• Showman of the screen: Joseph E. Levine and his revolutions in film promotion.

      McKenna, Anthony Thomas; University of Derby (University Press of Kentucky, 23/09/2016)
      Joseph E. Levine was one of the most recognisable figures in post-War American cinema; he pioneered saturation opening techniques, revolutionised art-film marketing, and was hugely successful as a producer. He dealt in every conceivable type of film, from arthouse to exploitation to blockbusters, and became the famous film promoter in America. Showman of the Screen is the first book to fully investigate Levine's life and work, detailing his life and extraordinary career in the film industry, and focussing on what he called his "peculiar talent" for movie exploitation and showmanship. Based on extensive archival research and interviews with many of Levine's collaborators, this book positions Levine as the most versatile film promoter, and self-promoter, of his generation. Showman of the Screen details Levine's tough upbringing in the slums of Boston, and his subsequent journey from being provincial movie exhibitor to becoming the best-known movie showman in America. The book also shows how Levine was able to capitalise on emerging cultural trends, whilst also maintaining his reputation as a maverick by fiercely guarding his independence and deliberately provoking condemnations from cultural commentators. This book acts as a corrective to the many histories of post-War American cinema that either ignore or underestimate Levine's achievements and influence. His multifarious appetites ensured that his presence was felt in all genres, and that is influence is still with us today is testament to his position as one of the most important pioneering figures in America post-War cinema.
    • 'fancys or feelings': John Clare's hypochondriac poetics

      Lafford, Erin; University of Derby (Palgrave Macmillan, 2020-09-18)
      Clare’s mental and physical health has long been a source of interest and contention in his critical reception. Approaches to his ‘madness’ have ranged from retroactive diagnoses of bipolar disorder, to interrogations of insanity as a discourse of clinical power. If the result of these debates is that critics are more willing to read pathology as performance, or even to suggest that Clare’s disorder might not have been straightforwardly ‘real’, then this essay asks what can be gained from returning to some fleeting claims about the poet’s mental and physical health that express a struggle between reality and imagination, but have not yet received sufficient attention. I refer here to suggestions, both from his contemporary moment and from his subsequent critical reception, that Clare was a hypochondriac. Clare has been overlooked in critical conversations that discuss the significance of hypochondria as a facet of the Romantic medical imagination and cultivation of ‘fashionable disease’ but, as I hope to show, hypochondria should be taken seriously as a conceptual lens through which to read his poetic imagination in relation to illness and disorder. Hypochondria occupies a distinct interpretative space of uncertainty and of literary associations that, this essay argues, is better able to approach Clare on his own terms. I consider hypochondria in two interrelated ways: as a social and literary culture that Clare wanted to participate in and that also framed some of his writing, and as a form of poetic imagination and attention that emerged from Clare’s anxious scrutiny of his own body and mind. I also explore, through a final reading of a sonnet Clare published in the London Magazine in 1821, how hypochondria can become an important lens through which to consider his lyric subjectivity, uncovering as it does the ambiguously pathological experiences or registers that might disrupt his observation of the natural world.
    • Palgrave advances in John Clare studies

      Kovesi, Simon; Lafford, Erin; Oxford Brookes University; University of Derby (Palgrave Macmillan, 2020-09-18)
      Contributes to ongoing conversations about John Clare's work while offering new perspectives and directions on Clare scholarship, in an accessible writing style Serves as both a useful introduction to Clare and his work for students that are new to it, and a rich resource for scholars already working in the area Essays look at interdisciplinary topics including ecocriticism, environmental humanities, medical humanities, and posthumanism Features essays from established and early career scholars Is comprehensive in its coverage of popular and new topics in Clare studies.
    • Blasphemy and politics in romantic literature: Creativity in the writing of Percy Bysshe Shelley

      Whickman, Paul; University of Derby (Springer International Publishing, 2020-06-07)
      This book argues for the importance of blasphemy in shaping the literature and readership of Percy Bysshe Shelley and of the Romantic period more broadly. Not only are perceptions of blasphemy taken to be inextricable from politics, this book also argues for blasphemous ‘irreverence’ as both inspiring and necessitating new poetic creativity. The book reveals the intersection of blasphemy, censorship and literary property throughout the ‘Long Eighteenth Century’, attesting to the effect of this connection on Shelley’s poetry more specifically. Paul Whickman notes how Shelley’s perceived blasphemy determined the nature and readership of his published works through censorship and literary piracy. Simultaneously, Whickman crucially shows that aesthetics, content and the printed form of the physical text are interconnected and that Shelley’s political and philosophical views manifest themselves in his writing both formally and thematically.
    • The beating heart of the system: the health of postal workers in Victorian London

      Brown, Douglas; Green, David; McIlvenna, Kathleen; Shelton, Nicola; Kingston University; Kings College, London; University of Derby; University College London (Elsevier, 2020-05-10)
      In the later decades of the nineteenth century, the United Kingdom experienced a shift in the causes of mortality, from infectious diseases to those more associated with ageing. This epidemiological transition from acute to chronic conditions was accompanied by an increase in longevity and a corresponding increase in morbidity, measured by rising rates of sickness absence. As longevity improved, the period between the onset of ill health and death lengthened. If we are to understand the daily lived experiences of health in different places during the epidemiological transition, it is necessary to explore the complex causes of morbidity rather than just focus on mortality. We argue that other reasons need to be considered alongside age as important influences on the incidence and duration of ill health, including urbanisation, occupational risks and cultural and institutional factors. Using evidence drawn from a sample of pension records of postal workers, we examine a variety of different factors that could have accounted for the changing pattern of morbidity observed in other studies. We conclude that age alone cannot account for the greater incidence of sickness absence and ill health and that other factors relating to the residential and working environment, as well as institutional arrangements for sick pay, need to be taken into account.
    • Norfolk pauper inventories, c.1690-1834

      Harley, Joseph; University of Derby (Oxford University Press/British Academy, 2020-02-27)
      Pauper inventories were made by poor law officials to record the possessions that people on poor relief owned. These inventories have been known to exist for decades, yet they are notoriously difficult to find and have been under-utilised by generations of historians. For the first time, this book contains transcriptions of 230 pauper inventories from Norfolk. The sources are fully contextualised and indexed, alongside four comprehensive chapters which outline the source's importance and usefulness to readers. Pauper inventories are powerful documents which reveal new insights into the living conditions of the destitute and show that being poor did not necessarily equate to owning very little. The sources will be of use to economic, social and cultural historians who study a wide range of topics including consumption, material culture, production, everyday life, poverty and welfare.
    • The sister arts: Textile crafts between paint, print, and practice

      Gowrley, Freya; University of Derby (Wiley, 2020-02-05)
      This article explores intersections between portraiture, printed genre images, and conduct literature in late eighteenth- and early nineteenth-century Britain, focusing on representations of needlework between these cultural forms. In extant scholarship, needlework has been characterised as an important site of debate, a discursive locus wherein the qualities of appropriate femininity were sketched out and redefined. This article centres on the very mechanisms by which this discourse operated, arguing that visual and literary images of needlework were central to the creation of a grammar of respectable femininity, a symbolic language that simultaneously advocated maternal instruction, domestic industry, and marital eligibility.
    • 'Sedimented histories' and 'embodied legacies': Creating an evaluative framework for understanding public engagement with the First World War

      Allwork Larissa; University of Derby (UCL IOE Press, 2020-02-01)
      This article reflects on the development of a new methodological framework for the evaluation of the impact of the Centre for Hidden Histories, one of the Arts and Humanities Research Council's First World War Engagement Centres. It shows how through evaluative processes such as academic and community partner Shared Experience Workshops, and community-focused Reflection Workshops, the historical, social, cultural and economic benefits of the centre can be highlighted. It also demonstrates how public engagement in these community history projects has resulted in the identification of new 'embodied legacies' (Facer and Enright, 2016) and heretofore marginalized 'sedimented histories' (Lloyd and Moore, 2015). These lessons in evaluation can be taken forward to inform future national commemorative moments, such as the centenary of the Second World War.
    • The democratic development potential of a cultural ecosystem approach

      Barker, Victoria; University of Derby (University of Warwick, 2020-01-20)
      Culture is increasingly being deployed as a tool to deliver development policy, with ‘development’ seen as a process rather than as an outcome, in the same way that culture can be seen (and has a long history of such) as a “noun of process” (Williams 1976: 87). This has been usefully summed up by Duxbury, Kangas & De Beukelaer referencing Sen (1999) as the underlying idea that “development should not be considered as a finality (generally expressed in a monetary value derived from work) but the extent to which people are able to participate in political, social and economic life” (2017: 216). Development policy encompasses a broad range of focus from the industrial and economic to sustainable and human development agendas. Cultural policy itself is now predominantly framed within a model of economic growth, which limits opportunities to discuss more inclusive, accessible and participatory aspects that form this paper’s approach to democratic development. The following discussion explores the potential for cultural policy activity to develop inclusive and rich relationships from local to international scales, and to broaden the discussion of growth beyond the economic, through the device of the cultural ecosystem.
    • The structure and workings of a publishing house

      Barker, David; University of Derby (Routledge, 2020-01-16)
      Contemporary Publishing and the Culture of Books is a comprehensive resource that builds bridges between the traditional focus and methodologies of literary studies and the actualities of modern and contemporary literature, including the realities of professional writing, the conventions and practicalities of the publishing world, and its connections between literary publishing and other media. Focusing on the relationship between modern literature and the publishing industry, the volume enables students and academics to extend the text-based framework of modules on contemporary writing into detailed expositions of the culture and industry which bring these texts into existence; it brings economic considerations into line alongside creative issues, and examines how employing marketing strategies are utilized to promote and sell books. The text covers: The standard university-course specifications of contemporary writing, offering an extensive picture of the social, economic, and cultural contexts of these literary genres. The impact and status of non-literary writing, and how this compares with certain literary genres as an index to contemporary culture and a reflection of the state of the publishing industry. The practicalities and conventions of the publishing industry. Contextual aspects of literary culture and the book industry, visiting the broader spheres of publishing, promotion, bookselling, and literary culture. Carefully linked chapters allow readers to tie key elements of the publishing industry to the particular demands and features of contemporary literary genres and writing, offering a detailed guide to the ways in which the three core areas of culture, economics, and pragmatics intersect in the world of publishing. Further to being a valuable resource for those studying English or Creative Writing, the volume is a key text for degrees in which Publishing is a component, and is relevant to those aspects of Media Studies that look at interactions between the media and literature/publishing.
    • John Clare, herbalism, and elegy

      Lafford, Erin; University of Derby (Edinburgh University Press, 2020)
      Discussions of Clare’s engagement with botany often trace his fraught relationship with taxonomy, exploring his admiration for common names over the ‘dark system’ of Linnaean classification. This essay expands understanding of Clare’s botanical imagination by considering how he brings his botanical ‘taste’ to bear on the flower as a key figure of elegiac consolation. I refocus attention on his formative preference for pre-Linnaean herbalism and explore how it informs his engagement with elegiac tradition and imagery, especially in relation to Gray’s ‘Elegy’. I attend to how herbalism is brought into relationship with poetic representations of the floral, focussing especially on the connection between Clare’s preference for herbals and Elizabeth Kent’s Flora Domestica. I then discuss ‘Cauper Green’ and ‘The Village Doctress’ (Clare’s most sustained poetic discussions of herbalism) as elegies that try to reconcile the finite temporality of human life with the regenerative life cycles of plants and their flowers.
    • "Mild health I seek thee": Clare and Bloomfield at the limits of pastoral

      Lafford, Erin; University of Derby (Taylor & Francis, 2020)
    • The first rule of judging club…: inside the saltire society literary awards

      Marsden, Stevie; Squires, Claire; University of Leicester; University of Stirling (Lectito BV, 2019-12-11)
      Book awards are a pervasive aspect of contemporary book culture, attracting both substantial media and scholarly attention. They confer prestige, create marketing opportunities, push sales, and contribute to the early stages of canon formation. Yet, beyond occasional media splashes when judges break ranks and disagree, there is little insight into the administrative and decision-making processes inside book awards. This article draws on the autoethnographic experiences of two academic researchers, who were simultaneously participants (as administrator and judge) for the Saltire Society Literary Awards. In so doing, the article gives insight into particular moments within the administration and judging of the awards, such as changes instigated by research findings and debates surrounding gender imbalance in Scottish literary award culture. It also examines some of the challenges of operating as embedded researchers. The article analyses what autoethnographic methods can bring to an understanding of the Saltire Society’s Literary Awards and other cultural awards, and the implications of embedded research and collaborative autoethnography for 21st century book culture scholarship more widely. It reflects upon modes of embedded research by making evident the challenges and dilemmas of researching from the ‘inside’. The ethical framework for such research is far from simple, but in exploring particular moments with perspectives from both inside and outside the judging processes, and in interrogating the practices of literary consecration, the article casts light upon this particular ‘judging club’ and its practices, and illuminates ways in which researchers might consider, orientate, and carry out further research into processes of cultural consecration.
    • The Jews, the Holocaust and the public: the legacies of David Cesarani

      Allwork Larissa; University of Derby (Palgrave Macmillan, 2019-11-25)
      This book explores the work and legacy of Professor David Cesarani OBE, a leading British scholar and expert on Jewish history who helped to shape Holocaust research, remembrance and education in the UK. It is a unique combination of chapters produced by researchers, curators and commemoration activists who either worked with and/or were taught by the late Cesarani. The chapters in this collection consider the legacies of Cesarani’s contribution to the discipline of history and the practice of public history. The contributors offer reflections on Cesarani’s approach and provide new insights into the study of Anglo-Jewish history, minorities and nationalisms, Nazi war crimes and their legacies and the history and public legacies of the Holocaust. This edited collection comprises 17 chapters (approx' 365 pages) that have been curated by Dr Larissa Allwork and Dr Rachel Pistol. As well as working with Pistol to select and copy edit all the chapters, Allwork co-wrote the 'introduction' with Pistol (c. 6000 words), proposing that there is a distinctly 'Cesaranian' interdisciplinary approach to the study of the Holocaust. Allwork also submitted two further chapters to the collection. The first, a sole authored chapter offering an original interpretation of Gerhard Richter and Gustav Metzger's artistic confrontations with Nazi criminality (c. 10,000). The second, a transcript of an interview conducted with Cesarani in 2009 (c. 7,500 words). This includes an introductory section which self-reflexively grounds the interview and is fully footnoted and referenced.
    • In advance of the broken image: Gerhard Richter and Gustav Metzger’s confrontations with Nazi criminality

      Allwork Larissa; University of Derby (Palgrave Macmillan, 2019-11-25)
      This chapter focuses on Gerhard Richter’s Uncle Rudi (1965) and Mr Heyde (1965) and Gustav Metzger’s Historic Photographs series (1995–1998) in order to present a new interpretation of how these artists perform the photograph in order to provoke cultural rather than legal confrontations with Nazi criminality. Rejecting Holocaust representational pieties in favour of the reinterpretation of the Duchampian ‘Readymade’ in the case of Richter, and Dada’s anti-aesthetics of destruction and revulsion in Metzger’s, this chapter will argue that Richter’s oblique pose of the ‘anti-ideological artist’ and Metzger’s more overt performance of the ‘subversive social activist’ are part of important social and cultural processes of confronting Nazi criminality. These types of cultural reckonings were recognized as important in David Cesarani’s edited collection, After Eichmann: Collective Memory and the Holocaust after 1961 (2005).
    • After the Holocaust: Facing the Nazi past in British and international perspective—an interview with David Cesarani

      Allwork Larissa; University of Derby (Palgrave Macmillan, 2019-11-25)
      This chapter focuses on Gerhard Richter’s Uncle Rudi (1965) and Mr Heyde (1965) and Gustav Metzger’s Historic Photographs series (1995–1998) in order to present a new interpretation of how these artists perform the photograph in order to provoke cultural rather than legal confrontations with Nazi criminality. Rejecting Holocaust representational pieties in favour of the reinterpretation of the Duchampian ‘Readymade’ in the case of Richter, and Dada’s anti-aesthetics of destruction and revulsion in Metzger’s, this chapter will argue that Richter’s oblique pose of the ‘anti-ideological artist’ and Metzger’s more overt performance of the ‘subversive social activist’ are part of important social and cultural processes of confronting Nazi criminality. These types of cultural reckonings were recognized as important in David Cesarani’s edited collection, After Eichmann: Collective Memory and the Holocaust after 1961 (2005).
    • Introduction: the lives and legacies of David Cesarani

      Allwork Larissa; Pistol, Rachel; University of Derby; Kings College London (Palgrave Macmillan, 2019-11-25)
      This introduction to the edited collection ‘The Jews, the Holocaust and the Public’ focuses on David Cesarani as autobiographer and biographer. It comprises a brief introduction to Cesarani’s life in academia, his own autobiographical essay and his interest in biography as an academic form, via his studies of Benjamin Disraeli, Arthur Koestler and Adolf Eichmann. This chapter will present the new argument that these three figures can be interpreted as emblematic of three key overlapping themes in Cesarani’s broader research interests: Anglo-Jewish history; migration, minorities and nationalisms; and the Holocaust its history, the prosecution of the perpetrators and its ongoing legacies. It is these themes that comprise a uniquely ‘Cesaranian’ interdisciplinary approach to the Holocaust. It is also these themes, sometimes separately, and at other times in combination, that will animate the considerations of the chapters in this volume for the ‘Holocaust and its Contexts’.
    • Losing people: a linguistic analysis of minimisation in First World War soldiers’ accounts of violence

      Penry Williams, Cara; ; Rice-Whetton, John; La Trobe University (Victoria, Australia); University of Derby; University of Melbourne (Victoria, Australia) (Palgrave, 2019-10-05)
      This chapter examines the First World War letters and diaries of Australian soldiers for insights into the relationships between language and violence, focusing on accounts of violent actions and the deaths these caused. Analysis from a corpus of writings from 22 soldiers demonstrates around two-thirds of accounts utilise linguistic resources to minimise or downplay the realities of violence. Two main approaches are generally used: figurative language (euphemism and metaphor) and language that downplays human involvement (passive voice, simplified register, nominalisation/light verb constructions, and the use of inanimate nouns in place of people involved). Our exemplification and analysis of these strategies provides insight into both soldiers’ experiences of violence and death and how they made sense of these experiences. The chapter thus adds to the understanding of First World War vernacular writing, contributes to existing scholarship by using a linguistic method of analysis, and more broadly considers the way violence is discussed.
    • A preservice teacher’s learning of instructional scaffolding in the EAL practicum

      Nguyen, Minh Hue; Penry Williams, Cara; Monash University (Victoria, Australia) (MHN); La Trobe University (Victoria, Australia) (CPW) (Australian Literacy Educator's Association, 2019-10-01)
      This qualitative case study examines how a preservice English as an Additional Language (EAL) teacher from the Faculty of Education at a large Melbourne-based university learned to scaffold EAL learning during a two-week practicum in a secondary school and the factors shaping his cognition. The data sources include individual interviews, oral reflections on lessons and recordings of those same lessons. The study was underpinned by a sociocultural perspective on scaffolding and van de Pol, Volman, and Beishuizen's (2010) framework for analysing scaffolding, which is based on a synthesis of previous models and findings. The findings indicate that the preservice teacher implemented a number of scaffolding strategies during the EAL practicum. The use of these strategies was shaped by the preservice teacher’s theoretical knowledge of scaffolding and belief about its importance, which he gained from the teacher education coursework and his prior practicum experience. Learning within practice was also found to be important in his cognition of scaffolding as through the practicum he developed knowledge about his students’ abilities and their difficulties in learning EAL, which are the basis for his contingent scaffolding strategies. Based on the findings, the paper suggests that instructional scaffolding is an important area of professional learning, especially for teachers working with EAL students, and needs to be explicitly built into teacher education in both coursework and the teaching practicum.
    • ‘The postman wears out fast’: Retiring sick in London’s Victorian post office

      Green, David; Brown, Douglas; McIlvenna, Kathleen; Shelton, Nicola; Kingston University; Kings College, London; University of Derby; University College London (Taylor and Francis, 2019-09-26)
      The Post Office was an extremely important institution and London was the focal point of its operations. Throughout the nineteenth century, London was the main sorting centre and accounted for a third of the mail delivered in Britain. However, London postal workers were relatively unhealthy and the majority retired before they reached 60, mainly because of ill health. Using new evidence drawn from pension records, this article explores the extent of ill health in the London workforce, comparing it to that in the Metropolitan Police. For postmen, orthopaedic conditions were the main problem, relating to the ability to walk long distances. This was similar to the problems encountered in the police. For other postal workers, notably letter sorters, mental illness and poor vision were the main problems, relating to the pressure of having to work irregular hours, often at night-time and in poorly designed and overcrowded workspaces. These problems were exacerbated by the increasing frequency of mail deliveries and the constant shortage of space in the main headquarters building. In response to these issues and workers’ concerns, the Post Office introduced a range of measures including a medical service and generous sickness pay, more offices, new technologies to speed the flow of mail, better lighting, and changed working practices to ease pressures on the workforce.