Browsing Derby Law School by Authors
Applying hierarchy of expert performance (HEP) to investigative interview evaluation: strengths, challenges and future directionsHuang, Ching-Yu; Bull, Ray; Dror, Itiel; Bournemouth University; University of Derby (Taylor and Francis, 2020-06-16)The purpose of this paper is to systematically examine the research literature on the decision of expert interviewers within the theoretical framework of the Hierarchy of Expert Performance (HEP, Dror, 2016). After providing an overview of the HEP framework, existing research in the investigative interviewing at each of the eight levels of the HEP framework is reviewed. The results identify areas of strength in reliability between experts’ observations (Level 2) and of weakness in reliability between experts’ conclusions (Level 6). Biases in investigative interview experts’ decision making is also revealed at biasability between expert conclusions (Level 8). Moreover, no published data is available in reliability within experts at the level of observations (Level 1) or conclusions (Level 5), biasability within or between expert observations (Level 3 and 4) and biasability within expert conclusions (Level 7). The findings highlight areas where future research and practical endeavor are much needed investigative interview.
The impact of context on real-life serious crime interviewsLeahy-Harland, Samantha; Bull, Ray; Bournemouth University; University of Derby (Routledge, 2020-11-25)This study examined real-life audio-taped police interviews with 56 serious crime suspects in England and Wales. It provides an analysis of how suspects responded and behaved during the interviews and considers how suspects’ responses may be affected by contextual characteristics including the presence of legal advisors. It was found that fewer suspects admitted these serious offences in comparison to previous studies, with most suspects who did admit doing so early on in the interview. The majority of suspects’ responses were identified as ‘relevant’, only a very small proportion of interviews were assessed as ‘challenging’. Significant associations between suspects’ responses and context were found. Specifically, if the (alleged) victim was female, the location of the offence was in-doors, and there was no clear motive, then suspects were more likely to say ‘no comment’ than to respond relevantly. Suspects who were 32 years of age or over, and had previous criminal convictions, were more likely to respond ‘relevantly’ than say ‘no comment’. The study also found that whilst present in the majority of interviews, the contributions of legal advisors were minimal (though more frequent legal advisor contributions were associated with increased use of police strategies).
Police strategies and suspect responses in real-life serious crime interviewsLeahy-Harland, Samantha; Bull, Ray; Bournemouth University; University of Derby (Springer, 2016-09-13)This research focuses exclusively on real-life taped interviews with serious crime suspects and examines the strategies used and types of questions asked by police, and suspects’ responses to these. The information source was audio-tape-recorded interviews with 56 suspects. These recordings were obtained from 11 police services across England and Wales and were analysed using a specially designed coding frame. It was found that interviewers employed a range of strategies with presentation of evidence and challenge the most frequently observed. Closed questions were by far the most frequently used, and open questions, although less frequent, were found to occur more during the opening phases of the interviews. The frequency of ineffective question types (e.g. negative, repetitive, multiple) was low. A number of significant associations were observed between interviewer strategies and suspect responses. Rapport/empathy and open-type questions were associated with an increased likelihood of suspects admitting the offence whilst describing trauma, and negative questions were associated with a decreased likelihood.