• Hours spent building skills and employability

      Foster, Rowan; Svanaes, Siv; Howell, Sarah; Neary, Siobhan; Everitt, Julia; Dodd, Vanessa; University of Derby (Department for Education, 2020-07)
      This report summarises findings from a mixed-methods research project conducted by IFF Research, in partnership with the International Centre for Guidance Studies at the University of Derby, to measure the time that young people spend on activities in and outside of education which builds their skills and employability. This research involved two phases. Firstly, a qualitative phase in summer 2017 comprising 15 interviews with education providers and nine focus groups with young people. This phase explored providers’ experiences of planning and recording planned hours, and the activities that young people undertake to build their skills and employability. The second phase of the research involved a quantitative survey of students in March 2018, consisting of a total of 2,024 interviews. The survey sample included students in pre and post-16 education and those in academic and technical courses. Findings suggest pre-16 students, i.e. years 10 and 11, on average participate in 852 qualification hours per year across all their subjects (22.4 per week). This compares to an average of 563 annual hours amongst post-16 students, i.e. years 12 and 13, (15.1 hours per week). There were no significant differences between those in post-16 academic educations and those in post-16 technical education in the average number of qualification hours reported per week (15.0 and 15.1 respectively). Students also engage in a range of non-qualification activities expected to contribute to their wider employability, with careers guidance and exam revision and practice common across all ages. This pattern was also consistent between full and part-time students. Post-16 students doing mainly academic qualifications spend the most amount of time on homework and self-study (nearly 13 hours per week), with post-16 students in technical education spending on average 8 hours on these tasks.
    • El enfoque mosaico, derecho a la participación y la voz de los niños en investigación educativa

      Delgado-Fuentes, Marco Antonio; University of Derby (Universidad CESMAG, 2020-06-11)
      This review article explores and discusses some of the methodological in-novations regarding childhood and education by focusing on the mosaic approach. It is a methodological approach -not constituted as a method yet- which has been mainly developed in English and it is founded on concepts such as those of qualitative research, childhood studies, the rights of the child and particularly, their right to participate in research about themselves and their world. A historical framework is presented to facilitate the understanding of the multidisciplinary origins of this approach. The process of the literature review was made in a database that contained 71 million references, out of which 28 references, which identified the mosaic approach as their method, were selected. The analysis of this approach presents a diverse panorama in its use, although it mainly focuses on preschool and early education. To conclude, a reflection about the use of this approach in the future is made and, particularly in Latin America where the incipient use of the mosaic approach seems to be relevant.
    • Tackling the personal tutoring conundrum: A qualitative study on the impact of developmental support for tutors

      Walker, Ben; University of Lincoln (SAGE Publications, 2020-06-10)
      The significance of personal tutoring continues to increase as a result of contextual developments and the outcomes of key research on student retention and success, and yet these developments simultaneously create significant challenges in delivery within the pastoral model of personal tutoring. In addition, it remains an under-developed and under-researched area. Personal tutors’ needs and concerns have been established, and assessment of an intervention to address them has been recommended. This study examines the impact of the intervention of tailored professional development materials for tutoring within a pastoral model created in response to these issues. It reveals the usefulness of this developmental support and the need for such guidance for this work. It is argued that there are implications in terms of approaches to tutoring within this pastoral model, developmental support provision and a need for consistency of standards in personal tutoring across the sector.
    • The student practitioner as future leader

      Yates, Ellen; Simmons, Helen; University of Derby (Routledge, 2020-06-07)
    • The critically reflective and creative practitioner

      Yates, Ellen; University of Derby (Routledge, 2020-06-07)
      This chapter aims to explain what critical reflection is and how it can be applied to empower students and enable them to question habitual practice and contest some of the dominant discourses within early childhood. The professions that utilise critical reflection are ones that deal with people, where relationships and ethical judgements are required but may not always be simple. In order to practise critical reflection as a professional, it may be necessary to reflect personally and individually, but is usually more useful and effective if this is practised with others. The chapter explains what critical reflection is, outlined some models and critical theory and explained how these can be applied to our professional lives and supports us in scrutinising our professional practice. It explores what critical reflection is and what it might mean for early childhood students. The author explores some critical theories and concepts that assist with critical reflection and help us deconstruct our experiences.
    • Vocational teachers and workplace learning: integrative, complementary and implicit accounts of boundary crossing

      Esmond, Bill; University of Derby (Taylor & Francis, 2020-05-25)
      Where young people’s upper-secondary education spans work and institutional domains, questions arise about learning across both spheres and its guidance. Theoretical accounts of ‘boundary crossing’ have explored how vocational teachers can integrate learning across domains by drawing on extended concepts and theoretical knowledge to solve workplace problems; whilst empirical accounts have validated the role of vocational educators by describing the workplace and schools as equally valid, complementary spheres. Different understandings, described here as ‘integrative’, ‘complementary’ and ‘implicit’, appear to reflect different national patterns of vocational education. The paper reports a qualitative study conducted around two case studies, located in Germany and England, of the way vocational teachers’ understandings of facilitating learning across domains are constructed. Vocational teachers working in Germany’s ‘dual training’ claimed to provide advanced knowledge that they compared to practical work skills, reflecting ‘implicit’ or ‘complementary’ approaches to learning across domains. Teachers in England, where workplace learning elements are more unevenly developed and lack institutional foundations, nevertheless described colleges and workplaces as distinctive, little-connected spheres. These differences suggest that teachers’ approaches are less shaped by the potential or necessity for ‘integrative’ approaches than by the way different systems enable or constrain their conceptualisation of ‘possible futures’.
    • Raising regional academic voices (alongside data) in higher education (HE) debate

      Hayes, Sarah; Jopling, Michael; Hayes, Dennis; Westwood, Andy; Tuckett, Alan; Barnett, Ronald; Hayes, Dennis; University of Derby (Springer Science and Business Media LLC, 2020-05-13)
      As agendas for data-driven measures of excellence dominate policy in UK Higher Education (HE), we argue that the generic structure of national policy frameworks virtually silences regional voices. This furthers a territorially agnostic discourse about universities, downplays institutional history and purpose, risks concealing innovative practices, and fails to tackle entrenched inequalities. In response, we point to the value of live, place-based debate in HE institutions to highlight distributional inequity, raise local voices and connect these with national policy. Yet even as we compiled this article about HE debate, the Covid-19 pandemic took hold globally, cancelling face-to-face meetings, by necessity. We therefore draw on a postdigital perspective, as we share our individual dialogues in support of debate, via collective writing, against this new backdrop of social distancing and widespread uncertainty. We may not currently be able to convene our Midlands HE Policy Network (MHEPN) debates in person, but we can voice the essential part that regional universities play in connecting global technological and biological change, with local social projects, citizens and industry. Postdigital theory offers one route to understanding that Covid-19 does not sit apart from other political economic challenges in HE and beyond, that we need to debate simultaneously.
    • Student autonomy of feedback format in higher education and perceived functional behaviours for academic development

      Sparrow, Abby; Smith, Samantha; Petronzi, Dominic; Wilson, Helen; Roeschlaub, Sarah; Smith, Melanie; University of Derby (Octagon Education Consultancy, 2020-05-11)
      In the current context of promoting active learning and raising student engagement within Higher Education, an increasing amount of research has looked at pedagogical-based design and factors that contribute to functional behaviours surrounding the interaction and use of academic assessment feedback. However, few studies have considered the perceived influence of student autonomy over feedback format and whether this promotes engagement and academic development. In this study, we recruited level 5 and 6 students (N = 38) on an undergraduate Education Programme (that has consistently implemented student feedback choice) to participate in initial self-reporting and subsequent focus groups ("soft triangulation‟). The findings revealed three core themes: [1] Personalisation – (a) sense of autonomy/involvement, (b) engagement and (c) motivation, [2] Clarity – (d) depth and detail, and [3] Areas for development. Overall, these findings suggest that feedback type – and the inherent option to choose – has a functional impact on academic engagement and development. We discuss these findings in relation to a sense of being valued that was associated with autonomy of choice, a divergence in how and when students engage with feedback, as well as the requirement for academic clarity and provision of formats that support academic development.
    • Linguistics for TESOL: theory and practice

      Valenzuela, Hannah; University of Derby (Palgrave Macmillan, 2020)
      This textbook proposes a theoretical approach to linguistics in relation to teaching English. Combining research with practical classroom strategies and activities, it aims to satisfy the needs of new and experienced TESOL practitioners, helping them to understand the features of the English language and how those features impact on students in the classroom. The author provides a toolkit of strategies and practical teaching ideas to inspire and support practitioners in the classroom, encouraging reflection through regular stop-and-think tasks, so that practitioners have the opportunity to deepen their understanding and relate it to their own experience and practice. This book will appeal to students and practitioners in the fields of applied linguistics, TESOL, EAL, English language and linguistics, EAP, and business English.
    • Pedagogies for developing undergraduate ethical thinking within geography

      Healy, Ruth. L; Ribchester, Chris; University of Derby (Edward Elgar Publishing, 2019-12-05)
      Ethical issues are an example of ‘supercomplexity’, whereby ‘the very frameworks by which we orientate ourselves to the world are themselves contested’ (Barnett 2000, p. 257). Reflecting on ethical issues develops practical, critical thinking skills for dealing with such ‘supercomplexity’, as the frameworks students use to analyse ethical issues may be challenged and are likely to change over time. Yet, despite the wide-ranging potential, teaching ethics is often marginalized and segregated in the geographical curriculum, with ethics frequently being limited to prescriptive research considerations. This chapter offers a holistic approach to how ethical thinking might be embedded within geography programmes through a set of key principles related to: 1) recognizing; 2) reviewing; and 3) responding to ethical issues. This framework enables tutors to work with students to address ethical thinking and problems both inside and outside the curriculum, as well as to prepare students for their futures, including in the graduate-level workplace. It is suggested that encouraging students to reflect on ‘everyday’ ethical problems may sometimes act as a helpful first step prior to addressing ethical challenges within the content and practice of the discipline.
    • How the university lost its way: Sixteen threats to academic freedom

      Hayes, Dennis; University of Derby (Springer, 2019-11-27)
      Are you happy to let someone tell you what to think? No one is. In universities, where academics have a particular role encapsulated in the phrase ‘academic freedom’—the responsibility to speak your mind and challenge conventional wisdom—they have a duty to refuse to be told what to think. My challenge to academics at the Higher Education Institutional Research (HEIR) Conference 2019 was that, in their unquestioning compliance with many familiar functions of the university today, they have willingly accepted innovations and impositions that do just that, tell you what to think. It is time to give them a wake-up call.
    • Emerging apprenticeship practitioner roles in England: conceptualising the subaltern educator

      Esmond, Bill; University of Derby (Springer, 2019-10-26)
      TVET educator roles and identities vary internationally, and are subject to repositioning, for example as the relative significance of institutions and the workplace change within national systems. In English apprenticeships, a key position has long been occupied by competence assessors, whose non-teaching role has related uneasily to those of professional educators. Following the introduction of new apprenticeship standards, former assessors are increasingly being allocated training responsibilities, raising issues about the expertise, identities and professional formation both of these emerging practitioners and of vocational educators in general. A qualitative study of assessors who have assumed greater training responsibilities examined these issues through individual and small-group interviews. Participant accounts of diverse and contested practices and environments suggested a need to conceptualise their roles in ways that draw upon but go beyond accounts of professionalism and occupational expertise developed at earlier stages. Drawing on Gramsci, the concept of the subaltern educator is put forward to characterise the complex position of these staff in the current climate of further education, the need for enhanced, rather than diminished, professional formation and wider possibilities for professional enhancement at a time of uncertainty for all vocational educators.
    • 'Bridging' the gap between VET and higher education: permeability or perpetuation?

      Esmond, Bill; University of Derby (VETNET, 2019-09-22)
      Demands for admission to higher education from vocational routes are widespread across Eu-rope but take different forms, depending on the recognition of tertiary VET or whether sharp-er distinctions between VET and higher education exist. In England, alongside policies pro-moting more employer-responsive tertiary provision, opportunities for ‘bridging’ from voca-tional routes to general university education, and vice versa, have been discussed. The study reported here examined four cases of existing provision supporting transitions into higher edu-cation, potential sites of practices supporting bridging across pathways. Each case provided valued support for progression to higher levels of study; yet these practices focused on exist-ing routes rather than transitions between more academic or vocationally-oriented sites. It is suggested, therefore, that the explicit denotation of separate tertiary provision may be more likely to constrain ‘bridging’ provision than for the latter to help students move beyond their existing route into substantially different forms of higher education.
    • The role of education and training in the development of technical elites: work experience and vulnerability

      Esmond, Bill; Atkins, Liz; Suart, Rebecca; University of Derby (VETNET, 2019-09-19)
      Whilst education and training systems in Europe have provided qualifications preparing candidates for highly skilled, responsible occupational roles, early research indicated that firms preferred to promote to such positions internally. Following changes to labour markets, several countries now place greater emphasis on early workplace learning, in the hope that transitions to work will be eased by experience of workplace environments. The outcomes of these shifts were explored through case studies in England of provision where work-based learning provides a high level of course content. Whilst students and educators ascribed value to these early experiences, evidence emerged of a narrowing of skills taught in work settings and em-phasis on behaviours and attributes. This emphasis is reflected among disadvantaged groups such as young women preparing for service roles: this paper argues for attention to the vulnerabilities of these groups, whose exclusion contributes to the reproduction of ‘elite’ occupations.
    • How the lessons we learned become lessons we can learn: Understanding memories of primary school experiences using narrative inquiry

      Shelton, Fiona; University of Derby (Waxmann Verlag, 2019-08-15)
      This chapter reflects upon the experiences of the methodological journey I undertook to collect and analyse data for my doctoral research. The reflection explains approaches I took to attempt an authentic and open approach to my research which positions the participants (narrators), as co-authors of their stories of their primary school experiences. In this chapter, I have focused on one theme which related to the lessons learned at school, as remembered by the narrators. The paper explains why narrative inquiry is a valuable method to understand experience and how I try to make sense of stories, recognising that narrators remember the stories with recollections, reflections and feelings (affect). I observed how stories needed to be ‘awakened’; they are not simply remembered and retold. Extracts from different stories told by some of the narrators are shared throughout the paper to exemplify the narratives and how I attempted to create a sense of equality in the co-construction of people's narratives. The final reflections demonstrate the lessons I have learned, looking beyond others' ways of approaching narrative research and finding ways to be an authentic researcher. This paper tells the story of what I have discovered in the research process and makes a methodological contribution to the field of narrative inquiry.
    • International insights: Equality in education

      Shelton, Fiona; Chiou, Vana; Holz, Oliver; Ertürk, Nesrin; University of Derby (Waxmann Verlag, 2019-08-15)
      Educational institutions should offer a safe and secure environment for young people. Part of that should be educational equity, which is a measure of achievement, fairness, and opportunity in education. This publication analyses and discusses educational equality from different angles. All contributions reflect on the current situation of 11 European countries. All of them are part of the Bologna process and are dealing with the challenges of the development of a European Higher Education Area. This ongoing process is reflected in the present publication, with a specific focus on equality in education. The authors cover aspects like inclusion and inequality, internationalizing education, and accessing education, but they also deal with learning foreign languages, education for the future, assessment, feedback and student success, lifelong learning, teacher training as well as different aspects of the LGB(T+) community and gender and education.
    • Continental selections? Institutional actors and market mechanisms in post-16 education in England

      Esmond, Bill; Centre of Educational Research and Innovation, University of Derby (Routledge (Taylor & Francis Group), 2019-08-06)
      Recent policies for English technical and vocational education, centred on apprenticeship reforms and the Sainsbury Review, have prioritised employer-led curricula and learning in employment settings. These policies are represented in policy discourse as radical changes that imitate successful European systems, raising new issues about the possibilities and limitations of policy learning and policy borrowing. Useful insights are offered by comparative political economy, which has located skill formation within networks of complementary institutions that shape economic life, rendering problematic the notion of change in a single dimension such as skills. Relatedly, historical institutionalism explains skill formation both as an enduring institution but also as the product of specific historical conflicts over workplace training. Building on these theoretical conceptions, a series of qualitative case studies carried out at key points in the emergence of current skills policies is reviewed, which demonstrates how wider conflicts are reflected in a tension between selectivity and inclusion currently playing out in the implementation English skills policy. The findings indicate the possibility of further stratification in post-16 education, through the process that historical institutionalism describes as ‘layering’. However, possibilities for a more coherent relationship between educational practice and the workplace may also be derived from this analysis.
    • Our teachers: Collected memories of primary education in Derbyshire schools from 1944 - 2009

      Shelton, Fiona; University of Derby (InScience Press, 2019-05-01)
      This paper presents findings from narrative interviews undertaken with 24 narrators who attended primary school in the decades from 1944 - 2009. Deductive themes were first selected by examining the quantity of content and relevance to the study. Four deductive themes were drawn from the narrators’ recollections: Our Teachers; The Lessons We Learned; Our Friendships and the Games We Played and finally The Books we Read. The focus of this paper is on the findings from one of the deductive themes: Our Teachers. Once the stories had been transcribed, they were analysed for inductive themes. These were identified as: Pupil-teacher relationship, noted across each of the decades. A gendered workforce, reflected in each decade, except 1999-2009. Teacher personality was common across all decades. Corporal punishment was common in the decades from 1944-1987, but not present after 1987. Finally, Teacher professionalism was a prevalent theme in most decades except 1999-2009. Key findings related to the connections that come with the relationship the teacher forms with their pupils. Teachers who break the mould are well remembered by pupils. The nature of the primary school workforce has changed since 1944, and is now perceived as being female dominated. Because of changes to legislation, the role of the teacher has evolved, the changes in professional behaviour are noted in the narrators’ stories, from decade to decade.