• Cuba: educationaliImpact of the Cuban revolution

      Smith, Rosemary; University of Nottingham (Bloomsbury, 31/10/2019)
      Education in Mexico, Central America and the Latin Caribbean examines the development and practice of education in México, Costa Rica, Cuba, the Dominican Republic, El Salvador, Guatemala, Haiti, Honduras, Nicaragua and Panamá. The chapters, written by local experts, provide an overview of the structure, aims and purposes of education in each of these ten countries with very different socio-economic backgrounds. The authors present curriculum standards, pedagogy, evaluation, accountability and delivery, discussing both how the formal systems are structured and how they actually function. The volume explores the origins of proposed reforms and their implementation, emphasising the distinctiveness of each country and attempting to locate new practices that could lead to better education.Including a comparative introduction to the issues facing education in the region as a whole and guides to available online datasets, this book is an essential reference for researchers, scholars, international agencies and policy-makers.
    • Education, citizenship, and Cuban identity

      Smith, Rosemary; University of Nottingham (Palgrave Macmillan., 29/07/2016)
      This book explores how Cuba’s famously successful and inclusive education system has formed young Cubans’ political, social, and moral identities in a country transfigured by new inequalities and moral compromises made in the name of survival. The author examines this educational experience from the perspective of those who grew up in the years of economic crisis following the fall of the Soviet Union, charting their ideals, their frustrations and their struggle to reconcile revolutionary rhetoric with twenty-first century reality.
    • The “Three Ps” (perfecting, professionalization, and pragmatism) and their limitations for understanding Cuban education in the 1970s

      Smith, Rosemary; University of Nottingham (Rowman & Littlefield, 24/08/2018)
      This book provides, for the first time, a comprehensive assessment of the 1970s which challenges prevailing interpretations. Drawing from multidisciplinary perspectives and exploring a range of areas--including politics, international relations, culture, education, and healthcare--its contributing authors demonstrate that the decade was a time of intense transformation which proved pivotal to the development of the Revolution. Indeed, many of the ideas, approaches, policies, and legislation developed and tested during the 1970s maintain a very visible legacy in contemporary Cuba. In highlighting the complexity of the 1970s, this volume ultimately aims to contribute to a greater understanding of the Cuban Revolution and how it chooses to face the challenges of the twenty-first century.
    • Towards being a "Good Cuban": socialist citizenship education in a globalized context.

      Smith, Rosemary; University of Nottingham (Springer, 21/10/2016)
      Considering the renewed diplomatic relations with the United States and to a globalized world, the Cuban State is forming global citizens while trying to retain socialist values in the face of increased market liberalization. Since the revolutionary period (1960s), Cuban education has stressed the intersecting values of fervent, resistant patriotism, hard work and active, solidary internationalism, as integral parts of the New Socialist Man/Woman or the “buen revolucionario” (good revolutionary). In this new economic, political and social context the Cuban government, its school system, and parents are challenged with preserving socialism and its accompanying values while preparing its young people for work and life in an evolving society and globalized world. Drawing on school textbooks and a wide range of interviews with young Cubans conducted by three education researchers, between 2011 and 2014, this chapter examines Cuban young people’s struggle to reconcile the contradictions and tensions between these ideals and the pragmatic reality of life, implying the need for new forms of national, international, global citizenship. Cuban youth are demanding a larger role in shaping their society if the government wants to keep them on the island. Consequently, the development of the buen revolucionario is taking on new meaning in the twenty-first century globalized world.
    • Teacher education for SEND inclusion in an international context: The importance of critical theoretical work

      Robinson, Deborah; University of Derby (Routledge, 2021-12-31)
      Global commitments to inclusive education have been made in UNESCO’s Sustainable Development Goal, ‘Ensure inclusive and equitable quality education and promote lifelong learning opportunities for persons with disabilities’ (UNDESA, 2018. p75). With clear evidence that students with disabilities have heightened vulnerability to inequity, teacher education is considered an essential strategy for improving this situation. This chapter explores best practice in teacher education for SEND and inclusion and places emphasis on the importance of theoretical work in the teacher education curriculum. Best practices in teacher education must offer teachers opportunities to resist binary positions on the relevance of impairment to inclusive planning. It argues that critical theory in the form of critical disability studies provides useful theoretical tools, such as the explanation of ‘othering.’ These can make visible and ‘workable-on’, hidden barriers to inclusion including normative discourses. The chapter proposes two practical tools to support critical theorising on practice, reflexive practice, and transgression. Both support critical work on self and system. They also scaffold teacher agency in constructing hybrid forms of resistance/compliance in harmony with the freedoms and constraints operating in local and national sites for practice.
    • The SENCO as a leader of professional learning for inclusive practice

      Robinson, Deborah; University of Derby (Routledge, 2021-04-22)
      This chapter explores the theory and practice of professional development for inclusive practice. The SENCO’s remit to ‘inspire inclusive practice’ (Wharton, Codina, Middleton and Esposito, 2019, p16) through leading teacher learning and Continuing Professional Development (CPD) is theoretically framed within epistemologies of difference and ontologies of change so that the challenges of this remit are treated with the depth they demand. The chapter defends practice inquiry for transformational teacher development towards inclusion. Using the example of Lesson Study, it explores Practice Inquiry as a form of CPD of value to SENCOs. A core argument in the chapter is that Practice Inquiry has the capacity to loosen unhelpful, obdurate paradigms of learning difficulty with positive consequences for practice. The purpose of the chapter is to provide a meaningful framework for SENCOs to theorise their CPD remit and how it might be implemented to make inclusion more enduringly manifest in the classroom.
    • Positioning children as artists through a ceramic arts project and exhibition: children meaning making

      Yates, Ellen; Szenasi, Judith; University of Derby (Taylor and Francis, 2021-03-15)
      This article describes a ceramic arts research project that provided children with opportunities for meaning making using bone china clay, a medium with strong cultural and historical links to the city where the research took place. The children were positioned as artists and their work was curated and presented for exhibition by an international ceramic artist, affording equal status to their work as that of adults. Findings identified that children made meaning based on lived experiences, popular culture, unique family and cultural heritage, and school identities. We also acknowledge that adult attitudes and school schedules can both enable and limit children’s creativity. We further assert that the professional exhibition validated children’s processes, competence, cultural funds of knowledge and agency.
    • “It’s nice to know you might make a difference”: engaging students through primary research as an authentic assessment

      Yates, Ellen; Oates, Ruby; University of Derby (RAISE network, 2021-02-23)
      This paper presents the views of undergraduate students on taking part in a small-scale student-staff research project to inform the design of a local community play space. The project repositioned students as researchers by providing them with an opportunity to engage in primary research with children through an authentic assessment task in a final year module. The students took on responsibility for the design and implementation of the primary research to elicit the views of young children aged 6-7 years, alongside Higher Education (HE) lecturers who collected the views of other key users of the space. The students experienced the project as engaging, challenging and as an opportunity for individual professional development, resulting in valuable learning including, increased confidence, professional aptitudes, and applied research skills. While finding much potential in co- research projects for student engagement, we recognise barriers within the higher education curriculum that mitigate against their success as part of assessment. The reconceptualization of HE within a market economy and the changing expectations of students further limit the success of such projects.
    • Engaging the local community in cultural heritage through a children’s ceramic arts exhibition

      Yates, Ellen; Szenasi, Judith; University of Derby (Peter Lang, 2021)
      This chapter describes a research project which aimed to increase social inclusion and access to the arts and cultural heritage, through a children’s ceramic arts exhibition. The exhibition was curated by an internationally recognised ceramic artist and located in an historic building within an inner city park in Derby, England, behind a culturally historic ceramics factory and museum. The project further aimed to reposition children as artists and heritage makers by valuing their ideas, creativity, identity and agency. Data was collected through interviews and through comments from the exhibition visitor’s book. Findings indicate that barriers exist within the UK education system which limit children’s full participation in the arts and cultural activities. The exhibition encouraged social inclusion and contested the idea of separate spaces for the display of adults and children products, but most significantly, children were repositioned as active agents in the construction of their cultural heritage.
    • Re-conceptualising VET: responses to covid-19

      Avis, James; Atkins, Liz; Esmond, Bill; McGrath, Simon; University of Derby; University of Nottingham (Taylor and Francis, 2020-12-30)
      The paper addresses the impact of Covid-19 on vocational education and training, seeking to discern the outline of possible directions for its future development within the debates about VET responses to the pandemic. The discussion is set in its socio-economic context, considering debates that engage with the social relations of care and neo-liberalism. The paper analyses discourses that have developed around VET across the world during the pandemic, illustrating both possible continuities and ruptures that may emerge in this field, as the health crisis becomes overshadowed in public policy by the prioritisation of economic recovery and social restoration. The paper concludes that, alongside the possibility of a narrowing of VET to its most prosaic aims and practices, the health crisis could also lead to a re-conceptualisation that develops its radical and emancipatory possibilities in both the global south and north.
    • Careers coaching for social justice: the case of school leadership and inclusive education for children and young people with special educational needs and disabilities

      Robinson, Deborah; Codina, Geraldene; Jill, Hanson; Eleni, Dimitrellou; University of Derby (University of Derby, 2020-12-18)
      This paper focusses on emancipatory careers coaching for social justice and proposes a practical tool for use with school leaders who are working to improve the inclusiveness of their schools. It draws on a study of 75 school leaders working on a programme of peer review in a city in England. The programme was named the Special Educational Needs and Disability (SEND) Peer Challenge Programme and through it, participants worked collaboratively to evaluate and improve the quality of inclusive practice in the City’s mainstream (ordinary) schools. The study used inductive qualitative content analysis (QCA) to form a coding agenda which was then applied to a deductive analysis of 24 SEND Peer Challenge school reports. These reports were collaboratively produced by leaders engaged in the SEND Peer Challenge Programme to summarise the outcomes of the process. Following final QCA reduction, the research identified six value constructs that were live and relevant for school leaders in the City related to collectivism, collaboration and mutuality. These value constructs are also live in the field of inclusive education more widely. Drawing on the six value constructs, we propose practical strategies for emancipatory careers coaching. These strategies can be applied by individuals who provide careers coaching for school leaders engaged in the process of school improvement for SEND and inclusion.
    • International Centre for Guidance Studies (iCeGS) Annual Review (2020)

      Neary, Siobhan; Hanson, Jill; Moore, Nicki; Staunton, Tom; Clark, Lewis; Blake, Hannah; Challacombe, Paul; University of Derby (University of Derby, 2020-12-09)
    • The Racialisation of Campus Relations

      Mieschbuehler, Ruth; University of Derby (Civitas, 2020-11-20)
      The author of this report, Ruth Mieschbuehler, argues that there is a real danger that campus relations at universities will become racialised. The term ‘racialisation’ – referring to the process of emphasising racial and ethnic grouping – is discussed to show how higher education policies and practices implemented to address the ‘ethnic’ attainment gap are driving this trend. The result of these interventions is that students are ‘minoritised’. In short, they are held to be in need of special treatment. The ‘minoritisation’ of students has driven racialisation on campuses because the higher education sector is trying to understand and address disparities through ethnic grouping. Racialisation, in turn, minoritises students because it denies students their individuality by emphasising their group identities. By reflecting on the so-called ‘ethnic’ attainment gap in higher education, the report finds that what appears to be a significant gap when attainment is reported by ethnicity has been shown to be significantly reduced when other factors known to impact on attainment are taken into account. There is no statistical evidence that ‘ethnicity’ determines educational attainment of higher education students. Yet, as the author argues, policymakers and practitioners believe in the ethnic attainment gap and introduce measures to address it with adverse consequences. Students from minority ethnic backgrounds are believed to underperform academically when they do not. This stigmatises students based on their ethnicity and contributes to the racialisation of campus relations. The practice of defining and grouping students by their skin colour and basing attainment policies and practices on these divisions drives a wedge between people and removes any sense of our common humanity. Meanwhile, the continued rise of a new type of ‘deficit talk’ depicts students as being vulnerable – and ultimately, it denies students the opportunity to develop fully academically while accommodating them to failure. Ruth Mieschbuehler suggests a long-overdue change in approach. Universities need to re-examine the reporting of statistical data on attainment that has contributed unjustly to the perpetuation of the diminished educational status of students from minority ethnic backgrounds. The report concludes by rejecting the practice of grouping higher education students by their skin colour and ethnicity in future policies and practices.
    • The growing demand for education in Saudi Arabia: How effective is borrowing educational models from the west?

      Mirghani, Taiseer M.; University of Derby (Canadian Center of Science and Education, 2020-11-12)
      The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) considers education a top priority, and more emphasis has been placed on this following the 2016 announcement of Saudi Vision 2030. Since then, the country has witnessed several economic and social changes. As a result, the Kingdom has initiated a plan to invest in human capital through education to diversify its economy and increase employment. This includes educational reform with regard to primary and secondary education geared toward preparing students for higher education and the workplace. However, several factors may hinder the successful execution of this plan. This report will provide insights into factors such as cultural dimensions, learning profiles, the English language proficiency gap, and information on borrowing educational models from the West. It will also include some suggestions and recommendations to enhance teacher education programmes so that positive educational reform may be achieved effectively.
    • How to promote real equality in higher education

      Mieschbuehler, Ruth; University of Derby (Routledge, 2020-10-30)
      This chapter aims to open up a debate about two meanings of ‘equality’ in higher education (HE). The first meaning of ‘equality’ is ‘the right to be the same’. The second meaning of ‘equality’ is ‘the right to be different’. Three contrasting examples from politics, compulsory education and HE are given in detail to illustrate how the meaning of the term ‘equality’ has changed. The older meaning of ‘equality’ required a universal and common education for all students. The newer meaning requires the curriculum to be refocused on the perceived group identities that necessitate a variety of curricula. The curriculum in HE has become divisive and undermines education for all students. This chapter raises issues that are rarely discussed for fear of being offensive. The future of HE depends on opening up a debate about the divisive nature of current conceptions of ‘equality’ that undermine HE – the university - as the embodiment of Enlightenment universalism.
    • Overview of early childhood education (Mexico)

      Delgado-Fuentes, Marco; University of Derby (Bloomsbury Publishing, 2020-10-26)
      This article is part of the Bloomsbury Education and Childhood Studies online resource. It discusses the current educational system in the country for children under six, in the levels of Initial Education and Preschool Education. It includes issues on age range, the role of government in ECE, key providers, programs and services, staff and current challenges.
    • Professional standards and recognition for UK personal tutoring and advising

      Walker, Ben; Manchester Metropolitan University; University of Derby (Frontiers Media SA, 2020-10-14)
      The Higher Education and Research Act established both a regulatory framework and the Teaching Excellence Framework (TEF) with associated metrics for student retention, progression and employability in the United Kingdom. As a key site in meeting these requirements, the significance of personal tutoring is clear. Despite this, according to existing institutional research, there is a need for developmental support, greater clarification on the requisite competencies, and adequate recognition for those undertaking this challenging role. Moreover, arguably compounding these concerns is the lack of distinct professional standards for personal tutoring and advising against which to measure effective practice, only recently addressed by the publication of The UKAT Professional Framework for Advising and Tutoring. Through a review of the literature supported by findings from a survey of practitioners, this paper discusses the need for such standards, and the skills and competencies populating them. Additionally, the usefulness of pre-existing standards pertinent to tutoring work (such as the United Kingdom Professional Standards Framework for Teaching and Supporting LearninginHE)areevaluatedandthevalueandrecognitionwithwhichpersonaltutoring standards could be associated are advanced. The survey supported the need for specificstandards–representedbytheUKATframework–asevidentfromtheliterature. Justificationsprovidedforboththisandtheopposingviewareexamined.Clarityforboth individual practitioners and institutions was stipulated along with meaningful recognition and reward for this work which is considered highly important and yet ‘invisible.’ The participants and literature reviewed identify relevant content along with illuminating the debate about the relationships between personal tutoring, teaching and professional advising roles. Valuable analysis of standards, recognition and reward also emerged. This is considered by discussing the connection between standards and changes to practice, responses to policy developments and the purpose of ‘standards’ in comparison to ‘guidance.’ The paper proposes that the recent introduction and use of a bespoke framework is a necessary response to alleviate some of the current tensions which beset personal tutoring and advising in higher education.
    • All data are local: thinking critically in a data-driven society

      Tupling, Claire; University of Derby (Taylor and Francis, 2020-09-10)
    • Surveillance of modern motherhood: Experiences of universal parenting courses

      Simmons, Helen; University of Derby (Palgrave MacMillan, 2020-08-23)
      This book explores the reflections and experiences of mothers of children aged 0-3 years that have attended universal parenting courses. Simmons considers the factors that motivated mothers to attend a universal parenting course and explore the wider experiences of early modern motherhood in the UK. She investigates participants' perceptions of benefits of attending a parenting course, different forms of parenting advice accessed by mothers, and how this provides an insight into the wider constructs and experiences of modern motherhood. Ultimately, the book considers, through a feminist post-structuralist lens, the social and cultural pressures within modern motherhood in relation to different levels of surveillance, and produces new knowledge for practice within the early years and health sectors in relation to the support currently offered to new mothers. It will be of interest to students and scholars across the sociology of education, gender studies, and childhood studies.
    • VET realignment and the development of technical elites: learning at work in England

      Esmond, Bill; Atkins, Liz; University of Derby (European Research Network in Vocational Education and Training (VETNET), 2020-08-11)
      An enhanced role for work-based learning is advocated increasingly widely across industrialised countries and by international VET policies. However, this is framed differently in each country by long-term policy orientations that reflect VET’s relationship with wider economic and social formations. These national differences reflect path dependency but also distinctive responses to contemporary challenges such as globalisation. In England, recent reforms strengthening workplace learning are constrained by existing patterns of skill formation and may be shaped by further market liberalisation and divergence from social and economic policies in Europe. The study examined the relationship between greater emphasis on workplace learning in England and societal change, addressing the research question: how are early experiences of work in England, as part of young people’s full-time education programmes, positioning them for future employment? Case studies were organised around apparently distinctive placement types that had emerged from earlier studies. Using the constant comparative method, the team identified a series of categories to distinguish the way each type of work-based learning positioned students in a particular type of labour market transition. Evidence emerged of divergence in England’s ‘further education’ system, across mainly male ‘technical’ routes, young people on vocational courses preparing them for routine, low-skilled, precarious employment, and an area of greater uncertainty preparing young people for digital routes linked to the ‘new economy’. Key dimensions of difference included study locations, discourses of occupational status, types of valued learning content, approaches to socialisation, sources of expertise and processes of credentialisation. In each case, learning at work served to position students for a particular type of labour market transition, which we characterise as technical elite formation, welfare VET and new economy precarity. Approaches to workplace learning in England already reflect social distinctions but entail the possibility of reinforcing these, supporting a more hierarchical pattern of labour market transition. Whilst the upper strata of VET shift their purpose to support the formation of new ‘technical elites’, others face the possibility of further marginalisation. Such new inequalities could become central to a further fragmented society in a post-Brexit, post-COVID-19 Britain. Other European states facing challenges of globalisation and the transition to services are also likely to experience pressures for VET stratification, although they may seek less divisive solutions.