• Showman of the screen: Joseph E. Levine and his revolutions in film promotion.

      McKenna, Anthony Thomas; University of Derby (University Press of Kentucky, 23/09/2016)
      Joseph E. Levine was one of the most recognisable figures in post-War American cinema; he pioneered saturation opening techniques, revolutionised art-film marketing, and was hugely successful as a producer. He dealt in every conceivable type of film, from arthouse to exploitation to blockbusters, and became the famous film promoter in America. Showman of the Screen is the first book to fully investigate Levine's life and work, detailing his life and extraordinary career in the film industry, and focussing on what he called his "peculiar talent" for movie exploitation and showmanship. Based on extensive archival research and interviews with many of Levine's collaborators, this book positions Levine as the most versatile film promoter, and self-promoter, of his generation. Showman of the Screen details Levine's tough upbringing in the slums of Boston, and his subsequent journey from being provincial movie exhibitor to becoming the best-known movie showman in America. The book also shows how Levine was able to capitalise on emerging cultural trends, whilst also maintaining his reputation as a maverick by fiercely guarding his independence and deliberately provoking condemnations from cultural commentators. This book acts as a corrective to the many histories of post-War American cinema that either ignore or underestimate Levine's achievements and influence. His multifarious appetites ensured that his presence was felt in all genres, and that is influence is still with us today is testament to his position as one of the most important pioneering figures in America post-War cinema.
    • Erasmus Darwin's Gardens: Medicine, Agriculture and the Sciences in the Eighteenth Century

      Elliott, Paul; University of Derby (Boydell and Brewer, 2021-06)
      Famous as the author of the Botanic Garden (1791) and grandfather of Charles Darwin (1809-1882), Erasmus Darwin (1731-1802) was a larger-than-life enlightenment natural philosopher (scientist) and writer who practised as a doctor across the English Midlands for nearly half a century. A practical gardener and horticulturist, Darwin created a botanic garden near Lichfield - which galvanised his poetry - and kept other gardens, an orchard and small "farm" in Derby. Informed by his medical practice and botanical studies, Darwin saw many parallels between animals, plants and humans which aroused hostility during the years of revolution, warfare and reaction, but helped him to write Zoonomia (1794/96) and Phytologia (1800) - his major studies of medicine, agriculture and gardening. Captivated by the changing landscapes and environments of town and country and supported by social networks such as those in Lichfield and Derby, Darwin avidly exchanged ideas about plants, animals and their diseases with family, patients, friends such as the poet Anna Seward (1742-1809), farmers, fellow doctors, huntsmen and even the local mole catcher. The is the first full study of Erasmus Darwin's gardening, horticulture and agriculture. It shows him as keen a nature enthusiast as his contemporary Rev. Gilbert White of Selbourne (1720-1793) or his grandson Charles, fascinated with everything from swarming insects and warring bees to domestic birds and dogs, pigs and livestock on his farm to fungi growing from horse dung in Derby tan yards. Ranging over his observations of plant physiology and anatomy to the use of plant "bandages" in his orchard and electrical machines to hasten seed germination to explosive studies of vegetable "brains", nerves and sensations, the book demonstrates the ways in which Erasmus Darwin's landscape and garden experiences transformed his understanding of nature. They provided him with insights into medicine and the environmental causes of diseases, the classification of plants and animals, chemistry, evolution, potential new medicines and foodstuffs and the ecological interdependency of the natural economy. Like the amorous vegetables of the Loves of the Plants (1789) which fascinated, scandalised and titillated late Georgian society, the many living creatures of Darwin's gardens and farm encountered in this book were for him real, dynamic, interacting and evolving beings who helped inspire and re-affirm his progressive social and political outlook.
    • Death, landscape and memorialisation in Victorian urban society: Nottingham's General Cemetery (1837) and Church Cemetery (1856)

      Elliott, Paul; University of Derby (The Thoroton Society, 2021-05-13)
      This article argues that through their buildings, landscaping, planting, monuments and management, Nottingham’s Victorian garden cemeteries functioned as heterotopias and heterochronias enabling visitors to traverse the globe, serving as portals to remote places and linking past with present and future and the living and dead. By the 1820s, the town faced problems associated with a high population density, crowded churchyards and poor public health, exacerbated by space restrictions caused by burgess rights to surrounding common lands. From the 1830s campaigners called for a comprehensive enclosure act with associated public green spaces intended to compensate the burgesses for loss of rights of common. As the first specially-designed public green space established under the reformed corporation, the General Cemetery (1837) played a crucial role in winning support for the Nottingham Enclosure Act (1845). This enabled the creation of the Nottingham Arboretum (1852) and other interconnected public parks and walks, providing additional space for the General Cemetery and land for a new Anglican Church Cemetery (1856). Landscaped and planted like a country-house garden with some (but not universal) interdenominational support, the General Cemetery provided a model for the public parks laid out after the 1845 act. It was also seen as an arboretum because of its extensive tree collection, which pre-dated the arboretums in Derby (1840) and Nottingham (1852). The Church Cemetery too, with its commanding location, landscaping, planting, antiquities and rich historical associations, likewise effectively served as another public park. Although quickly joined by other urban and suburban cemeteries in the Nottingham vicinity, the two Victorian garden cemeteries served the needs of a modern industrial population whilst invoking memories of communities long gone. Like the botanical gardens, arboretums, art galleries, museums and libraries, the two cemeteries were intended to further the objectives of middle-class rational recreationists as well as to serve moral and religious purposes and foster urban identity, even if, like them, they remained institutions divided by class and religion.
    • Consumption and material culture of poverty in early-modern Europe, c.1450-1800

      Harley, Joseph; University of Derby (Routledge, 2020-12-31)
    • Teaching ‘freedom of speech’ freely

      Whickman, Paul; University of Derby (Manchester University Press, 2020-11-20)
      Despite being on the teaching front line, academics are commonly excluded from debates concerning the supposed ‘free speech’ crisis on campuses. This chapter offers an academic perspective, arguing that the increasingly common perception of students as sensitive or censorious is not borne out in the classroom. This chapter is particularly inspired by experiences over the past five years in teaching on literary censorship, offence and ‘freedom of speech’ in literature from the seventeenth century to the present day. Following this anecdotal experience, this chapter turns to argue that much of the furore concerning free speech on university campuses comes from a position of bad faith; to insist, as many commentators do, that no topic should be off-limits, is commonly not applied to the very concept of ‘freedom of speech’ itself, despite its loose definition and weighty cultural baggage. In addition, it argues that freedom of speech, like all ‘freedoms’, involves being freed from things as much as it involves being left free to do them. This has important teaching implications. To encourage the ‘freest’ speech in the classroom is to discourage monopoly of conversation; this requires a respectful, diverse environment. It concludes that the weaponisation of ‘free speech’ commonly undermines itself as it is demonstrably more concerned with the preservation of the voices of particularly privileged groups than in encouraging plurality of opinion.
    • A sociolinguistic perspective on the (quasi-)modals of obligation and necessity in Australian English

      Penry Williams, Cara; Korhonen, Minna; University of Derby (CPW); La Trobe University (Victoria, Australia) (CPW); Macquarie University (New South W,ales Australia) (MK) (John Benjamins, 2020-11-09)
      This article examines the distribution and sociolinguistic patterning of (quasi-)modals which express strong obligation/necessity, namely must, have to, have got to, got to and need to, in Australian English. Variationist studies in other varieties of English have had contrasting findings in terms of distributions of root forms, as well as their conditioning by social and linguistic factors. The corpus analysis suggests real-time increased use of need to and decrease in have got to through comparison to earlier findings. The variationist analysis shows quasi-modals have to, have got to and got to as sensitive to speaker age and sex, and a recent increase of have to via apparent time modelling. Linguistic conditioning relating to the type of obligation and subject form is also found. The study contributes to sociolinguistic understanding of this large-scale change in English and the place of Australian English amongst other varieties.
    • Identities and communities: negotiating working-class identity in the regional press

      Steel, John; University of Sheffield (Edinburgh University Press, 2020-11)
      This chapter examines of how regional newspapers sought to represent working-class interests during three distinctive periods of the twentieth century: the 1930s, the 1950s and the 1980s. In doing so, it examines the negotiation newspapers had to make between national and regional identity as well as class and ideological affiliation. The chapter also provides a more focused case study as an example of where regional and national editorial agendas were negotiated around a particular issue – the Sheffield marches for free speech in 1914 in the pages of the Sheffield Daily Telegraph. The case study and the three historical periods under examination emphasise stories which signal the ways in which working-class identity is being negotiated within their specific constituencies by emphasising key ideological parameters of this negotiation. The material presented here stresses how, in seeking to represent and reflect (Bell 1984) both the distinctive local character of their readership and also a particular moral and political outlook, regional newspapers were seeking to provide a more nuanced and less confrontational news product than their national counterparts. Such nuance reflects the process of negotiation as regional newspapers were pulled, Janus-faced, in two opposing directions: one that sought to connect with and reflect their readers’ interests, the other reinforcing particular notions of place and class status – the more explicit ideological character of newspapers’ coverage. Though negotiation resonates in a wide variety of stories and newspaper content, it is at its most stark when the regional titles cover topics centred around economic hardship, industrial disputes and party-political affiliation and it is these stories that form the main focus of this survey.
    • 'fancys or feelings': John Clare's hypochondriac poetics

      Lafford, Erin; University of Derby (Palgrave Macmillan, 2020-09-18)
      Clare’s mental and physical health has long been a source of interest and contention in his critical reception. Approaches to his ‘madness’ have ranged from retroactive diagnoses of bipolar disorder, to interrogations of insanity as a discourse of clinical power. If the result of these debates is that critics are more willing to read pathology as performance, or even to suggest that Clare’s disorder might not have been straightforwardly ‘real’, then this essay asks what can be gained from returning to some fleeting claims about the poet’s mental and physical health that express a struggle between reality and imagination, but have not yet received sufficient attention. I refer here to suggestions, both from his contemporary moment and from his subsequent critical reception, that Clare was a hypochondriac. Clare has been overlooked in critical conversations that discuss the significance of hypochondria as a facet of the Romantic medical imagination and cultivation of ‘fashionable disease’ but, as I hope to show, hypochondria should be taken seriously as a conceptual lens through which to read his poetic imagination in relation to illness and disorder. Hypochondria occupies a distinct interpretative space of uncertainty and of literary associations that, this essay argues, is better able to approach Clare on his own terms. I consider hypochondria in two interrelated ways: as a social and literary culture that Clare wanted to participate in and that also framed some of his writing, and as a form of poetic imagination and attention that emerged from Clare’s anxious scrutiny of his own body and mind. I also explore, through a final reading of a sonnet Clare published in the London Magazine in 1821, how hypochondria can become an important lens through which to consider his lyric subjectivity, uncovering as it does the ambiguously pathological experiences or registers that might disrupt his observation of the natural world.
    • Palgrave advances in John Clare studies

      Kovesi, Simon; Lafford, Erin; Oxford Brookes University; University of Derby (Palgrave Macmillan, 2020-09-18)
      Contributes to ongoing conversations about John Clare's work while offering new perspectives and directions on Clare scholarship, in an accessible writing style Serves as both a useful introduction to Clare and his work for students that are new to it, and a rich resource for scholars already working in the area Essays look at interdisciplinary topics including ecocriticism, environmental humanities, medical humanities, and posthumanism Features essays from established and early career scholars Is comprehensive in its coverage of popular and new topics in Clare studies.
    • Here’s looking at youse: Understanding the place of yous(e) in Australian English

      Mulder, Jean; Penry Williams, Cara; University of Melbourne, Australia; University of Derby (Springer, 2020-08-31)
      This chapter further documents the place of yous(e) in Australian English (AuE) by analyzing occurrences in Australian literature taken from the Macquarie Dictionary’s OzCorp. Firstly, we substantiate that in AuE yous(e) has developed a singular usage alongside the plural. Analysis of the reference in 308 tokens within our subcorpus of literature finds 40% clearly have a singular referent and that such forms occur in just over half of the texts. Secondly, we provide an analysis of its social evaluation as a stigmatized form by examining its utilization in the voices authors give to their characters. Focussing on texts with high use, we uncover yous(e) is linked both to particular ‘types’ and to certain fictional worlds/milieus. In both cases, the authors draw on understandings of it as Australian and working class, with recognition of its claimed Irish origins only (potentially) indirectly indexed.
    • Enlightenment science, technology and the industrial revolution: a case study of the Derby philosophers c1750-1820

      Elliott, Paul; University of Derby (Arkwright Society, Cromford, 2020-08-30)
      After briefly reviewing the historiography of Enlightenment science, industry and the Derby philosophers, this essay examines industry and science in eighteenth-century Derby and the industrial orientation of the philosophical societies. It then explores the relationship between the leading entrepreneurs and manufacturers Jedediah Strutt and Richard Arkwright and the ‘Derby Philosophers’, demonstrating how much they gained from their association with the Derby Philosophical Society. This is especially evident, as it demonstrates when we consider the case of Erasmus Darwin, first president of the Society, and how as a physician, avid mechanic and experimenter, he helped meld the worlds of Enlightenment science and industry. Likewise, whilst the struggles that Arkwright experienced over his patents during the 1780s has been often described, viewing these from the perspective of the Derby Philosophers adds a new dimension to our understanding of the relationship between scientific associations, industrial innovation and entrepreneurialism. The article concludes with a critical investigation of the role of the sciences in agriculture and domestic economy and the part played by the Derby Philosophers in promoting scientific education for what they believed to be the benefit of industry and manufactures.
    • Ramblings: A walk in progress (or the minutes of the International Society of the Imaginary Perambulator)

      Cheeseman, Matthew; Chakrabarti, Gautam; Österlund-Pötzsch, Susanne; Poole, Dani; Schrire, Dani; Seltzer, Daniella; Tainio, Matti; University of Derby (Routledge, 2020-07-14)
      In this paper, seven writers experiment with ethnographic and artistic responses to each other’s walking practices. The point of departure is a panel held at a conference at the University of Jyväskylä.1 In the morning session, five papers were presented and discussed. In the afternoon the panellists and audience engaged in a series of walking experiments that took us outside the confines of the lecture room, and indeed, the conference venue. In this chapter, we (the panel presenters and cochairs) re-embody this moment by walking together, writing together and engaging our understanding of self and our experiences of walking. This sense of experimentation is open to the reader, to whom we extend an invitation to travel with us through the process of ethnographic knowledge production. Walking is a pedestrian activity peculiarly elusive to academic categorisation. It engages the emotions, involves the senses, invites creativity, brings forth memories and provokes the imagination. All are notoriously difficult to capture in ethnographic writing. Consequently, some of the questions we approached in our initial meeting were focused on possibilities: how can the intangible experience of walking be conveyed in writing? Can walking be archived? What happens in the process of textualisation? Can genres like creative writing and ethnographic fiction help us understand and communicate the “unwritable”, including those emotive, mobile and sensory aspects? Finally, we wanted to know whether walking could be used as a hermeneutic tool – could enactment elucidate that which evades ethnographic description?
    • Blasphemy and politics in romantic literature: Creativity in the writing of Percy Bysshe Shelley

      Whickman, Paul; University of Derby (Springer International Publishing, 2020-06-07)
      This book argues for the importance of blasphemy in shaping the literature and readership of Percy Bysshe Shelley and of the Romantic period more broadly. Not only are perceptions of blasphemy taken to be inextricable from politics, this book also argues for blasphemous ‘irreverence’ as both inspiring and necessitating new poetic creativity. The book reveals the intersection of blasphemy, censorship and literary property throughout the ‘Long Eighteenth Century’, attesting to the effect of this connection on Shelley’s poetry more specifically. Paul Whickman notes how Shelley’s perceived blasphemy determined the nature and readership of his published works through censorship and literary piracy. Simultaneously, Whickman crucially shows that aesthetics, content and the printed form of the physical text are interconnected and that Shelley’s political and philosophical views manifest themselves in his writing both formally and thematically.
    • The beating heart of the system: the health of postal workers in Victorian London

      Brown, Douglas; Green, David; McIlvenna, Kathleen; Shelton, Nicola; Kingston University; Kings College, London; University of Derby; University College London (Elsevier, 2020-05-10)
      In the later decades of the nineteenth century, the United Kingdom experienced a shift in the causes of mortality, from infectious diseases to those more associated with ageing. This epidemiological transition from acute to chronic conditions was accompanied by an increase in longevity and a corresponding increase in morbidity, measured by rising rates of sickness absence. As longevity improved, the period between the onset of ill health and death lengthened. If we are to understand the daily lived experiences of health in different places during the epidemiological transition, it is necessary to explore the complex causes of morbidity rather than just focus on mortality. We argue that other reasons need to be considered alongside age as important influences on the incidence and duration of ill health, including urbanisation, occupational risks and cultural and institutional factors. Using evidence drawn from a sample of pension records of postal workers, we examine a variety of different factors that could have accounted for the changing pattern of morbidity observed in other studies. We conclude that age alone cannot account for the greater incidence of sickness absence and ill health and that other factors relating to the residential and working environment, as well as institutional arrangements for sick pay, need to be taken into account.
    • Norfolk pauper inventories, c.1690-1834

      Harley, Joseph; University of Derby (Oxford University Press/British Academy, 2020-02-27)
      Pauper inventories were made by poor law officials to record the possessions that people on poor relief owned. These inventories have been known to exist for decades, yet they are notoriously difficult to find and have been under-utilised by generations of historians. For the first time, this book contains transcriptions of 230 pauper inventories from Norfolk. The sources are fully contextualised and indexed, alongside four comprehensive chapters which outline the source's importance and usefulness to readers. Pauper inventories are powerful documents which reveal new insights into the living conditions of the destitute and show that being poor did not necessarily equate to owning very little. The sources will be of use to economic, social and cultural historians who study a wide range of topics including consumption, material culture, production, everyday life, poverty and welfare.
    • The sister arts: Textile crafts between paint, print, and practice

      Gowrley, Freya; University of Derby (Wiley, 2020-02-05)
      This article explores intersections between portraiture, printed genre images, and conduct literature in late eighteenth- and early nineteenth-century Britain, focusing on representations of needlework between these cultural forms. In extant scholarship, needlework has been characterised as an important site of debate, a discursive locus wherein the qualities of appropriate femininity were sketched out and redefined. This article centres on the very mechanisms by which this discourse operated, arguing that visual and literary images of needlework were central to the creation of a grammar of respectable femininity, a symbolic language that simultaneously advocated maternal instruction, domestic industry, and marital eligibility.
    • 'Sedimented histories' and 'embodied legacies': Creating an evaluative framework for understanding public engagement with the First World War

      Allwork Larissa; University of Derby (UCL IOE Press, 2020-02-01)
      This article reflects on the development of a new methodological framework for the evaluation of the impact of the Centre for Hidden Histories, one of the Arts and Humanities Research Council's First World War Engagement Centres. It shows how through evaluative processes such as academic and community partner Shared Experience Workshops, and community-focused Reflection Workshops, the historical, social, cultural and economic benefits of the centre can be highlighted. It also demonstrates how public engagement in these community history projects has resulted in the identification of new 'embodied legacies' (Facer and Enright, 2016) and heretofore marginalized 'sedimented histories' (Lloyd and Moore, 2015). These lessons in evaluation can be taken forward to inform future national commemorative moments, such as the centenary of the Second World War.
    • The democratic development potential of a cultural ecosystem approach

      Barker, Victoria; University of Derby (University of Warwick, 2020-01-20)
      Culture is increasingly being deployed as a tool to deliver development policy, with ‘development’ seen as a process rather than as an outcome, in the same way that culture can be seen (and has a long history of such) as a “noun of process” (Williams 1976: 87). This has been usefully summed up by Duxbury, Kangas & De Beukelaer referencing Sen (1999) as the underlying idea that “development should not be considered as a finality (generally expressed in a monetary value derived from work) but the extent to which people are able to participate in political, social and economic life” (2017: 216). Development policy encompasses a broad range of focus from the industrial and economic to sustainable and human development agendas. Cultural policy itself is now predominantly framed within a model of economic growth, which limits opportunities to discuss more inclusive, accessible and participatory aspects that form this paper’s approach to democratic development. The following discussion explores the potential for cultural policy activity to develop inclusive and rich relationships from local to international scales, and to broaden the discussion of growth beyond the economic, through the device of the cultural ecosystem.
    • The structure and workings of a publishing house

      Barker, David; University of Derby (Routledge, 2020-01-16)
      Contemporary Publishing and the Culture of Books is a comprehensive resource that builds bridges between the traditional focus and methodologies of literary studies and the actualities of modern and contemporary literature, including the realities of professional writing, the conventions and practicalities of the publishing world, and its connections between literary publishing and other media. Focusing on the relationship between modern literature and the publishing industry, the volume enables students and academics to extend the text-based framework of modules on contemporary writing into detailed expositions of the culture and industry which bring these texts into existence; it brings economic considerations into line alongside creative issues, and examines how employing marketing strategies are utilized to promote and sell books. The text covers: The standard university-course specifications of contemporary writing, offering an extensive picture of the social, economic, and cultural contexts of these literary genres. The impact and status of non-literary writing, and how this compares with certain literary genres as an index to contemporary culture and a reflection of the state of the publishing industry. The practicalities and conventions of the publishing industry. Contextual aspects of literary culture and the book industry, visiting the broader spheres of publishing, promotion, bookselling, and literary culture. Carefully linked chapters allow readers to tie key elements of the publishing industry to the particular demands and features of contemporary literary genres and writing, offering a detailed guide to the ways in which the three core areas of culture, economics, and pragmatics intersect in the world of publishing. Further to being a valuable resource for those studying English or Creative Writing, the volume is a key text for degrees in which Publishing is a component, and is relevant to those aspects of Media Studies that look at interactions between the media and literature/publishing.