• Showman of the screen: Joseph E. Levine and his revolutions in film promotion.

      McKenna, Anthony Thomas; University of Derby (University Press of Kentucky, 23/09/2016)
      Joseph E. Levine was one of the most recognisable figures in post-War American cinema; he pioneered saturation opening techniques, revolutionised art-film marketing, and was hugely successful as a producer. He dealt in every conceivable type of film, from arthouse to exploitation to blockbusters, and became the famous film promoter in America. Showman of the Screen is the first book to fully investigate Levine's life and work, detailing his life and extraordinary career in the film industry, and focussing on what he called his "peculiar talent" for movie exploitation and showmanship. Based on extensive archival research and interviews with many of Levine's collaborators, this book positions Levine as the most versatile film promoter, and self-promoter, of his generation. Showman of the Screen details Levine's tough upbringing in the slums of Boston, and his subsequent journey from being provincial movie exhibitor to becoming the best-known movie showman in America. The book also shows how Levine was able to capitalise on emerging cultural trends, whilst also maintaining his reputation as a maverick by fiercely guarding his independence and deliberately provoking condemnations from cultural commentators. This book acts as a corrective to the many histories of post-War American cinema that either ignore or underestimate Levine's achievements and influence. His multifarious appetites ensured that his presence was felt in all genres, and that is influence is still with us today is testament to his position as one of the most important pioneering figures in America post-War cinema.
    • Consumption and material culture of poverty in early-modern Europe, c.1450-1800

      Harley, Joseph; University of Derby (Routledge, 2020-12-31)
    • A sociolinguistic perspective on the (quasi-)modals of obligation and necessity in Australian English

      Penry Williams, Cara; Korhonen, Minna; University of Derby (CPW); La Trobe University (Victoria, Australia) (CPW); Macquarie University (New South W,ales Australia) (MK) (John Benjamins, 2020-11-09)
      This article examines the distribution and sociolinguistic patterning of (quasi-)modals which express strong obligation/necessity, namely must, have to, have got to, got to and need to, in Australian English. Variationist studies in other varieties of English have had contrasting findings in terms of distributions of root forms, as well as their conditioning by social and linguistic factors. The corpus analysis suggests real-time increased use of need to and decrease in have got to through comparison to earlier findings. The variationist analysis shows quasi-modals have to, have got to and got to as sensitive to speaker age and sex, and a recent increase of have to via apparent time modelling. Linguistic conditioning relating to the type of obligation and subject form is also found. The study contributes to sociolinguistic understanding of this large-scale change in English and the place of Australian English amongst other varieties.
    • Identities and communities: negotiating working-class identity in the regional press

      Steel, John; University of Sheffield (Edinburgh University Press, 2020-11)
      This chapter examines of how regional newspapers sought to represent working-class interests during three distinctive periods of the twentieth century: the 1930s, the 1950s and the 1980s. In doing so, it examines the negotiation newspapers had to make between national and regional identity as well as class and ideological affiliation. The chapter also provides a more focused case study as an example of where regional and national editorial agendas were negotiated around a particular issue – the Sheffield marches for free speech in 1914 in the pages of the Sheffield Daily Telegraph. The case study and the three historical periods under examination emphasise stories which signal the ways in which working-class identity is being negotiated within their specific constituencies by emphasising key ideological parameters of this negotiation. The material presented here stresses how, in seeking to represent and reflect (Bell 1984) both the distinctive local character of their readership and also a particular moral and political outlook, regional newspapers were seeking to provide a more nuanced and less confrontational news product than their national counterparts. Such nuance reflects the process of negotiation as regional newspapers were pulled, Janus-faced, in two opposing directions: one that sought to connect with and reflect their readers’ interests, the other reinforcing particular notions of place and class status – the more explicit ideological character of newspapers’ coverage. Though negotiation resonates in a wide variety of stories and newspaper content, it is at its most stark when the regional titles cover topics centred around economic hardship, industrial disputes and party-political affiliation and it is these stories that form the main focus of this survey.
    • 'fancys or feelings': John Clare's hypochondriac poetics

      Lafford, Erin; University of Derby (Palgrave Macmillan, 2020-09-18)
      Clare’s mental and physical health has long been a source of interest and contention in his critical reception. Approaches to his ‘madness’ have ranged from retroactive diagnoses of bipolar disorder, to interrogations of insanity as a discourse of clinical power. If the result of these debates is that critics are more willing to read pathology as performance, or even to suggest that Clare’s disorder might not have been straightforwardly ‘real’, then this essay asks what can be gained from returning to some fleeting claims about the poet’s mental and physical health that express a struggle between reality and imagination, but have not yet received sufficient attention. I refer here to suggestions, both from his contemporary moment and from his subsequent critical reception, that Clare was a hypochondriac. Clare has been overlooked in critical conversations that discuss the significance of hypochondria as a facet of the Romantic medical imagination and cultivation of ‘fashionable disease’ but, as I hope to show, hypochondria should be taken seriously as a conceptual lens through which to read his poetic imagination in relation to illness and disorder. Hypochondria occupies a distinct interpretative space of uncertainty and of literary associations that, this essay argues, is better able to approach Clare on his own terms. I consider hypochondria in two interrelated ways: as a social and literary culture that Clare wanted to participate in and that also framed some of his writing, and as a form of poetic imagination and attention that emerged from Clare’s anxious scrutiny of his own body and mind. I also explore, through a final reading of a sonnet Clare published in the London Magazine in 1821, how hypochondria can become an important lens through which to consider his lyric subjectivity, uncovering as it does the ambiguously pathological experiences or registers that might disrupt his observation of the natural world.
    • Palgrave advances in John Clare studies

      Kovesi, Simon; Lafford, Erin; Oxford Brookes University; University of Derby (Palgrave Macmillan, 2020-09-18)
      Contributes to ongoing conversations about John Clare's work while offering new perspectives and directions on Clare scholarship, in an accessible writing style Serves as both a useful introduction to Clare and his work for students that are new to it, and a rich resource for scholars already working in the area Essays look at interdisciplinary topics including ecocriticism, environmental humanities, medical humanities, and posthumanism Features essays from established and early career scholars Is comprehensive in its coverage of popular and new topics in Clare studies.
    • Here’s looking at youse: Understanding the place of yous(e) in Australian English

      Mulder, Jean; Penry Williams, Cara; University of Melbourne, Australia; University of Derby (Springer, 2020-08-31)
      This chapter further documents the place of yous(e) in Australian English (AuE) by analyzing occurrences in Australian literature taken from the Macquarie Dictionary’s OzCorp. Firstly, we substantiate that in AuE yous(e) has developed a singular usage alongside the plural. Analysis of the reference in 308 tokens within our subcorpus of literature finds 40% clearly have a singular referent and that such forms occur in just over half of the texts. Secondly, we provide an analysis of its social evaluation as a stigmatized form by examining its utilization in the voices authors give to their characters. Focussing on texts with high use, we uncover yous(e) is linked both to particular ‘types’ and to certain fictional worlds/milieus. In both cases, the authors draw on understandings of it as Australian and working class, with recognition of its claimed Irish origins only (potentially) indirectly indexed.
    • Enlightenment science, technology and the industrial revolution: a case study of the Derby philosophers c1750-1820

      Elliott, Paul; University of Derby (Arkwright Society, Cromford, 2020-08-30)
      After briefly reviewing the historiography of Enlightenment science, industry and the Derby philosophers, this essay examines industry and science in eighteenth-century Derby and the industrial orientation of the philosophical societies. It then explores the relationship between the leading entrepreneurs and manufacturers Jedediah Strutt and Richard Arkwright and the ‘Derby Philosophers’, demonstrating how much they gained from their association with the Derby Philosophical Society. This is especially evident, as it demonstrates when we consider the case of Erasmus Darwin, first president of the Society, and how as a physician, avid mechanic and experimenter, he helped meld the worlds of Enlightenment science and industry. Likewise, whilst the struggles that Arkwright experienced over his patents during the 1780s has been often described, viewing these from the perspective of the Derby Philosophers adds a new dimension to our understanding of the relationship between scientific associations, industrial innovation and entrepreneurialism. The article concludes with a critical investigation of the role of the sciences in agriculture and domestic economy and the part played by the Derby Philosophers in promoting scientific education for what they believed to be the benefit of industry and manufactures.
    • Ramblings: A walk in progress (or the minutes of the International Society of the Imaginary Perambulator)

      Cheeseman, Matthew; Chakrabarti, Gautam; Österlund-Pötzsch, Susanne; Poole, Dani; Schrire, Dani; Seltzer, Daniella; Tainio, Matti; University of Derby (Routledge, 2020-07-14)
      In this paper, seven writers experiment with ethnographic and artistic responses to each other’s walking practices. The point of departure is a panel held at a conference at the University of Jyväskylä.1 In the morning session, five papers were presented and discussed. In the afternoon the panellists and audience engaged in a series of walking experiments that took us outside the confines of the lecture room, and indeed, the conference venue. In this chapter, we (the panel presenters and cochairs) re-embody this moment by walking together, writing together and engaging our understanding of self and our experiences of walking. This sense of experimentation is open to the reader, to whom we extend an invitation to travel with us through the process of ethnographic knowledge production. Walking is a pedestrian activity peculiarly elusive to academic categorisation. It engages the emotions, involves the senses, invites creativity, brings forth memories and provokes the imagination. All are notoriously difficult to capture in ethnographic writing. Consequently, some of the questions we approached in our initial meeting were focused on possibilities: how can the intangible experience of walking be conveyed in writing? Can walking be archived? What happens in the process of textualisation? Can genres like creative writing and ethnographic fiction help us understand and communicate the “unwritable”, including those emotive, mobile and sensory aspects? Finally, we wanted to know whether walking could be used as a hermeneutic tool – could enactment elucidate that which evades ethnographic description?
    • Blasphemy and politics in romantic literature: Creativity in the writing of Percy Bysshe Shelley

      Whickman, Paul; University of Derby (Springer International Publishing, 2020-06-07)
      This book argues for the importance of blasphemy in shaping the literature and readership of Percy Bysshe Shelley and of the Romantic period more broadly. Not only are perceptions of blasphemy taken to be inextricable from politics, this book also argues for blasphemous ‘irreverence’ as both inspiring and necessitating new poetic creativity. The book reveals the intersection of blasphemy, censorship and literary property throughout the ‘Long Eighteenth Century’, attesting to the effect of this connection on Shelley’s poetry more specifically. Paul Whickman notes how Shelley’s perceived blasphemy determined the nature and readership of his published works through censorship and literary piracy. Simultaneously, Whickman crucially shows that aesthetics, content and the printed form of the physical text are interconnected and that Shelley’s political and philosophical views manifest themselves in his writing both formally and thematically.
    • The beating heart of the system: the health of postal workers in Victorian London

      Brown, Douglas; Green, David; McIlvenna, Kathleen; Shelton, Nicola; Kingston University; Kings College, London; University of Derby; University College London (Elsevier, 2020-05-10)
      In the later decades of the nineteenth century, the United Kingdom experienced a shift in the causes of mortality, from infectious diseases to those more associated with ageing. This epidemiological transition from acute to chronic conditions was accompanied by an increase in longevity and a corresponding increase in morbidity, measured by rising rates of sickness absence. As longevity improved, the period between the onset of ill health and death lengthened. If we are to understand the daily lived experiences of health in different places during the epidemiological transition, it is necessary to explore the complex causes of morbidity rather than just focus on mortality. We argue that other reasons need to be considered alongside age as important influences on the incidence and duration of ill health, including urbanisation, occupational risks and cultural and institutional factors. Using evidence drawn from a sample of pension records of postal workers, we examine a variety of different factors that could have accounted for the changing pattern of morbidity observed in other studies. We conclude that age alone cannot account for the greater incidence of sickness absence and ill health and that other factors relating to the residential and working environment, as well as institutional arrangements for sick pay, need to be taken into account.
    • Norfolk pauper inventories, c.1690-1834

      Harley, Joseph; University of Derby (Oxford University Press/British Academy, 2020-02-27)
      Pauper inventories were made by poor law officials to record the possessions that people on poor relief owned. These inventories have been known to exist for decades, yet they are notoriously difficult to find and have been under-utilised by generations of historians. For the first time, this book contains transcriptions of 230 pauper inventories from Norfolk. The sources are fully contextualised and indexed, alongside four comprehensive chapters which outline the source's importance and usefulness to readers. Pauper inventories are powerful documents which reveal new insights into the living conditions of the destitute and show that being poor did not necessarily equate to owning very little. The sources will be of use to economic, social and cultural historians who study a wide range of topics including consumption, material culture, production, everyday life, poverty and welfare.
    • The sister arts: Textile crafts between paint, print, and practice

      Gowrley, Freya; University of Derby (Wiley, 2020-02-05)
      This article explores intersections between portraiture, printed genre images, and conduct literature in late eighteenth- and early nineteenth-century Britain, focusing on representations of needlework between these cultural forms. In extant scholarship, needlework has been characterised as an important site of debate, a discursive locus wherein the qualities of appropriate femininity were sketched out and redefined. This article centres on the very mechanisms by which this discourse operated, arguing that visual and literary images of needlework were central to the creation of a grammar of respectable femininity, a symbolic language that simultaneously advocated maternal instruction, domestic industry, and marital eligibility.
    • 'Sedimented histories' and 'embodied legacies': Creating an evaluative framework for understanding public engagement with the First World War

      Allwork Larissa; University of Derby (UCL IOE Press, 2020-02-01)
      This article reflects on the development of a new methodological framework for the evaluation of the impact of the Centre for Hidden Histories, one of the Arts and Humanities Research Council's First World War Engagement Centres. It shows how through evaluative processes such as academic and community partner Shared Experience Workshops, and community-focused Reflection Workshops, the historical, social, cultural and economic benefits of the centre can be highlighted. It also demonstrates how public engagement in these community history projects has resulted in the identification of new 'embodied legacies' (Facer and Enright, 2016) and heretofore marginalized 'sedimented histories' (Lloyd and Moore, 2015). These lessons in evaluation can be taken forward to inform future national commemorative moments, such as the centenary of the Second World War.
    • The democratic development potential of a cultural ecosystem approach

      Barker, Victoria; University of Derby (University of Warwick, 2020-01-20)
      Culture is increasingly being deployed as a tool to deliver development policy, with ‘development’ seen as a process rather than as an outcome, in the same way that culture can be seen (and has a long history of such) as a “noun of process” (Williams 1976: 87). This has been usefully summed up by Duxbury, Kangas & De Beukelaer referencing Sen (1999) as the underlying idea that “development should not be considered as a finality (generally expressed in a monetary value derived from work) but the extent to which people are able to participate in political, social and economic life” (2017: 216). Development policy encompasses a broad range of focus from the industrial and economic to sustainable and human development agendas. Cultural policy itself is now predominantly framed within a model of economic growth, which limits opportunities to discuss more inclusive, accessible and participatory aspects that form this paper’s approach to democratic development. The following discussion explores the potential for cultural policy activity to develop inclusive and rich relationships from local to international scales, and to broaden the discussion of growth beyond the economic, through the device of the cultural ecosystem.
    • The structure and workings of a publishing house

      Barker, David; University of Derby (Routledge, 2020-01-16)
      Contemporary Publishing and the Culture of Books is a comprehensive resource that builds bridges between the traditional focus and methodologies of literary studies and the actualities of modern and contemporary literature, including the realities of professional writing, the conventions and practicalities of the publishing world, and its connections between literary publishing and other media. Focusing on the relationship between modern literature and the publishing industry, the volume enables students and academics to extend the text-based framework of modules on contemporary writing into detailed expositions of the culture and industry which bring these texts into existence; it brings economic considerations into line alongside creative issues, and examines how employing marketing strategies are utilized to promote and sell books. The text covers: The standard university-course specifications of contemporary writing, offering an extensive picture of the social, economic, and cultural contexts of these literary genres. The impact and status of non-literary writing, and how this compares with certain literary genres as an index to contemporary culture and a reflection of the state of the publishing industry. The practicalities and conventions of the publishing industry. Contextual aspects of literary culture and the book industry, visiting the broader spheres of publishing, promotion, bookselling, and literary culture. Carefully linked chapters allow readers to tie key elements of the publishing industry to the particular demands and features of contemporary literary genres and writing, offering a detailed guide to the ways in which the three core areas of culture, economics, and pragmatics intersect in the world of publishing. Further to being a valuable resource for those studying English or Creative Writing, the volume is a key text for degrees in which Publishing is a component, and is relevant to those aspects of Media Studies that look at interactions between the media and literature/publishing.
    • John Clare, herbalism, and elegy

      Lafford, Erin; University of Derby (Edinburgh University Press, 2020)
      Discussions of Clare’s engagement with botany often trace his fraught relationship with taxonomy, exploring his admiration for common names over the ‘dark system’ of Linnaean classification. This essay expands understanding of Clare’s botanical imagination by considering how he brings his botanical ‘taste’ to bear on the flower as a key figure of elegiac consolation. I refocus attention on his formative preference for pre-Linnaean herbalism and explore how it informs his engagement with elegiac tradition and imagery, especially in relation to Gray’s ‘Elegy’. I attend to how herbalism is brought into relationship with poetic representations of the floral, focussing especially on the connection between Clare’s preference for herbals and Elizabeth Kent’s Flora Domestica. I then discuss ‘Cauper Green’ and ‘The Village Doctress’ (Clare’s most sustained poetic discussions of herbalism) as elegies that try to reconcile the finite temporality of human life with the regenerative life cycles of plants and their flowers.
    • "Mild health I seek thee": Clare and Bloomfield at the limits of pastoral

      Lafford, Erin; University of Derby (Taylor & Francis, 2020)
      In The Country and the City (1973), Raymond Williams dismantled the “pastoral assumption” that the rural laboring class were pictures of health and vitality, uncovering instead the reality of embodied suffering in laboring-class poetry. This essay considers how Robert Bloomfield and John Clare interrogated this “pastoral assumption” of rural health, suggesting that to claim they merely rejected it risks losing sight of their subtle forms of poetic critique. The body, mind, and verse of laboring-class poets were subject to simultaneous cultural narratives of robust health and sickly weakness, within which Bloomfield and Clare had to forge their own distinctive poetic voices. They wrote poems, I argue, that ostensibly upheld a pastoral ideal of health emanating from the natural world, but also critiqued this ideal through an artful hesitancy, especially in their use of apostrophe. I consider the influence of Bloomfield’s “To My Old Oak Table” (1806), and “Shooter’s Hill” (1806) on Clare’s early poem “To Health” (1821) and one of his middle-period sonnets in particular. Far from being uncomfortable or under-confident in the pastoral mode, Bloomfield and Clare brought their own aesthetic experiments and experiences of precarious health to bear on some of its key tropes.
    • The first rule of judging club…: inside the saltire society literary awards

      Marsden, Stevie; Squires, Claire; University of Leicester; University of Stirling (Lectito BV, 2019-12-11)
      Book awards are a pervasive aspect of contemporary book culture, attracting both substantial media and scholarly attention. They confer prestige, create marketing opportunities, push sales, and contribute to the early stages of canon formation. Yet, beyond occasional media splashes when judges break ranks and disagree, there is little insight into the administrative and decision-making processes inside book awards. This article draws on the autoethnographic experiences of two academic researchers, who were simultaneously participants (as administrator and judge) for the Saltire Society Literary Awards. In so doing, the article gives insight into particular moments within the administration and judging of the awards, such as changes instigated by research findings and debates surrounding gender imbalance in Scottish literary award culture. It also examines some of the challenges of operating as embedded researchers. The article analyses what autoethnographic methods can bring to an understanding of the Saltire Society’s Literary Awards and other cultural awards, and the implications of embedded research and collaborative autoethnography for 21st century book culture scholarship more widely. It reflects upon modes of embedded research by making evident the challenges and dilemmas of researching from the ‘inside’. The ethical framework for such research is far from simple, but in exploring particular moments with perspectives from both inside and outside the judging processes, and in interrogating the practices of literary consecration, the article casts light upon this particular ‘judging club’ and its practices, and illuminates ways in which researchers might consider, orientate, and carry out further research into processes of cultural consecration.