• Showman of the screen: Joseph E. Levine and his revolutions in film promotion.

      McKenna, Anthony Thomas; University of Derby (University Press of Kentucky, 23/09/2016)
      Joseph E. Levine was one of the most recognisable figures in post-War American cinema; he pioneered saturation opening techniques, revolutionised art-film marketing, and was hugely successful as a producer. He dealt in every conceivable type of film, from arthouse to exploitation to blockbusters, and became the famous film promoter in America. Showman of the Screen is the first book to fully investigate Levine's life and work, detailing his life and extraordinary career in the film industry, and focussing on what he called his "peculiar talent" for movie exploitation and showmanship. Based on extensive archival research and interviews with many of Levine's collaborators, this book positions Levine as the most versatile film promoter, and self-promoter, of his generation. Showman of the Screen details Levine's tough upbringing in the slums of Boston, and his subsequent journey from being provincial movie exhibitor to becoming the best-known movie showman in America. The book also shows how Levine was able to capitalise on emerging cultural trends, whilst also maintaining his reputation as a maverick by fiercely guarding his independence and deliberately provoking condemnations from cultural commentators. This book acts as a corrective to the many histories of post-War American cinema that either ignore or underestimate Levine's achievements and influence. His multifarious appetites ensured that his presence was felt in all genres, and that is influence is still with us today is testament to his position as one of the most important pioneering figures in America post-War cinema.
    • The Jews, the Holocaust and the public: the legacies of David Cesarani

      Allwork Larissa; University of Derby (Palgrave Macmillan, 2019-11-25)
      This book explores the work and legacy of Professor David Cesarani OBE, a leading British scholar and expert on Jewish history who helped to shape Holocaust research, remembrance and education in the UK. It is a unique combination of chapters produced by researchers, curators and commemoration activists who either worked with and/or were taught by the late Cesarani. The chapters in this collection consider the legacies of Cesarani’s contribution to the discipline of history and the practice of public history. The contributors offer reflections on Cesarani’s approach and provide new insights into the study of Anglo-Jewish history, minorities and nationalisms, Nazi war crimes and their legacies and the history and public legacies of the Holocaust. This edited collection comprises 17 chapters (approx' 365 pages) that have been curated by Dr Larissa Allwork and Dr Rachel Pistol. As well as working with Pistol to select and copy edit all the chapters, Allwork co-wrote the 'introduction' with Pistol (c. 6000 words), proposing that there is a distinctly 'Cesaranian' interdisciplinary approach to the study of the Holocaust. Allwork also submitted two further chapters to the collection. The first, a sole authored chapter offering an original interpretation of Gerhard Richter and Gustav Metzger's artistic confrontations with Nazi criminality (c. 10,000). The second, a transcript of an interview conducted with Cesarani in 2009 (c. 7,500 words). This includes an introductory section which self-reflexively grounds the interview and is fully footnoted and referenced.
    • Losing people: a linguistic analysis of minimisation in First World War soldiers’ accounts of violence

      Penry Williams, Cara; ; Rice-Whetton, John; La Trobe University (Victoria, Australia); University of Derby; University of Melbourne (Victoria, Australia) (Palgrave, 2019-10-05)
      This chapter examines the First World War letters and diaries of Australian soldiers for insights into the relationships between language and violence, focusing on accounts of violent actions and the deaths these caused. Analysis from a corpus of writings from 22 soldiers demonstrates around two-thirds of accounts utilise linguistic resources to minimise or downplay the realities of violence. Two main approaches are generally used: figurative language (euphemism and metaphor) and language that downplays human involvement (passive voice, simplified register, nominalisation/light verb constructions, and the use of inanimate nouns in place of people involved). Our exemplification and analysis of these strategies provides insight into both soldiers’ experiences of violence and death and how they made sense of these experiences. The chapter thus adds to the understanding of First World War vernacular writing, contributes to existing scholarship by using a linguistic method of analysis, and more broadly considers the way violence is discussed.
    • A preservice teacher’s learning of instructional scaffolding in the EAL practicum

      Nguyen, Minh Hue; Penry Williams, Cara; Monash University (Victoria, Australia) (MHN); La Trobe University (Victoria, Australia) (CPW) (Australian Literacy Educator's Association, 2019-10-01)
      This qualitative case study examines how a preservice English as an Additional Language (EAL) teacher from the Faculty of Education at a large Melbourne-based university learned to scaffold EAL learning during a two-week practicum in a secondary school and the factors shaping his cognition. The data sources include individual interviews, oral reflections on lessons and recordings of those same lessons. The study was underpinned by a sociocultural perspective on scaffolding and van de Pol, Volman, and Beishuizen's (2010) framework for analysing scaffolding, which is based on a synthesis of previous models and findings. The findings indicate that the preservice teacher implemented a number of scaffolding strategies during the EAL practicum. The use of these strategies was shaped by the preservice teacher’s theoretical knowledge of scaffolding and belief about its importance, which he gained from the teacher education coursework and his prior practicum experience. Learning within practice was also found to be important in his cognition of scaffolding as through the practicum he developed knowledge about his students’ abilities and their difficulties in learning EAL, which are the basis for his contingent scaffolding strategies. Based on the findings, the paper suggests that instructional scaffolding is an important area of professional learning, especially for teachers working with EAL students, and needs to be explicitly built into teacher education in both coursework and the teaching practicum.
    • ‘The postman wears out fast’: Retiring sick in London’s Victorian post office

      Green, David; Brown, Douglas; McIlvenna, Kathleen; Shelton, Nicola; Kingston University; Kings College, London; University of Derby; University College London (Taylor and Francis, 2019-09-26)
      The Post Office was an extremely important institution and London was the focal point of its operations. Throughout the nineteenth century, London was the main sorting centre and accounted for a third of the mail delivered in Britain. However, London postal workers were relatively unhealthy and the majority retired before they reached 60, mainly because of ill health. Using new evidence drawn from pension records, this article explores the extent of ill health in the London workforce, comparing it to that in the Metropolitan Police. For postmen, orthopaedic conditions were the main problem, relating to the ability to walk long distances. This was similar to the problems encountered in the police. For other postal workers, notably letter sorters, mental illness and poor vision were the main problems, relating to the pressure of having to work irregular hours, often at night-time and in poorly designed and overcrowded workspaces. These problems were exacerbated by the increasing frequency of mail deliveries and the constant shortage of space in the main headquarters building. In response to these issues and workers’ concerns, the Post Office introduced a range of measures including a medical service and generous sickness pay, more offices, new technologies to speed the flow of mail, better lighting, and changed working practices to ease pressures on the workforce.
    • Folklinguistics and social meaning in Australian English.

      Penry Williams, Cara; La Trobe University; University of Derby (Routledge, 2019-09-12)
      Folklinguistics and Social Meaning in Australian English presents an original study of Australian English and, via this, insights into Australian society. Utilising folklinguistic accounts, it uncovers everyday understandings of contemporary Australian English through variations across linguistic systems (sounds, words, discourse and grammar). Focusing on one variation at time, it explores young speakers’ language use and their evaluations of the same forms. The analysis of talk about talk uncovers ethnic, regional and social Others in social types and prevailing ideologies around Australian English essential for understanding Australian identity-making processes, as well as providing insights and methods relevant beyond this context. These discussions demonstrate that while the linguistic variations may occur in other varieties of English, they are understood through local conceptualisations, and often as uniquely Australian. This book harnesses the value and richness of discourse in explorations of the sociocultural life of language. The findings show that analysis attending to language ideologies and identities can help discover the micro–macro links needed in understanding social meanings. The volume explores a wide range of language features but also provides a deep contemplation of Australian English.
    • “Learning to Walk”: Qing constitutional reform and Britain’s imperial pedagogy, 1901-1911

      Neuhaus, Tom; University of Derby (Routledge, 2019-08-07)
      This contribution examines British attitudes towards the Qing government’s efforts at introducing constitutional reform in China during the first decade of the twentieth century. During this period, China gradually introduced elected assemblies as well as a range of other reforms in education, civil service administration, and a number of other fields. The chapter will explore to what extent imperial ambitions shaped British understandings of the changes that occurred in the Qing Empire and whether British observers believed constitutional government would be successful. Judging from Foreign Office and consular reports, British opinion on reforms in China was ambivalent. On the one hand, there was a strong sense that Britain should support efforts at democratization, even if many consular officials believed that optimism about China's path towards constitutional government was misplaced. While there was some support for specific reforms, many observers believed that China lacked capable leaders and that the Chinese people were not truly committed to political change. On the other hand, in the aftermath of the Boxer Rebellion, there was also a growing concern that constitutional government was interwoven with a growing sense of Chinese assertiveness, nationalism, and anti-foreign sentiment. This, British consular staff feared, would endanger British interests in the region and the stability of the British Empire, particularly in regions with a significant overseas Chinese population. The ambivalence contained in this assessment of Chinese reforms was never fully resolved, but its very existence demonstrates the importance which British commentators attached to safeguarding not only Britain’s economic interests but also her status as a global symbol of constitutional government.
    • Representing camp: Constructing macaroni masculinity in eighteenth century visual satire

      Gowrley, Freya; University of Edinburgh (University of South Florida Tampa, 2019-05-06)
      This article asks how ‘Camp,’ as defined in Sontag’s 1964 essay, ‘Notes on Camp,’ might provide a valuable framework for the analysis of late eighteenth-century satirical prints, specifically those featuring images of the so-called ‘macaroni.’ Discussing a number of satirical prints and contemporary writings on the macaroni, the article reads them against Sontag’s text in order to establish its utility as a critical framework for understanding the images’ complex relationship of content, form, and function.
    • Sort of in Australian English: The elasticity of a pragmatic marker

      Mulder, Jean; Penry Williams, Cara; Moore, Erin E. F.; University of Melbourne (Victoria, Australia) (JM); La Trobe University (Victoria, Australia) (CPW); University of Derby (CPW); University of New South Wales, Canberra (A.C.T, Australia) (EEFM) (John Benjamins, 2019-05)
      This study examines the pragmatic functions of sort of in Australian English (AuE), utilising discourse from 12 months of the Australian Broadcasting Corporation’s television program Q&A. It explores the frequency of sort of uses in context with a focus on multifunctionality. Uses are classified in a data-based schema which synthesises the previously described pragmatic functions of sort of and locates these within Zhang’s (2015) Elastic Language framework. The article thus provides an understanding of the pragmatic functions of sort of in public discussion contexts within AuE, arguing, most notably, that sort of performs five of Zhang’s six functions, rather than just the two previously reported, and that in accounting for the complex uses of this pragmatic marker, a wider range of subtypes needs to be distinguished within two of the functions.
    • Appeals to semiotic registers in ethno-metapragmatic accounts of variation

      Penry Williams, Cara; La Trobe University (Victoria, Australia); University of Derby (Wiley, 2019-04-29)
      Discussions of folklinguistic accounts of language use are frequently focused on dismissing them because of their limitations. As a result, not a lot is written regarding how such accounts are done and how they ‘work’. This article examines how folklinguistic evaluations are achieved in interaction, particularly through appeals to semiotic registers (Agha 2007). It describes how in explaining their beliefs regarding linguistic variation, speakers frequently produce voicings with varying transparency. These rely on understandings of the social world and bring large collections of linguistic resources into play. They offer rich insights if analytic attention is given to their details because even when evaluating a single variant, whole ways of speaking, and even being, may be utilized. The paper explores in turn how analysis reveals the inseparability of variants, understandings of context and audience, the relationship between linguistic forms and social types, and the performance of social types via the evaluation of semiotic resources. In each section, discussion is grounded in extracts from interviews on Australian English with speakers of this variety of English. Cumulatively they show the primacy of semiotic registers in ethno-metapragmatic accounts.
    • "The widows and orphans of servants are dying": The conflict of family in the design and application of nineteenth-century civil servant pensions

      McIlvenna, Kathleen; University of Derby (Palgrave Macmillan, 2019-04-22)
      The Post Office is a Victorian institution. There had of course been postal systems before this time and in other places but the idea that all people in all places should be connected through the mail was a new idea. In the context of this volume, the existence and development of the Post Office network matters for two reasons. Firstly, because letters connected families and kin who were not proximately resident, and they also had the capacity to make notional kinship into a functional resource. In chapters by Steven King, Cara Dobbing and Geoff Monks elsewhere in this volume it is clear that whatever the co-residential family unit might have looked like, letters were a vital mechanism for conveying information, renewing and repairing kinship bonds and giving meaning to the fictive kinship networks that are the focus of the work of Naomi Tadmor. Secondly, in order to provide this service large (and increasing) numbers of employees were needed. This inevitably means that the nature of work for Post Office was a potent force in shaping family life, the nature of family relations and (in the sense that for some employees the Post Office acted as an alternate family) the very meaning of terms such as ‘family’ or ‘kin’. Moreover, in the sense that Post Office workers rapidly became part of a wider nineteenth-century movement for employers to provide superannuation schemes, we might expect the service to have shaped the long-term planning of family life and even the likelihood of re-marriage or the timing of children leaving home.
    • Patient and clinician engagement with health information in the primary care waiting room: A mixed methods case study

      Penry Williams, Cara; Elliott, Kristine; Gall, Jane; Woodward-Kron, Robyn; University of Melbourne (Victoria, Australia) (Page Press, 2019-03-11)
      Background. Primary care waiting rooms can be sites of health promotion and health literacy development through the provision of readily accessible health information. To date, few studies have considered patient engagement with televised health messages in the waiting room, nor have studies investigated whether patients ask their clinicians about this information. The aim of this study was therefore to examine patient (or accompanying person) and clinician engagement with waiting room health information, including televised health messages. Design and methods. The mixed methods case study was undertaken in a regional general practice in Victoria, Australia, utilising patient questionnaires, waiting room observations, and clinician logbooks and interviews. The qualitative data were analysed by content analysis; the questionnaire data were analysed using descriptive statistics. Results. Patients engaged with a range of health information in the waiting room and reportedly received health messages from this information. 44% of the questionnaire respondents (33 of 74) reported watching the television health program, and half of these reported receiving a take home health message from this source. Only one of the clinicians (N=9) recalled a patient asking about the televised health program. Conclusions. The general practice waiting room remains a site where people engage with the available health information, with a televised health ‘infotainment’ program receiving most attention from patients. Our study showed that consumption of health information was primarily passive and tended not to activate patient discussions with clinicians. Future studies could investigate any link between the health infotainment program and behaviour change.
    • ‘The natural foundation of perfect efficiency’: Medical services and the Victorian post office

      McIlvenna, Kathleen; Brown, Douglas; Green, David R; Kingston University (Oxford University Press, 2019-01-23)
      This article explores the creation of the Post Office medical service. Working for the Post Office was relatively well-paid and an increasing number of doctors were employed. Medical provision expanded with the introduction of non-contributory pensions from mid-century and developed into a comprehensive and nationwide service that was involved at all stages of employment, from initial recruitment through to receiving a pension. Post Office doctors assessed candidates’ fitness for work, checked on sick absences, provided free medicine and advice and visited workers’ homes. Doctors were responsible for determining whether or not a worker should be pensioned off on grounds of ill health. The career of the first Chief Medical Officer, Dr Waller Lewis, also illustrates the range of other areas in which the Post Office medical service became involved, including the clinical assessment and relief of sickness as well as identifying preventative measures to improve health outcomes.
    • Addressing ill health: Sickness and retirement in the Victorian post office

      Green, David R; Brown, Douglas H L; McIlvenna, Kathleen; University of Derby (Oxford Academic., 2018-11-15)
      This article explores ill health and retirement in the Victorian Post Office. Compared to other branches of the Civil Service, ill health was of greater importance as a cause of retirement. Post Office doctors kept careful records of sickness absence, which rose over the period for all workers. These records were also used to determine if employees should be pensioned off on grounds of ill health. Employees in different sections of the Post Office experienced varying levels of sickness depending on their place of employment and the type of work undertaken. Feminisation of the workforce also affected the prevalence of sickness absences, especially in London. Place of work was an important influence on the pattern of sickness with urban areas having higher levels of sickness than rural districts, with distinct sets of conditions linked to each.
    • Jane Austen, free indirect style, gender and interiority in literary fiction.

      MacMahon, Barbara; University of Derby (Palgrave Macmillan, 2018-11-12)
      Austen is known for her development of free indirect style as a narrative form. Free indirect style is a fusion of narrator and character perspectives, a peculiar linguistic manipulation of deictic centres which allows for a semi-experiential representation of a character’s perceptions, thoughts and experiences. The style does not tell, it shows, and in doing so it invites close engagement with and empathetic reading of character, at the same time as maintaining the distance of a third-person narrative. This can be a powerful narrative device with complex effects.
    • Literature 1780–1830: the Romantic Period.

      Branagh-Miscampbell, Maxine; Leonardi, Barbara; Whickman, Paul; Ward, Matthew; Halsey, Katie; University of Derby (Oxford University Press, 2018-10-29)
    • Laon and Cythna and The Revolt of Islam: revisions as transition.

      Whickman, Paul; University of Derby (Taylor & Francis, 2018-10-16)
      The enforced amendments made to Laon and Cythna following its withdrawal from publication in December 1817 are generally regarded as workmanlike and prudent, sacrificing aesthetic merit in the name of compromise and self-censorship. There remain, however, few detailed readings of these modifications that go beyond subjective responses. To this end, this article offers a reading of these revisions arguing that although some are indeed functional alterations, other amendments serve thematic and aesthetic ends. One of Shelley’s most common changes, that of changing the word ‘God’ to ‘Power’, is a case in point. Since a key theme of the poem is of the collusion between political and religious tyranny, Shelley’s alteration of ‘God’ to ‘Power’ makes this connection more explicit. From this, this article concludes that these revisions signal, analogously at the very least, a transitioning point in Shelley’s thought and career. Whereas Queen Mab (1813) refers explicitly to ‘God’, later works such as Prometheus Unbound (1820) settle upon the term ‘Power’. The fact that we see Shelley move from one to the other between Laon and Cythna and The Revolt of Islam is therefore significant.
    • Craft(ing) narratives: Specimens, souvenirs, and “morsels” in A la Ronde’s specimen table

      Gowrley, Freya; University of Edinburgh (University of Toronto Press, 2018-10-16)
      This article explores the relationship between souvenir acquisition and the construction of narrative in the interior decoration of A la Ronde in Devon, home to cousins Jane and Mary Parminter. During their 1796–1811 period of homosocial cohabitation, the Parminters ornamented the property with handcrafted objects and spaces, often fabricated from souvenirs, found objects, and pieces from their family collection. While the secondary literature on A la Ronde emphasizes the appropriateness of so-called feminine crafts such as shell-work and paperwork for the decoration of a female space, this article reveals how the cousins used material objects to create complex domestic, familial, and touristic narratives. Focusing on a specimen table made around 1790, the article situates its production in relation to the histories of the Parminter family, their residence in Devon, and their extensive Continental tour. Utilizing frameworks from period travel writing, it demonstrates how the collection and creation of such objects was indivisible from the construction of narrative.
    • Re-odorization, disease and emotion in mid-nineteenth century England

      Tullett, William; University of Derby (Cambridge University Press, 2018-10-08)
      This article argues that smell’s place in nineteenth-century medicine and public health was distinctly ambiguous. Standard narratives in the history of smell argue that smell became less important in this period whilst also arguing that urban spaces were deodorized. The causal motor for the latter shift is medical theories about odour and miasma. By contrast, this article argues that sanitary practices of circulation, ventilation, and disinfection proceeded despite, not because of, medical attitudes to smell. Surgeons and physicians argued that odours were no indicator of disease causing matter and distrusted the use of smell because of its subjective qualities and resistance to linguistic definition. Yet these qualities made smell all the more powerful in sanitary literature, where it was used to generate a powerful emotional effect on readers. Histories of smell need to attend not just to deodorization but re-odorization; the disjuncture between practices of smelling and their textual or visual representation; and chronologies that track the shelving and re-deploying of ways of sensing in different times, places, and communities rather than tracking the de novo emergence of a modern western sensorium. In mid nineteenth-century England smell retained its power, but that power now came from its rhetorical rather than epistemological force.