• Race and vocational education and training in England

      Avis, James; Orr, kevin; Warmington, Paul; University of Huddersfield; University of Warwick (Informa UK Limited, 2017-06-05)
      Black and minority ethnic students (BME) are a significant constituency in vocational education and training (VET) and FE in England. Despite this recent research on race and VET has become a marginal concern. Insofar as current VET research addresses social justice, race appears to be a supplementary concern. Although there is a substantial literature addressing race and education, this focuses primarily on schools and higher education. This paper examines why there is a need to develop a research agenda that analyses participation, outcomes and experiences of BME VET students, particularly those on ‘non-advanced’ programmes (equivalent to European Qualification Framework Level 1–3) with uncertain labour market outcomes and who are arguably being ‘warehoused’ in low status courses. The paper reflects on the historically specific reasons for the dearth of research on race and VET, drawing on a scoping exercise of the literature to evidence this. We conclude by offering a provisional analysis that identifies recent shifts in participation among BME groups, locating this in its socio-economic and historical context. Our analysis reaffirms that VET remains a significant educational site for BME groups, but it is a complex racialised site which makes the current neglect of race and VET in academic research deeply problematic.
    • The Racialisation of Campus Relations

      Mieschbuehler, Ruth; University of Derby (Civitas, 2020-11-20)
      The author of this report, Ruth Mieschbuehler, argues that there is a real danger that campus relations at universities will become racialised. The term ‘racialisation’ – referring to the process of emphasising racial and ethnic grouping – is discussed to show how higher education policies and practices implemented to address the ‘ethnic’ attainment gap are driving this trend. The result of these interventions is that students are ‘minoritised’. In short, they are held to be in need of special treatment. The ‘minoritisation’ of students has driven racialisation on campuses because the higher education sector is trying to understand and address disparities through ethnic grouping. Racialisation, in turn, minoritises students because it denies students their individuality by emphasising their group identities. By reflecting on the so-called ‘ethnic’ attainment gap in higher education, the report finds that what appears to be a significant gap when attainment is reported by ethnicity has been shown to be significantly reduced when other factors known to impact on attainment are taken into account. There is no statistical evidence that ‘ethnicity’ determines educational attainment of higher education students. Yet, as the author argues, policymakers and practitioners believe in the ethnic attainment gap and introduce measures to address it with adverse consequences. Students from minority ethnic backgrounds are believed to underperform academically when they do not. This stigmatises students based on their ethnicity and contributes to the racialisation of campus relations. The practice of defining and grouping students by their skin colour and basing attainment policies and practices on these divisions drives a wedge between people and removes any sense of our common humanity. Meanwhile, the continued rise of a new type of ‘deficit talk’ depicts students as being vulnerable – and ultimately, it denies students the opportunity to develop fully academically while accommodating them to failure. Ruth Mieschbuehler suggests a long-overdue change in approach. Universities need to re-examine the reporting of statistical data on attainment that has contributed unjustly to the perpetuation of the diminished educational status of students from minority ethnic backgrounds. The report concludes by rejecting the practice of grouping higher education students by their skin colour and ethnicity in future policies and practices.
    • Raising regional academic voices (alongside data) in higher education (HE) debate

      Hayes, Sarah; Jopling, Michael; Hayes, Dennis; Westwood, Andy; Tuckett, Alan; Barnett, Ronald; Hayes, Dennis; University of Derby (Springer Science and Business Media LLC, 2020-05-13)
      As agendas for data-driven measures of excellence dominate policy in UK Higher Education (HE), we argue that the generic structure of national policy frameworks virtually silences regional voices. This furthers a territorially agnostic discourse about universities, downplays institutional history and purpose, risks concealing innovative practices, and fails to tackle entrenched inequalities. In response, we point to the value of live, place-based debate in HE institutions to highlight distributional inequity, raise local voices and connect these with national policy. Yet even as we compiled this article about HE debate, the Covid-19 pandemic took hold globally, cancelling face-to-face meetings, by necessity. We therefore draw on a postdigital perspective, as we share our individual dialogues in support of debate, via collective writing, against this new backdrop of social distancing and widespread uncertainty. We may not currently be able to convene our Midlands HE Policy Network (MHEPN) debates in person, but we can voice the essential part that regional universities play in connecting global technological and biological change, with local social projects, citizens and industry. Postdigital theory offers one route to understanding that Covid-19 does not sit apart from other political economic challenges in HE and beyond, that we need to debate simultaneously.
    • Re-conceptualising VET: responses to covid-19

      Avis, James; Atkins, Liz; Esmond, Bill; McGrath, Simon; University of Derby; University of Nottingham (Taylor and Francis, 2020-12-30)
      The paper addresses the impact of Covid-19 on vocational education and training, seeking to discern the outline of possible directions for its future development within the debates about VET responses to the pandemic. The discussion is set in its socio-economic context, considering debates that engage with the social relations of care and neo-liberalism. The paper analyses discourses that have developed around VET across the world during the pandemic, illustrating both possible continuities and ruptures that may emerge in this field, as the health crisis becomes overshadowed in public policy by the prioritisation of economic recovery and social restoration. The paper concludes that, alongside the possibility of a narrowing of VET to its most prosaic aims and practices, the health crisis could also lead to a re-conceptualisation that develops its radical and emancipatory possibilities in both the global south and north.
    • Reactions to symptoms of mental disorder and help seeking in Sabah, Malaysia.

      Shoesmith, Wendy Diana; Borhanuddin, Awang Faisal Bin Awang; Yong Pau Lin, Pauline; Abdullah, Ahmad Faris; Nordin, Norhayati; Giridharan, Beena; Forman, Dawn; Fyfe, Sue; Universiti Malaysia Sabah; Hospital Mesra Bukit Padang; et al. (Sage, 2017-11-06)
      Abstract Background: A better understanding is needed about how people make decisions about help seeking. Materials: Focus group and individual interviews with patients, carers, healthcare staff, religious authorities, traditional healers and community members. Discussion: Four stages of help seeking were identified: (1) noticing symptoms and initial labelling, (2) collective decision-making, (3) spiritual diagnoses and treatment and (4) psychiatric diagnosis and treatment. Conclusion: Spiritual diagnoses have the advantage of being less stigmatising, giving meaning to symptoms, and were seen to offer hope of cure rather than just symptom control. Patients and carers need help to integrate different explanatory models into a meaningful whole.
    • Realism, reflection and responsibility: the challenge of writing effective scenarios to support the development of ethical thinking skills

      Ribchester, Chris; Healey, Ruth L.; University of Chester (Informa UK Limited, 2017-08-07)
      Universities are paying increased attention to how they might support the ethical development of their students as one of a range of graduate attributes that will enable them to negotiate increasingly complex professional, civic and personal futures. Scenario-based learning (SBL) is a longstanding strategy used in ethical teaching and this paper describes and evaluates a version of this approach as applied to a second year undergraduate tutorials module. A quantitative assessment of the development of students’ ethical sensitivity over the course of two deliveries of the module shows an uneven impact but also some encouraging trends. A detailed qualitative analysis of how students responded to each scenario identifies five factors that appear to precipitate more in-depth reflection on ethical problems, and these are presented as useful points of guidance for teachers writing ethical scenarios for the first time or for those aiming to hone their existing practice. These factors include the challenge of devising circumstances which appear realistic and plausible to contemporary undergraduate students, constructing scenarios which encourage readers to reflect on and test their personal values, and portraying events which push students to intervene proactively and so taking individual responsibility for their decisions and actions.
    • Recruiting researchers: Survey of employer practice 2009

      Rubio, Macia; Hooley, Tristram; University of Derby; The Careers Research and Advisory Centre (CRAC) (The Careers Research and Advisory Centre (CRAC) Limited, 2010)
      This report sets out the findings of a piece of research conducted by Vitae into the experiences and attitudes of employers towards doctoral graduates. The research surveyed 104 employers who represent a diverse mix of sectors, organisation size and orientation towards doctoral graduates.
    • Reflections on working with the gang: A journey towards computational fluency?

      Benson, David; University of Derby (Association of Teachers of Mathematics., 2019)
    • The refuge of relativism.

      Hayes, Dennis; Mieschbuehler, Ruth; University of Derby (Routledge, 2015-01-08)
    • Repositioning interprofessional education from the margins to the centre of Australian health professional education - what is required?

      Dunston, Roger; Forman, Dawn; Thistlethwaite, Jill; Steketee, Carole; Rogers, Gary D.; Moran, Monica Catherine; University of Technology Sydney; University of Derby; University of Notre Dame; Griffith University; et al. (CSIRO, 2018-01-16)
      Abstract Objective This paper examines the implementation and implications of four development and research initiatives, collectively titled the Curriculum Renewal Studies program (CRS), occurring over a 6-year period ending in 2015 and focusing on interprofessional education (IPE) within Australian pre-registration health professional education. Methods The CRS was developed as an action-focused and participatory program of studies. This research and development program used a mixed-methods approach. Structured survey, interviews and extensive documentary analyses were supplemented by semi-structured interviews, focus groups, large group consultations and consensus building methods. Narrative accounts of participants’ experiences and an approach to the future development of Australian IPE were developed. Results Detailed accounts of existing Australian IPE curricula and educational activity were developed. These accounts were published and used in several settings to support curriculum and national workforce development. Reflective activities engaging with the findings facilitated the development of a national approach to the future development of Australian IPE – a national approach focused on coordinated and collective governance and development. Conclusion This paper outlines the design of an innovative approach to national IPE governance and development. It explores how ideas drawn from sociocultural theories were used to guide the choice of methods and to enrich data analysis. Finally, the paper reflects on the implications of CRS findings for health professional education, workforce development and the future of Australian IPE. What is known about the topic? IPE to enable the achievement of interprofessional and collaborative practice capabilities is widely accepted and promoted. However, many problems exist in embedding and sustaining IPE as a system-wide element of health professional education. How these implementation problems can be successfully addressed is a health service and education development priority. What does this paper add? The paper presents a summary of how Australian IPE was conceptualised, developed and delivered across 26 universities during the period of the four CRS studies. It points to strengths and limitations of existing IPE. An innovative approach to the future development of Australian IPE is presented. The importance of sociocultural factors in the development of practitioner identity and practice development is identified. What are the implications for practitioners? The findings of the CRS program present a challenging view of current Australian IPE activity and what will be required to meet industry and health workforce expectations related to the development of an Australian interprofessional- and collaborative-practice-capable workforce. Although the directions identified pose considerable challenges for the higher education and health sectors, they also provide a consensus-based approach to the future development of Australian IPE. As such they can be used as a blueprint for national development.
    • Research methods teaching in vocational environments: developing critical engagement with knowledge?

      Gray, Claire; Turner, Rebecca; Sutton, Carole; Petersen, Carolyn; Stevens, Sebastian; Swain, Julie; Esmond, Bill; Schofield, Cathy; Thackeray, Demelza; University of Derby (Taylor Francis, 2015)
      Knowledge of research methods is regarded as crucial for the UK economy and workforce. However, research methods teaching is viewed as a challenging area for lecturers and students. The pedagogy of research methods teaching within universities has been noted as underdeveloped, with undergraduate students regularly expressing negative dispositions to the subject. These are challenges documented in university-based higher education (HE), yet little is known of the practices and pedagogies of research methods teaching in the college-based HE setting, where the delivery of HE has grown in prominence in recent years. Because college-based HE is widely regarded as primarily vocational, incorporating research methods into curricula may be seen as an additional level of complexity for staff to negotiate. In this article, we report on the data collected within a study to examine research methods teaching in social science disciplines on HE programmes taught in college-based settings in England. Drawing on data obtained from college-based HE lecturers and students, we discuss features of research methods teaching and how these may be applied with a diverse student body, within vocationally focused institutions. Issues of institutional culture, resourcing and staff development are also considered as these are identified as integral to the successful embedding of research methods teaching.
    • Researchers, fixed-term contracts and universities: Understanding the law in context

      Hooley, Tristram; Oliver, Liz; University of Derby; Careers Research and Advisory Centre (Vitae, 2010)
      This report examines UK legislation on fixed-term contracts1 in the context of higher education institutions (HEIs). Since fixed-term employment has become a common feature of working life within universities and periods of fixed-term employment have constituted a key step in many research career contexts, the legislation raises specific issues for HEIs and researchers.
    • The Right Start in Life: Exploring an innovative new online career solution

      Hooley, Tristram; Sahar, Arif; University of Derby (2016-05)
    • The role of brokerage within career guidance: a literature review

      Hallam, Rachel; Morris, Marian; Hooley, Tristram; Neary, Siobhan; Mackay, Susan; SWQ; International Centre for Guidance Studies (iCeGS) (2016-04)
      This paper reports on the findings from a review of the literature relating to the brokerage role of career guidance services. The review initially identified over 15,000 papers for possible inclusion and a systematic process was applied which sifted these down to only the highest quality research papers with direct relevance to the research question: How is effective brokerage between education and employers organised?The review found that much of the research in this area is based on organisations with a sole remit for brokering the links between employers and education. Their funding and delivery models were, in most cases, quite different to that of the current National Careers Service. The studies also focused on the perceived impact and benefits of the links between employers and educational institutions, with rather less evidence on the pre-conditions for such links or on the ways in which they could best be engendered and supported. Nonetheless, the research highlighted the wide-ranging benefits these links can have for both parties, with impacts on: • Schools, colleges and pupils such as: improved motivation and attainment; contextualisation of learning; reduction in NEET; greater understanding of industries and educational pathways; clarification of career aspirations; and improved transitions into further and higher education, training or the workplace. • Employers such as: the development of company personnel; the building of a positive reputation for organisations and the contribution to business recruitment strategies. Based on this evidence, the review provides some summary guidance on the factors that the National Careers Service should consider in the development of a brokerage role between education institutions and employers.
    • The role of education and training in the development of technical elites: work experience and vulnerability

      Esmond, Bill; Atkins, Liz; Suart, Rebecca; University of Derby (VETNET, 2019-09-19)
      Whilst education and training systems in Europe have provided qualifications preparing candidates for highly skilled, responsible occupational roles, early research indicated that firms preferred to promote to such positions internally. Following changes to labour markets, several countries now place greater emphasis on early workplace learning, in the hope that transitions to work will be eased by experience of workplace environments. The outcomes of these shifts were explored through case studies in England of provision where work-based learning provides a high level of course content. Whilst students and educators ascribed value to these early experiences, evidence emerged of a narrowing of skills taught in work settings and em-phasis on behaviours and attributes. This emphasis is reflected among disadvantaged groups such as young women preparing for service roles: this paper argues for attention to the vulnerabilities of these groups, whose exclusion contributes to the reproduction of ‘elite’ occupations.
    • The role of the teacher today

      Hayes, Dennis; Marshall, Toby; University of Derby (SCETT, 2016-03-31)
      This is a collection of essays based on themes discussed at conferences and seminars between 2009 and 2012 organised the Standing Committee for the Education and Training of Teachers (SCETT), a charity (Number 296425) established by the education trade unions in 1981. Visit www.scett.org.uk for more information. A limited number of hard copies of the book are available from Professor Dennis Hayes at the University of Derby for £4.30 which includes postage and packing (email d.hayes@derby.ac.uk) or find the book on Amazon.
    • The Routledge guide to key debates in education

      Hayes, Dennis; Canterbury Christ Church University (Routledge, 2004)
      Debating is out of fashion. No one raises the question of what has gone wrong when the entire political project of a society is seemingly reduced to 'education, education, education'. The aim of this lively and challenging book is to provide the stimulus for further thinking about key educational issues by exposing and explaining the assumptions behind this obsession. Over forty contributors, all experts in their fields, have written short, accessible, informed and lively articles for students, teachers and others involved in education. They address broad questions that are central to any understanding of what is really going on in the education system. Topics covered include: the new relationship of the state to education; the changed nature of schools; whether teachers are afraid to teach; the problems with circle time, anti-bullying strategies, citizenship education, and multiple intelligences; the retreat from truth and the demise of theory in teacher training, and much more. Everyone learning to teach in primary and secondary schools and further education colleges will find this book relevant to their programmes. In particular the book would be useful for students on Education Studies courses.
    • School belonging among young adolescents with SEMH and MLD: the link with their social relations and school inclusivity

      Dimitrellou, Eleni; Hurry, Jane; University of Derby; Institute of Education, University of Derby, Derby, UK; Department of Psychology and Human Development, Institute of Education, University of London, London, UK (Taylor & Francis, 2018-08-20)
      Despite the considerable institutional changes schools have made to accommodate the individual needs of pupils with special educational needs and disabilities (SEND), as underpinned by key principles of inclusion, there is still international concern about the mainstream experiences pupils with SEND have in school settings. This study helps us understand the schooling experiences of pupils with behavioural difficulties and learning difficulties by investigating whether they have a sense of belonging and positive social relations and whether these vary according to the level of inclusiveness of the school ethos at the institution they attend. Perceived social relations and feelings of belonging of 1,440 (282 SEND) young adolescents from three secondary mainstream settings that differ in inclusivity, were analysed using a self-reporting questionnaire. Findings demonstrated that pupils with SEND are not a homogeneous group, as pupils with behavioural difficulties were found to have less of a sense of belonging, and social relations than those with learning difficulties. It was also found that the sense of belonging of both groups is associated with their positive perceived relations with teachers and their inclusiveness of school ethos. These findings contribute as they offer ways of enhancing the sense of belonging of pupils with behavioural and learning difficulties in schools.
    • A school for our community: Critically assessing discourses of marginality in the establishment of a free school

      Tupling, Claire; University of Derby (Policy Press, 2017-06-28)
      In 2010 the Coalition Government announced its flagship Free School policy. Designed to be responsive to the needs of local communities, Free Schools are state funded and independent of local authority control. Adding to a diverse school system, the UK Government claims Free Schools increase the availability of ‘good’ schools, therefore providing greater choice for parents. The stated aim of this educational reform is to raise standards and narrow the attainment gap by targeting under-performance in disadvantaged areas. However, social justice concerns have suggested that Free Schools may not reflect the diversity of local communities, attracting the least disadvantaged pupils and therefore failing to offer increased educational opportunities for the most disadvantaged pupils despite the requirement that their admission criteria are fair and transparent. A limited number of recent studies of the Free Schools policy have used statistical data in assessing the extent of social segregation and how admissions criteria can result in a segregated intake, suggesting that these schools may indeed be serving pupils from more advantaged backgrounds. This chapter adds to that discussion by exploring the nebulous nature of the term ‘community’ in relation to the establishment of a Free School in, the community of Newtown (a pseudonym) in the North East of England. Drawing on Anderson’s concept of ‘imagined communities’ this chapter will demonstrate how the term ‘community’ has been employed in key documents written by the Newtown Free School proposers to identify and secure a school for pupils within Newtown. Newtown will be revealed as a relative socially advantaged community, but one where marginalisation, associated with schooling, is claimed to characterise the lives of the young people living there. As a consequence a Free School is proposed to tackle this marginalisation and create a community.
    • Self-harm - dispelling the myths.

      Davey, Ang; Davey, Anna; University of Derby (Routledge, 2017-08-23)