• The enhanced cognitive interview: expressions of uncertainty, motivation and its relation with report accuracy

      Paulo, Rui M.; Albuquerque, Pedro B.; Bull, Ray; University of Derby (2015-11-11)
    • The enhanced cognitive interview: Testing appropriateness perception, memory capacity and error estimate relation with report quality

      Paulo, Rui M.; Albuquerque, Pedro B.; Saraiva, Magda; Bull, Ray; University of Derby; School of Psychology; University of Minho; Campus de Gualtar Braga Portugal; School of Psychology; University of Minho; Campus de Gualtar Braga Portugal; School of Psychology; University of Minho; Campus de Gualtar Braga Portugal; Department of Psychology; University of Portsmouth; Portsmouth United Kingdom (Wiley, 2015-04-23)
      The Enhanced Cognitive Interview (ECI) has been widely studied. However, research has overlooked witnesses’ attitudes toward the interview and how error estimate and memory capacity relate to report quality. Participants watched a mock robbery video and were interviewed 48 hours later with either the Portuguese version of the ECI or a Structured Interview (SI). Participants interviewed with the ECI provided more information without compromising accuracy, particularly in free recall. Report accuracy was stable across interview phases and information categories. A higher perception of interview appropriateness (how witnesses evaluate the appropriateness of the interview procedure used) was linked with more detailed reports and more interest in being an interviewee. Participants over-estimated their error rate, and their memory capacity was not related to witnesses’ recall. It is essential to take into account their perception of interview appropriateness and use alternative methods to evaluate report quality. Major implications for real-life investigations are discussed.
    • Enhancing the cognitive interview with an alternative procedure to witness-compatible questioning: category clustering recall

      Paulo, Rui M.; Albuquerque, Pedro B.; Vitorino, Fabiana; Bull, Ray; Bath Spa University; University of Minho; University of Derby; College of Liberal Arts, Bath Spa University, Bath, UK; School of Psychology, University of Minho, Braga, Portugal; School of Psychology, University of Minho, Braga, Portugal; et al. (Taylor and Francis, 2017-07-20)
      The Cognitive Interview (CI) is one of the most widely studied and used methods to interview witnesses. However, new component techniques for further increasing correct recall are still crucial. We focused on how a new and simpler interview strategy, Category Clustering Recall (CCR), could increase recall in comparison with witness-compatible questioning and tested if a Revised Cognitive Interview (RCI) with CCR instead of witness-compatible questioning and without the change order and change perspective mnemonics would be effective for this purpose. Participants watched a mock robbery video and were interviewed 48 hours later with either the CI or the RCI. Recalled information was classified as either correct, incorrect or confabulation. Although exclusion of the change order and change perspective mnemonics in the RCI group might have caused a slight decrease in recall during the last interview phases, the RCI group generally produced more correct information than the CI group, with a lower number of confabulations. Further analyses revealed CCR was largely responsible for this increase in correct recall. CCR is a very promising interview technique which allowed the interviewer to obtain more detailed information without additional questions and may have, in certain situations, several practical advantages over a questioning phase.
    • Improving the enhanced cognitive interview with a new interview strategy: category clustering recall.

      Paulo, Rui M.; Albuquerque, Pedro B.; Bull, Ray; University of Minho; School of Psychology; University of Minho; Braga Portugal; School of Psychology; University of Minho; Braga Portugal; School of Law and Criminology; University of Derby; Derby UK (Wiley, 2017-07-20)
      Increasing recall is crucial for investigative interviews. The enhanced cognitive interview (ECI) has been widely used for this purpose and found to be generally effective. We focused on further increasing recall with a new interview strategy, category clustering recall (CCR). Participants watched a mock robbery video and were interviewed 48 hours later with either the (i) ECI; (ii) revised enhanced cognitive interview 1 (RECI1) — with CCR instead of the change order mnemonic during the second recall; or (iii) revised enhanced cognitive interview 2 (RECI2) — also with CCR but conjunctly used with ‘eye closure’ and additional open‐ended follow up questions. Participants interviewed with CCR (RECI1 and RECI2) produced more information without compromising accuracy; thus, CCR was effective. Eye closure and additional open‐ended follow up questions did not further influence recall when using CCR. Major implications for real‐life investigations are discussed.