• Cuba: educationaliImpact of the Cuban revolution

      Smith, Rosemary; University of Nottingham (Bloomsbury, 31/10/2019)
      Education in Mexico, Central America and the Latin Caribbean examines the development and practice of education in México, Costa Rica, Cuba, the Dominican Republic, El Salvador, Guatemala, Haiti, Honduras, Nicaragua and Panamá. The chapters, written by local experts, provide an overview of the structure, aims and purposes of education in each of these ten countries with very different socio-economic backgrounds. The authors present curriculum standards, pedagogy, evaluation, accountability and delivery, discussing both how the formal systems are structured and how they actually function. The volume explores the origins of proposed reforms and their implementation, emphasising the distinctiveness of each country and attempting to locate new practices that could lead to better education.Including a comparative introduction to the issues facing education in the region as a whole and guides to available online datasets, this book is an essential reference for researchers, scholars, international agencies and policy-makers.
    • Education, citizenship, and Cuban identity

      Smith, Rosemary; University of Nottingham (Palgrave Macmillan., 29/07/2016)
      This book explores how Cuba’s famously successful and inclusive education system has formed young Cubans’ political, social, and moral identities in a country transfigured by new inequalities and moral compromises made in the name of survival. The author examines this educational experience from the perspective of those who grew up in the years of economic crisis following the fall of the Soviet Union, charting their ideals, their frustrations and their struggle to reconcile revolutionary rhetoric with twenty-first century reality.
    • The “Three Ps” (perfecting, professionalization, and pragmatism) and their limitations for understanding Cuban education in the 1970s

      Smith, Rosemary; University of Nottingham (Rowman & Littlefield, 24/08/2018)
      This book provides, for the first time, a comprehensive assessment of the 1970s which challenges prevailing interpretations. Drawing from multidisciplinary perspectives and exploring a range of areas--including politics, international relations, culture, education, and healthcare--its contributing authors demonstrate that the decade was a time of intense transformation which proved pivotal to the development of the Revolution. Indeed, many of the ideas, approaches, policies, and legislation developed and tested during the 1970s maintain a very visible legacy in contemporary Cuba. In highlighting the complexity of the 1970s, this volume ultimately aims to contribute to a greater understanding of the Cuban Revolution and how it chooses to face the challenges of the twenty-first century.
    • Towards being a "Good Cuban": socialist citizenship education in a globalized context.

      Smith, Rosemary; University of Nottingham (Springer, 21/10/2016)
      Considering the renewed diplomatic relations with the United States and to a globalized world, the Cuban State is forming global citizens while trying to retain socialist values in the face of increased market liberalization. Since the revolutionary period (1960s), Cuban education has stressed the intersecting values of fervent, resistant patriotism, hard work and active, solidary internationalism, as integral parts of the New Socialist Man/Woman or the “buen revolucionario” (good revolutionary). In this new economic, political and social context the Cuban government, its school system, and parents are challenged with preserving socialism and its accompanying values while preparing its young people for work and life in an evolving society and globalized world. Drawing on school textbooks and a wide range of interviews with young Cubans conducted by three education researchers, between 2011 and 2014, this chapter examines Cuban young people’s struggle to reconcile the contradictions and tensions between these ideals and the pragmatic reality of life, implying the need for new forms of national, international, global citizenship. Cuban youth are demanding a larger role in shaping their society if the government wants to keep them on the island. Consequently, the development of the buen revolucionario is taking on new meaning in the twenty-first century globalized world.
    • Emerging apprenticeship practitioner roles in England: conceptualising the subaltern educator

      Esmond, Bill; University of Derby (Springer, 2019-10-26)
      TVET educator roles and identities vary internationally, and are subject to repositioning, for example as the relative significance of institutions and the workplace change within national systems. In English apprenticeships, a key position has long been occupied by competence assessors, whose non-teaching role has related uneasily to those of professional educators. Following the introduction of new apprenticeship standards, former assessors are increasingly being allocated training responsibilities, raising issues about the expertise, identities and professional formation both of these emerging practitioners and of vocational educators in general. A qualitative study of assessors who have assumed greater training responsibilities examined these issues through individual and small-group interviews. Participant accounts of diverse and contested practices and environments suggested a need to conceptualise their roles in ways that draw upon but go beyond accounts of professionalism and occupational expertise developed at earlier stages. Drawing on Gramsci, the concept of the subaltern educator is put forward to characterise the complex position of these staff in the current climate of further education, the need for enhanced, rather than diminished, professional formation and wider possibilities for professional enhancement at a time of uncertainty for all vocational educators.
    • 'Bridging' the gap between VET and higher education: permeability or perpetuation?

      Esmond, Bill; University of Derby (VETNET, 2019-09-22)
      Demands for admission to higher education from vocational routes are widespread across Eu-rope but take different forms, depending on the recognition of tertiary VET or whether sharp-er distinctions between VET and higher education exist. In England, alongside policies pro-moting more employer-responsive tertiary provision, opportunities for ‘bridging’ from voca-tional routes to general university education, and vice versa, have been discussed. The study reported here examined four cases of existing provision supporting transitions into higher edu-cation, potential sites of practices supporting bridging across pathways. Each case provided valued support for progression to higher levels of study; yet these practices focused on exist-ing routes rather than transitions between more academic or vocationally-oriented sites. It is suggested, therefore, that the explicit denotation of separate tertiary provision may be more likely to constrain ‘bridging’ provision than for the latter to help students move beyond their existing route into substantially different forms of higher education.
    • The role of education and training in the development of technical elites: work experience and vulnerability

      Esmond, Bill; Atkins, Liz; Suart, Rebecca; University of Derby (VETNET, 2019-09-19)
      Whilst education and training systems in Europe have provided qualifications preparing candidates for highly skilled, responsible occupational roles, early research indicated that firms preferred to promote to such positions internally. Following changes to labour markets, several countries now place greater emphasis on early workplace learning, in the hope that transitions to work will be eased by experience of workplace environments. The outcomes of these shifts were explored through case studies in England of provision where work-based learning provides a high level of course content. Whilst students and educators ascribed value to these early experiences, evidence emerged of a narrowing of skills taught in work settings and em-phasis on behaviours and attributes. This emphasis is reflected among disadvantaged groups such as young women preparing for service roles: this paper argues for attention to the vulnerabilities of these groups, whose exclusion contributes to the reproduction of ‘elite’ occupations.
    • Continental selections? Institutional actors and market mechanisms in post-16 education in England

      Esmond, Bill; Centre of Educational Research and Innovation, University of Derby (Routledge (Taylor & Francis Group), 2019-08-06)
      Recent policies for English technical and vocational education, centred on apprenticeship reforms and the Sainsbury Review, have prioritised employer-led curricula and learning in employment settings. These policies are represented in policy discourse as radical changes that imitate successful European systems, raising new issues about the possibilities and limitations of policy learning and policy borrowing. Useful insights are offered by comparative political economy, which has located skill formation within networks of complementary institutions that shape economic life, rendering problematic the notion of change in a single dimension such as skills. Relatedly, historical institutionalism explains skill formation both as an enduring institution but also as the product of specific historical conflicts over workplace training. Building on these theoretical conceptions, a series of qualitative case studies carried out at key points in the emergence of current skills policies is reviewed, which demonstrates how wider conflicts are reflected in a tension between selectivity and inclusion currently playing out in the implementation English skills policy. The findings indicate the possibility of further stratification in post-16 education, through the process that historical institutionalism describes as ‘layering’. However, possibilities for a more coherent relationship between educational practice and the workplace may also be derived from this analysis.
    • Understanding what makes a positive school experience for pupils with SEND: Can their voices inform inclusive practice?

      Dimitrellou, Eleni; Male, Dawn; University of Derby; UCL Institute of Education (Wiley, 2019-04-25)
      Since the advent of the ideology of inclusion, several concerns have been raised worldwide regarding the effectiveness of its implementation. In the UK, governmental evidence suggests that maintaining pupils with special educational needs and/or disability (SEND) within mainstream school settings, is one of the greatest challenges (DfE, 2018). There is now, more than ever, the need to explore pupils with SENDs’ mainstream experiences and understand the challenges they encounter. This study explores the voices of secondary‐aged pupils with social emotional mental health difficulties and moderate learning difficulties as a way of understanding their needs and thus, facilitating their inclusion. Thematic analysis was employed to analyse data from semi‐structured interviews with 43 pupils with SEND and 8 typical pupils as a comparable group. The findings indicate that the school experiences of pupils differ based on their type of need. Yet, despite the differences, all the pupils expressed similar views on what makes a positive school experience. The four emerged themes were interesting lessons, effective control of challenging behaviour, equal allocation of teachers’ support and positive relations. The study concludes by proposing that listening to the voices of pupils with SEND can be a powerful tool to inform inclusive practice.
    • Young children’s views on play provision in two local parks: A research project by early childhood studies students and staff

      Yates, Ellen; Oates, Ruby; University of Derby (Sage, 2019-04-08)
      This article describes a collaborative research project which aimed to elicit the views of children, young people and the local community in relation to the play provision within two local parks that were in need of renovation. It involved 13 undergraduate students on a BA (Hons) Early Childhood Studies degree, academics, a local landscape architect, children in two local schools, young people from the local youth club and parents attending the local Sure-Start centre. This article focuses on phase 1 of the project which involved undergraduate students and staff in primary research with children in two schools.13 third year students were enrolled on an option module entitled ‘Creative Opportunities and Possibilities’ which required them to evaluate an outdoor space as part of the module assessment. These students engaged in primary research and produced evaluations of each park, based on photographs and notes taken from site visits. This was followed by primary research with two year 2 classes in two local schools. Findings clearly identified that traditional playground equipment was important to children as well as ‘risky’ play features. Children also preferred play equipment for different ages on the same site, so they could play alongside older and younger siblings. Short term or semi-permanent provision was very popular and a keen interest in nature was expressed. The children’s knowledge and awareness of health and safety was a key finding and they were already very risk-averse. The researchers conclude that involving children in primary research needs careful planning and researchers need to be mindful of how children’s authentic voices can be heard and how they are positioned within the research. Constraints to the approach were recognised, the students were inexperienced researchers and as such the depth and complexity of the data was limited.
    • Socrates for Teachers

      Hayes, Dennis; University of Derby (Routledge, 2019-04-04)
      This chapter introduces Plato’s Socrates and his philosophy. The nearest we can get to authentic Socratic thought is in Plato’s earlier dialogues where he presents the views of his tutor in powerful dramatic form. Socrates embodies in his life, and death, a commitment to freedom of speech that was not shared by the polis of Athens (or by most people today). Sections of Plato’s dramatic dialogues are presented at length to illustrate his life, his commitment to argument and to examining all beliefs however strongly held. Socrates embodies the critical spirit and the understanding that freedom of speech was the only way to knowledge. To convince anyone of the power of Socrates’ thinking and his moral example cannot be achieved through any introduction. The success of this chapter will be decided by those who go on to read the dialogues. If you stop here and pick up and read any of the Socratic dialogues, the Apology, the Crito, the Phaedo, the Protagoras, the Meno, or the Theaetetus then you will know the man without any intermediary other than Plato. The lesson of this chapter is: ‘always study the original texts’.
    • Earth, water, air: Children meaning making: Using ceramics to give form to children’s ideas

      Yates, Ellen; Szenasi, Judith; University of Derby (University of Derby, 2019-04-03)
      This research project involved 120 young children aged 5-7 years old in ceramic workshops creating individual artefacts to form a final exhibition piece. The exhibition was curated by an internationally recognised ceramic artist and exhibited in an historic building in a disadvantaged inner city location to encourage social inclusion and access to the arts by the local community. Inspiration was taken from a permanent ceramic window exhibition at Royal Crown Derby Museum, completed by the artist during a residency in 2000. Royal Crown Derby have been producing bone china ceramics since 1750 and are currently one of the original factories still producing bone china in Britain. The children took inspiration from the ceramic window installation and artefacts within the museum for their designs through observations, drawings and photos. Further inspiration was gained from visits to Arboretum Park, the first publicly owned, landscaped, recreational park in England, opened in 1840 using donated land by Joseph Strutt. The project included children from the local community with a history of exclusion and isolation from cultural institutions and local heritage. The aim of the project was therefore to bring together children, community, local business and cultural institutions and university students through engagement in a collaborative arts project to facilitate access to Royal Crown Derby museum and other cultural institutions. The project gave value to children’s own ideas and supported their creativity, identity and agency. Early findings indicate that barriers exist within the UK education system which mitigate against children’s full participation in the arts and cultural activities, including time constraints due to curriculum pressure and expected outcomes. The location of the exhibition encouraged public reconsideration of the value and placing of children’s art by challenging the idea of separate spaces for the display of adults and children products.
    • Apprenticeship teaching in England: new practices, roles and professional formation for educators.

      Esmond, Bill; Centre of Educational Research and Innovation, University of Derby (2019-03-21)
      Whilst apprenticeships are generally supported by workplace trainers and by vocational teachers in schools or colleges, competency-based systems also allocate roles to third-party workplace assessors. Apprenticeship reforms in England, replacing qualification-based ‘frameworks’ with ‘employer-led standards’ have opened up possibilities for these assessors to carry out training duties, although these generally lack the qualifications and status of classroom-based teachers, having completed shorter courses in assessment and sometimes training practice. A qualitative study was carried out among practitioners who had begun to take on training responsibilities, exploring their emerging practices and identities. Participant responses varied in their apprehension of role change, partly because apprentices in more technical subjects would continue to study at colleges, whilst practice-based subjects would be entirely taught in the workplace. More generally, working within production constraints provided challenges implying not a minimal professional formation but a more direct engagement with the problems of educational practice within production environments.
    • Higher/degree apprenticeships and the diversification of transitions in England

      Esmond, Bill; Centre of Educational Research and Innovation, University of Derby (2019-03-21)
      The relationships between apprenticeship and higher education vary internationally: unlike countries whose apprenticeships and TVET offer tertiary vocational progression, post-school education in England is dominated by universities. Professional or technical additions to the higher education system have generally conformed to the norms of established universities. Apprenticeships at higher levels now contribute to moves to create a second tertiary pathway, with degree apprenticeships now offering both a work-based route and a qualification at bachelor level. Concerns about access and permeability between ‘technical’ and ‘academic’ routes provided the basis for a study of possibilities for ‘bridging’ between work-based and existing higher education provision. The four examples studied succeeded in their primary aim of supporting higher progression but were less effective in supporting permeability across these education pathways. A deeper recognition of the differences among students and their knowledge is suggested as a precondition of effective bridging between formal or implicit sectoral divides.
    • Acquisition, development and maintenance of maths anxiety in young children

      Petronzi, Dominic; Staples, Paul; Sheffield, David; Hunt, Thomas; University of Derby (Routledge, 2019-02-18)
    • The Dangerous Rise of Therapeutic Education

      Hayes, Dennis; Ecclestone, Kathryn; University of Derby; University of Sheffield (Routledge Education Classic Editions, 2019-02-07)
      The Dangerous Rise of Therapeutic Education confronts the silent ascendancy of a therapeutic ethos across the educational system and into the workplace. Controversial and compelling, Kathryn Ecclestone and Dennis Hayes’ classic text uses a wealth of examples across the education system, from primary schools to university and the workplace, to show how therapeutic education is turning children, young people and adults into anxious and self-preoccupied individuals rather than aspiring, optimistic and resilient learners who want to know everything about the world. Remaining extremely topical, the chapters illuminate the powerful effects of therapeutic education, including: How therapeutic learning is taking shape, now and in the future How therapeutic ideas from popular culture have come to govern social thought and policies How the fostering of dependence and compulsory participation in therapeutic activities that encourage the disclosing of emotions, can undermine parents’ and teachers’ confidence and authority How therapeutic forms of teacher training undermine faith in the pursuit of knowledge How political initiatives in emotional literacy, emotional wellbeing and ‘positive mental health’ propagate a diminished view of human potential throughout the education system and the workplace. The Dangerous Rise of Therapeutic Education is an eye-opening read for every teacher and leader across the field of education, and every parent and student, who is passionate about the power of knowledge to transform people’s lives. It is a call for a debate about the growing impact of therapeutic education and what it means for learning now and in the future.
    • Student reflections on the place of creativity in Early Years practice: Reflections on second year work placement experience

      Yates, Ellen Lizbeth; Twigg, Emma; University of Derby (Elsevier, 2019-02-02)
      This research has investigated student’s reflections on the place of creativity in early years practice with an emphasis on their second year of placement. It has developed from previous research conducted with first year students on a BA (Hons) Early Childhood Studies degree at an East Midlands university in the United Kingdom. Within this research student reflections have been captured in order to assist them to consider their observations on the value placed on creativity and how this is interpreted within practice both within early years and education settings. The study identified that both creative teaching and teaching for creativity were seen within the settings the students attended. Limitations were highlighted in relation to the value placed on creativity within these settings and the recognition of the consequences this can have on children in being unable to express their individuality and uniqueness. Lastly the research sought to explore the impact of a first year module ‘Play and Creativity’ on students own creative abilities and their practice with children. Findings indicate that the module positively influenced students’ creative capabilities and also the promotion and encouragement of creative abilities in children
    • Exploring teachers’ and pupils’ behaviour in online and face-to-face instrumental lessons

      King, Andrew; Prior, Helen; Waddington-Jones, Caroline; University of Hull (Taylor and Francis, 2019-01-21)
      The provision of instrumental lessons in certain areas of England can be hampered by the geographical position of some schools that are rural in nature, with teachers needing to travel long distances between schools. Internet-based technologies have been successfully used elsewhere to deliver instrumental lessons. A collaboration between the authors, North Yorkshire Music Action Zone and YouCanPlay allowed the delivery of instrumental lessons using Skype in combination with a Roland VR-3EX, an AV Mixer which offers 3 camera angles and good quality sound. Our aim was to repurpose existing technology to provide instrumental lessons in remote rural communities. The study was conducted in two-phases: a pilot study in North Yorkshire; and a further roll-out of the lessons in four additional areas (Cornwall; Cumbria; Durham/Darlington; and East Riding of Yorkshire). We wished to investigate the technical challenges and pedagogical aspects of the delivery, and also compare digitally-delivered and face-to-face instrumental lessons to explore the differences in behaviour. Data collected included pre- and post-project interviews with teachers, recordings of the teachers’ first and last lessons, and post-project questionnaires from pupils and their parents. Results suggested that there were technical challenges relating to sound, video and connection quality, and the physical environment of the lessons, some of which were alleviated by the Roland VR-3EX. Some concerns expressed by teachers in the initial interviews failed to materialise; others were overcome to some extent. Pupils concentrated well, were motivated to practice, and made good progress. Further analysis of the video data has allowed the comparison of face-to-face and digitally-delivered lessons. All teachers found the digital teaching more challenging than their usual face-to-face teaching; however, all reported that they would undertake similar teaching again. This paper focuses upon the exploring the behaviour of participants observed in the lessons. Digital delivery has the potential to provide greater access to instrumental lessons for children in rural communities.
    • Special educational needs and disabilities in early childhood education (Mexico).

      Reyes, Andrea Saldivar; Guzmán Zamora, Josué; Universidad de Tlaxcala (Bloomsbury Publishing Plc, 2019-01-02)