouth University; University of Derby (Taylor and Francis, 2020-06-16)
      The purpose of this paper is to systematically examine the research literature on the decision of expert interviewers within the theoretical framework of the Hierarchy of Expert Performance (HEP, Dror, 2016). After providing an overview of the HEP framework, existing research in the investigative interviewing at each of the eight levels of the HEP framework is reviewed. The results identify areas of strength in reliability between experts’ observations (Level 2) and of weakness in reliability between experts’ conclusions (Level 6). Biases in investigative interview experts’ decision making is also revealed at biasability between expert conclusions (Level 8). Moreover, no published data is available in reliability within experts at the level of observations (Level 1) or conclusions (Level 5), biasability within or between expert observations (Level 3 and 4) and biasability within expert conclusions (Level 7). The findings highlight areas where future research and practical endeavor are much needed investigative interview.
    • Behavior displayed by female victims during rapes committed by lone and multiple perpetrators.

      Woodhams, Jessica; Hollin, Clive R.; Bull, Ray; Cooke, Claire; University of Birmingham; University of Leicester; University of Gloucestershire (American Psychological Association, 2012-08)
      Research with both the general public and members of the criminal justice system reports a pervasive rape myth of a violent offender and a physically resistant victim. Despite research being conducted on victims' postrape behavior, few studies have examined victim behavior during sexual assaults, and many of those which have been conducted have tended to focus on physical resistance. This article reports two studies that examined qualitatively the behavior of female rape victims during sexual assaults. The first study is an analysis of 78 stranger sexual assaults, committed in the United Kingdom, by male offenders. The second study is an analysis of 89 allegations of stranger rape, again from the United Kingdom, perpetrated by multiple male suspects. Information about victim behavior was extracted from victims' accounts made to the police. More than 100 different victim behaviors were identified in each study, and more than 80 behaviors were common across studies. Myth-congruent behaviors were present in the sample; however, the behaviors engaged in by victims were complex and diverse. Indirect and face-saving communications were used by victims and are discussed in terms of expectations regarding victim behavior and rape stereotypes. The implications of the findings for training legal professionals, educating jurors, and counseling victims are discussed.
    • Detecting truth in suspect interviews: the effect of use of evidence (early and gradual) and time delay on Criteria-Based Content Analysis, Reality Monitoring and inconsistency within suspect statements

      McDougall, Alice Jennifer; Bull, Ray; University of Leicester; University of Derby (Taylor and Francis, 2015-01-03)
      The strategic use of evidence in interviews with suspects has been shown to increase the ability of interviewers to accurately and consistently distinguish truthful from deceptive accounts. The present study considers the effect of early and gradual revelation of evidence by the interviewer, and the effect of shorter and longer delay on the verbal quality of truth-teller and liar statements within a mock crime paradigm. It was hypothesised that gradual disclosure of evidence (1) in terms of inconsistencies (a) within statements and (b) between statements and such evidence and (2) of the criteria of Criteria-Based Content Analysis (CBCA) and of Reality Monitoring (RM) would emphasise differences in the verbal quality of truth-teller and liar statements. Forty-two high school students took part in the study. The use of statement-evidence and within-statement inconsistency appears to be a robust cue to deception across interview style and delay. This indicates that gradual disclosure in interviews may increase interviewer accuracy in veracity decisions by eliciting statement inconsistencies. However, gradual revelation and delay affected the ability of CBCA and RM criteria to distinguish the veracity of suspect statements.
    • Developing a scale to measure the presence of possible prejudicial stereotyping in police interviews with suspects: The Minhas Investigative Interviewing Prejudicial Stereotyping Scale (MIIPSS)

      Minhas, Rashid Ali; Walsh, Dave; Bull, Ray; University of Derby (Taylor and Francis, 2016-10-31)
      If police interviewers hold negative feelings towards certain groups, this may affect how they interview them (either as victims, witnesses or suspects) in that they may not obtain reliable accounts, being the aim of such interviews. The Minhas Investigative Interviewing Prejudicial Stereotyping Scale (MIIPSS) has been developed to assess the level of any investigative interviewers' prejudicial stereotyping towards suspects. The current exploratory study involved semi-structured interviews with twenty people, who had previously been interviewed as suspects in England and also eight very experienced lawyers. Both their views were measured using the MIIPSS before being subjected to a Guttman analysis. Statistical analyses showed that MIIPSS satisfies the criteria for classification as a valid unidimensional and cumulative scale. Therefore, researchers could use MIIPSS as a tool to measure prejudicial stereotyping in investigative interviews. Interviewers could also use MIIPSS to monitor their own attitudes towards certain groups or individuals suspected of different types of crimes.
    • Dynamics of repeated interviews with children

      Waterhouse, Genevieve F.; Ridley, Anne M.; Bull, Ray; La Rooy, David; Wilcock, Rachel; London South Bank University; University of Derby; University of London; University of Winchester; Department of Psychology; London South Bank University; London UK; et al. (Wiley, 2016-06-10)
      Concerns regarding repeat interviews with child witnesses include greater use of suggestive questions in later interviews due to bias, and that children may appear inconsistent and, therefore, be judged as less reliable in court. UK transcripts of first and second interviews with 21 child victims/witnesses (conducted by qualified interviewers) were coded for question types and child responses. Interviewers were consistent in their proportional use of question types across interviews. Furthermore, children were as informative in second interviews as in first, mostly providing new details consistent with their prior recall. Despite the apparent lack of training in conducting repeated interviews, no negative effects were found; second interviews appeared to be conducted as well as initial interviews, and children provided new details without many contradictions. It is suggested that when a child's testimony is paramount for an investigation, a well-conducted supplementary interview may be an effective way of gaining further investigative leads.Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    • The effect of co-offender planning on verbal deception

      Chan, Stephanie; Bull, Ray; Home Team Behavioural Science Centre; University of Derby (Taylor & Francis, 2013-09-13)
      Previous deception studies have mainly examined individual mock perpetrators and their deceptive behaviours during interviews, but not all crimes are committed by single perpetrators. In the present study, 48 mock perpetrators were individually interviewed after carrying out a mock theft in pairs. The time available for co-planning prior to the interview was manipulated so as to examine its effects on participants’: (1) verbal cues to deception; (2) cognitive load; and (3) attempted speech control during the interview. Having time available for planning was associated with greater statement immediacy, plausibility and within-pair consistency, but not with cognitive load or attempted control.
    • The enhanced cognitive interview: expressions of uncertainty, motivation and its relation with report accuracy

      Paulo, Rui M.; Albuquerque, Pedro B.; Bull, Ray; University of Derby (2015-11-11)
    • The enhanced cognitive interview: Testing appropriateness perception, memory capacity and error estimate relation with report quality

      Paulo, Rui M.; Albuquerque, Pedro B.; Saraiva, Magda; Bull, Ray; University of Derby; School of Psychology; University of Minho; Campus de Gualtar Braga Portugal; School of Psychology; University of Minho; Campus de Gualtar Braga Portugal; School of Psychology; University of Minho; Campus de Gualtar Braga Portugal; Department of Psychology; University of Portsmouth; Portsmouth United Kingdom (Wiley, 2015-04-23)
      The Enhanced Cognitive Interview (ECI) has been widely studied. However, research has overlooked witnesses’ attitudes toward the interview and how error estimate and memory capacity relate to report quality. Participants watched a mock robbery video and were interviewed 48 hours later with either the Portuguese version of the ECI or a Structured Interview (SI). Participants interviewed with the ECI provided more information without compromising accuracy, particularly in free recall. Report accuracy was stable across interview phases and information categories. A higher perception of interview appropriateness (how witnesses evaluate the appropriateness of the interview procedure used) was linked with more detailed reports and more interest in being an interviewee. Participants over-estimated their error rate, and their memory capacity was not related to witnesses’ recall. It is essential to take into account their perception of interview appropriateness and use alternative methods to evaluate report quality. Major implications for real-life investigations are discussed.
    • Enhancing the cognitive interview with an alternative procedure to witness-compatible questioning: category clustering recall

      Paulo, Rui M.; Albuquerque, Pedro B.; Vitorino, Fabiana; Bull, Ray; Bath Spa University; University of Minho; University of Derby; College of Liberal Arts, Bath Spa University, Bath, UK; School of Psychology, University of Minho, Braga, Portugal; School of Psychology, University of Minho, Braga, Portugal; et al. (Taylor and Francis, 2017-07-20)
      The Cognitive Interview (CI) is one of the most widely studied and used methods to interview witnesses. However, new component techniques for further increasing correct recall are still crucial. We focused on how a new and simpler interview strategy, Category Clustering Recall (CCR), could increase recall in comparison with witness-compatible questioning and tested if a Revised Cognitive Interview (RCI) with CCR instead of witness-compatible questioning and without the change order and change perspective mnemonics would be effective for this purpose. Participants watched a mock robbery video and were interviewed 48 hours later with either the CI or the RCI. Recalled information was classified as either correct, incorrect or confabulation. Although exclusion of the change order and change perspective mnemonics in the RCI group might have caused a slight decrease in recall during the last interview phases, the RCI group generally produced more correct information than the CI group, with a lower number of confabulations. Further analyses revealed CCR was largely responsible for this increase in correct recall. CCR is a very promising interview technique which allowed the interviewer to obtain more detailed information without additional questions and may have, in certain situations, several practical advantages over a questioning phase.
    • An exploration of perceptions of real-life suspects’ from the Asian Muslim community relating to the police interviewing practices in England

      Minhas, Rashid; Walsh, Dave; Bull, Ray; University of Derby; International Policing and Justice Institute, One Friar Gate Square, University of Derby, Derby, UK; International Policing and Justice Institute, One Friar Gate Square, University of Derby, Derby, UK; International Policing and Justice Institute, One Friar Gate Square, University of Derby, Derby, UK (Taylor and Francis, 2017-09-11)
      In England and Wales, the ‘war on terror’ has been argued to impact adversely on existing race relations policies. New legislation (such as wide discretionary powers of stop and search and arrest under the Terrorism Act (TA) 2000, the extension of pre-charge detention of 28 days (TA 2006), and the use of control orders to detain without trial), policing, and counter-terrorism measures may cast Muslims as the ‘enemy within’. The current research concerns real-life Asian Muslim suspects’ perceptions and experiences of police interviewing practices in England. This study involves semi-structured interviews with 22 people who had previously been interviewed as suspects throughout England. Around two-thirds of participants reported perceiving the demonstration of various stereotyping by police officers during interviews, half of whom indicated that the interviewers demonstrated racial/religious stereotypes via discriminatory behaviour. Given the potential and serious consequences of such racial/religious stereotypes and discriminatory behaviour, further training of police officers seems necessary to improve both interviewing performance and community cohesion.
    • Exploring investigative interviewing: A Dubai perspective

      Almansoori, Rashid; Milne, Rebecca; Bull, Ray; Forensic Science and Criminology General Department, Dubai Police, Dubai, United Arab Emirates; University of Portsmouth; University of Derby (Elsevier, 2020-03-14)
      Once a crime has been committed and reported, one of the main tasks of the police is to gather relevant information (Milne and Bull, 1999). An essential source for gathering such information is the investigative (or law enforcement) interview (Milne and Powell, 2010). Gudjonsson and Pearse (2011) noted that in the interest of fairness and justice, information gathered by the police has to be accurate, intelligible, coherent, and credible; whilst being obtained fairly and legally. This is especially true for sex crimes (one of the main crime types designated as ‘major crime’ in Dubai), where it is often a ‘word versus word’ challenge between the alleged victim and the alleged suspect (Kebbell et al., 2006). Suspects in sex crimes may also be more likely to deny their involvement due to perceived social condemnation (Thomas, 2002; Ward et al., 1997) which may add a layer of complexity to the interview process. This is particularly true in socially conservative countries, like the UAE. Studies examining police interviewing have been mainly conducted in English-speaking and European countries (Baldwin, 1992; Clarke and Milne, 2001; Häkkänen et al., 2009; Kassin et al., 2003; Kassin et al., 2007; Read et al., 2014; Vanderhallen et al., 2011; Volbert and Baker, 2016; Walsh and Bull, 2015; Westera et al., 2016) or in Far East Asia (Wachi et al., 2014; Goodman-Delahunty, 2016). The findings from these studies may not be entirely generalizable to countries whose culture and policing practices differ. For example, the police in the UAE (and Dubai) are tasked with taking statements only and cannot confront suspects with evidence, as this is part of the Public Prosecution's mandate. This study therefore examined Dubai police officers’ perceptions of interviewing individuals in major crime. This article starts with a brief overview of Dubai, its police force and interviewing laws before moving on to describe the method, results and discussion.
    • Exploring the disclosure of forensic evidence in police interviews with suspects

      Smith, Lisa L.; Bull, Ray; University of Leicester; University of Derby (Springer, 2013-07-02)
      Despite many years of empirical research focusing on investigative interviewing and detecting deception, very little research attention has been paid to the various types of evidence which feature in police interviews with suspects. In particular, the use of forensic evidence in the context of police interviews has not been previously considered, although in recent years the availability of various types of forensic analyses has dramatically increased. In the current study 398 experienced police interviewers from various countries completed a questionnaire about their experience of using various types of forensic evidence in interviews with suspects, as well as their perceptions regarding the strength of various sources of forensic information and how this may affect their interviewing strategy. The results indicated that although the participants have forensic evidence available in a large proportion of their interviews with suspects, the vast majority of police interviewers have received no training about how to interpret or use such forensic information. However, the perceived strength of forensic evidence was reported by some participants to affect their interview strategy and specifically the timing of the disclosure of such evidence during an interview. These findings are discussed with reference to police training and interview techniques, and suggestions for further research are offered.
    • Helping to sort the liars from the truth-tellers: The gradual revelation of information during investigative interviews

      Dando, Coral J.; Bull, Ray; Ormerod, Thomas C.; Sandham, Alexandra L.; University of Wolverhampton; University of Derby; Lancaster University; Department of Psychology; University of Wolverhampton; UK; School of Law and Criminology; Derby University; UK; Department of Psychology; Lancaster University; UK; et al. (Wiley, 2013-04-20)
      Research examining detection of verbal deception reveals that lay observers generally perform at chance. Yet, in the criminal justice system, laypersons that have not undergone specialist investigative training are frequently called upon to make veracity judgements (e.g., solicitors; magistrates; juries). We sought to improve performance by manipulating the timing of information revelation during investigative interviews. A total of 151 participants played an interactive computer game as either a truth-teller or a deceiver, and were interviewed afterwards. Game information known to the interviewer was revealed either early, at the end of the interview, or gradually throughout. Subsequently, 30 laypersons individually viewed a random selection of interviews (five deceivers and five truth-tellers from each condition), and made veracity and confidence judgements. Veracity judgements were most accurate in the gradual condition, p < .001, η2 = .97 (above chance), and observers were more confident in those judgements, p < .001, η2 = .99. Deceptive interviewees reported the gradual interviews to be the most cognitively demanding, p < .001; η2 = .24. Our findings suggest that the detection of verbal deception by non-expert observers can be enhanced by employing interview techniques that maximize deceivers' cognitive load, while allowing truth-tellers the opportunity to respond to evidence incrementally.
    • The impact of context on real-life serious crime interviews

      Leahy-Harland, Samantha; Bull, Ray; Bournemouth University; University of Derby (Routledge, 2020-11-25)
      This study examined real-life audio-taped police interviews with 56 serious crime suspects in England and Wales. It provides an analysis of how suspects responded and behaved during the interviews and considers how suspects’ responses may be affected by contextual characteristics including the presence of legal advisors. It was found that fewer suspects admitted these serious offences in comparison to previous studies, with most suspects who did admit doing so early on in the interview. The majority of suspects’ responses were identified as ‘relevant’, only a very small proportion of interviews were assessed as ‘challenging’. Significant associations between suspects’ responses and context were found. Specifically, if the (alleged) victim was female, the location of the offence was in-doors, and there was no clear motive, then suspects were more likely to say ‘no comment’ than to respond relevantly. Suspects who were 32 years of age or over, and had previous criminal convictions, were more likely to respond ‘relevantly’ than say ‘no comment’. The study also found that whilst present in the majority of interviews, the contributions of legal advisors were minimal (though more frequent legal advisor contributions were associated with increased use of police strategies).
    • Improving pofessional observers’ veracity judgements by tactical interviewing

      Sandham, Alex; Dando, Coral; Bull, Ray; Ormerod, Tom; University of Gloucestershire; University of Westminster; University of Derby; University of Sussex (Springer, 2020-06-25)
      Understanding whether a person of interest is being truthful during an investigative interview is a constant challenge and is of concern to numerous criminal justice professionals, most of whom are not involved in conducting the interview itself. Here we investigated police observers’ veracity detection performance having viewed interviews with truthtellers and deceivers using either the Tactical Use of Evidence (TUE), Strategic Use of Evidence (TUE) or a Control technique. Thirty serving police officers participated as post interview observers and each viewed 12 interviews in a counterbalanced order. Immediately post each interview each officer made a veracity judgment. Overall, untrained police observers were significantly more accurate (68%) when making veracity judgments post TUE interviews whereas for both SUE and Control performance was around chance (51% and 48%, respectively). Veracity performance for liars and truthtellers revealed a similar pattern of results (67% liars; 70% truthtellers) in the TUE condition. These results lend further support to the psychological literature highlighting the importance of how and when to reveal evidence or any other relevant event information during an investigative interview for ‘outing’ deceivers as well as allowing truthtellers early opportunities to evidence their innocence.
    • Improving the enhanced cognitive interview with a new interview strategy: category clustering recall.

      Paulo, Rui M.; Albuquerque, Pedro B.; Bull, Ray; University of Minho; School of Psychology; University of Minho; Braga Portugal; School of Psychology; University of Minho; Braga Portugal; School of Law and Criminology; University of Derby; Derby UK (Wiley, 2017-07-20)
      Increasing recall is crucial for investigative interviews. The enhanced cognitive interview (ECI) has been widely used for this purpose and found to be generally effective. We focused on further increasing recall with a new interview strategy, category clustering recall (CCR). Participants watched a mock robbery video and were interviewed 48 hours later with either the (i) ECI; (ii) revised enhanced cognitive interview 1 (RECI1) — with CCR instead of the change order mnemonic during the second recall; or (iii) revised enhanced cognitive interview 2 (RECI2) — also with CCR but conjunctly used with ‘eye closure’ and additional open‐ended follow up questions. Participants interviewed with CCR (RECI1 and RECI2) produced more information without compromising accuracy; thus, CCR was effective. Eye closure and additional open‐ended follow up questions did not further influence recall when using CCR. Major implications for real‐life investigations are discussed.
    • Interviewing suspects: examining the association between skills, questioning, evidence disclosure, and interview outcomes

      Walsh, Dave; Bull, Ray; University of Derby (2015-04-09)
      The interviewing of suspects is an important element in the investigation of crime. However, studies concerning actual performance of investigators when undertaking such interviews remain sparse. Nevertheless, in England and Wales, since the introduction of a prescribed framework over 20 years ago, field studies have generally shown an improvement in interviewing performance, notwithstanding ongoing concerns largely relating to the more demanding aspects (such as building/maintaining rapport, intermittent summarising and the logical development of topics). Using a sample of 70 real-life interviews, the present study examined questioning and various evidence disclosure strategies (which have also been found demanding), examining their relationships between interview skills and interview outcomes. It was found that when evidence was disclosed gradually (but revealed later), interviews were generally both more skilled and involved the gaining of comprehensive accounts, whereas when evidence was disclosed either early or very late, interviews were found to be both less skilled and less likely to involve this outcome. These findings contribute towards an increased research base for the prescribed framework.
    • Investigative empathy: a strength scale of empathy based on European police perspectives

      Baker, Bianca; Bull, Ray; Walsh, Dave; University of Derby; De Montfort University (Taylor and Francis, 2020-05-14)
      A growing body of research suggests that empathy may play a major role in establishing and maintaining rapport during police interviews. The benefits of rapport include not only increased cooperation from interviewees, but also gaining more accurate investigation-relevant information. However, despite a large amount of research on empathy which already exists, there still is, unfortunately, no universally agreed-upon definition and very little research on operationalizing and implementing appropriate forms of empathy, especially within the realm of investigative interviewing. Therefore, the present study was conducted with the goal of better understanding empathy from a police perspective and developing a way to assess and operationalize empathy for use in police interviews with suspects of high risk crimes (particularly with sex offences). The study considers police interviewers’ varying definitions of empathy in seven European countries, along with other factors. It analyzed police interviewers’ self-reports regarding their (i) training and methods employed during interviews, (ii) application of empathy in interviews, and (iii) definitions/understanding of empathy. Based on their answers, the various definitions of empathy were compiled and then placed on a new strength scale. It was found that officers in all participating countries varied within each country in their use of accusatory or information-gathering interview styles, suggesting that the methods employed were not systematically and uniformly taught and/or applied. The majority of participants in each country claimed to currently employ empathy in their interviews with suspects, yet they varied on their strength of the definitions provided. In no country was empathy considered useless in interviews and in no country was empathy defined as having aspects that may not be conducive to investigative interviewing.
    • Investigative empathy: Five types of cognitive empathy in a field study of investigative interviews with suspects of sexual offences

      Baker-Eck, Bianca; Bull, Ray; Walsh, Dave; University of Derby; De Montfort University (International Investigative Interviewing Research Group, 2021-04)
      Empathy in investigative interviews has increasingly become a focus in the recent literature on investigative interviewing as its implementation may aid in building and maintaining rapport. Displaying empathy in interviews is claimed to have positive impacts on the provision of investigation relevant information and the cooperation of interviewees. However, the literature currently omits practically operationalizing empathy, which would provide a means of implementing it effectively in investigative interviews. As such, the present study examines empathic displays by interviewers employed in interviews with suspects of high-risk crimes such as sexual offences in order to see what types are applied as a step towards identifying and possibly defining/operationalizing empathy during investigative interviews in the future. 19 audio-tapes of police interviews with suspects of sexual crimes in England and Wales conducted by experienced police interviewers were coded for their empathic displays and suspects’ level of cooperation throughout the interviews. Five different types of empathy were found to be employed. Interviews that had higher levels of suspect cooperation involved all five types of investigative empathy, whereas interviews in which fewer types of empathy were displayed had less cooperation (by offering less or no information). Thus, the use of investigative empathy in investigative interviews can indeed be recommended.
    • Jail inmates’ perspectives on police interrogation.

      Cleary, Hayley M. D.; Bull, Ray; Virginia Commonwealth University; University of Derby; Department of Criminal Justice, L. Douglas Wilder School of Government and Public Affairs, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA, USA; Department of Law, Criminology, and Social Sciences, University of Derby, Derby, UK (Taylor and Francis, 2018-07-26)
      Few studies have examined police interrogation strategies from suspects’ perspectives, yet assessing suspects’ views about interviewer approaches could provide important insights regarding confession decision making. The current study is the first American survey to assess a diverse sample of adult jail inmates’ views on police interrogation tactics and approaches. The study explored US jail inmates’ (N = 418) perspectives about how police should conduct interrogations. Potential dimensionality among 26 survey items pertaining to police tactics was examined using exploratory factor analysis. Group differences according to demographic and criminological variables were also explored. Four factors emerged, conceptualized as Dominance/Control, Humanity/Integrity, Sympathy/Perspective-Taking, and Rapport. Respondents most strongly endorsed Humanity/Integrity and Rapport strategies and were unsupportive of approaches involving Dominance/Control. Gender differences emerged for Dominance/Control and Humanity/Integrity, and Black respondents were more likely to value strategies related to Sympathy/Perspective-Taking. Suspects endorsed interrogation strategies characterized by respect, dignity, voice, and a commitment to the truth; they reported aversions to the false evidence ploy and approaches involving aggression. Overall, results from this incarcerated sample suggest that interviewees may be more responsive to rapport-building, non-adversarial strategies.