• Losing people: a linguistic analysis of minimisation in First World War soldiers’ accounts of violence

      Penry Williams, Cara; ; Rice-Whetton, John; La Trobe University (Victoria, Australia); University of Derby; University of Melbourne (Victoria, Australia) (Palgrave, 2019-10-05)
      This chapter examines the First World War letters and diaries of Australian soldiers for insights into the relationships between language and violence, focusing on accounts of violent actions and the deaths these caused. Analysis from a corpus of writings from 22 soldiers demonstrates around two-thirds of accounts utilise linguistic resources to minimise or downplay the realities of violence. Two main approaches are generally used: figurative language (euphemism and metaphor) and language that downplays human involvement (passive voice, simplified register, nominalisation/light verb constructions, and the use of inanimate nouns in place of people involved). Our exemplification and analysis of these strategies provides insight into both soldiers’ experiences of violence and death and how they made sense of these experiences. The chapter thus adds to the understanding of First World War vernacular writing, contributes to existing scholarship by using a linguistic method of analysis, and more broadly considers the way violence is discussed.
    • A preservice teacher’s learning of instructional scaffolding in the EAL practicum

      Nguyen, Minh Hue; Penry Williams, Cara; Monash University (Victoria, Australia) (MHN); La Trobe University (Victoria, Australia) (CPW) (Australian Literacy Educator's Association, 2019-10-01)
      This qualitative case study examines how a preservice English as an Additional Language (EAL) teacher from the Faculty of Education at a large Melbourne-based university learned to scaffold EAL learning during a two-week practicum in a secondary school and the factors shaping his cognition. The data sources include individual interviews, oral reflections on lessons and recordings of those same lessons. The study was underpinned by a sociocultural perspective on scaffolding and van de Pol, Volman, and Beishuizen's (2010) framework for analysing scaffolding, which is based on a synthesis of previous models and findings. The findings indicate that the preservice teacher implemented a number of scaffolding strategies during the EAL practicum. The use of these strategies was shaped by the preservice teacher’s theoretical knowledge of scaffolding and belief about its importance, which he gained from the teacher education coursework and his prior practicum experience. Learning within practice was also found to be important in his cognition of scaffolding as through the practicum he developed knowledge about his students’ abilities and their difficulties in learning EAL, which are the basis for his contingent scaffolding strategies. Based on the findings, the paper suggests that instructional scaffolding is an important area of professional learning, especially for teachers working with EAL students, and needs to be explicitly built into teacher education in both coursework and the teaching practicum.
    • Folklinguistics and social meaning in Australian English.

      Penry Williams, Cara; La Trobe University; University of Derby (Routledge, 2019-09-12)
      Folklinguistics and Social Meaning in Australian English presents an original study of Australian English and, via this, insights into Australian society. Utilising folklinguistic accounts, it uncovers everyday understandings of contemporary Australian English through variations across linguistic systems (sounds, words, discourse and grammar). Focusing on one variation at time, it explores young speakers’ language use and their evaluations of the same forms. The analysis of talk about talk uncovers ethnic, regional and social Others in social types and prevailing ideologies around Australian English essential for understanding Australian identity-making processes, as well as providing insights and methods relevant beyond this context. These discussions demonstrate that while the linguistic variations may occur in other varieties of English, they are understood through local conceptualisations, and often as uniquely Australian. This book harnesses the value and richness of discourse in explorations of the sociocultural life of language. The findings show that analysis attending to language ideologies and identities can help discover the micro–macro links needed in understanding social meanings. The volume explores a wide range of language features but also provides a deep contemplation of Australian English.
    • “Learning to Walk”: Qing constitutional reform and Britain’s imperial pedagogy, 1901-1911

      Neuhaus, Tom; University of Derby (Routledge, 2019-08-07)
      This contribution examines British attitudes towards the Qing government’s efforts at introducing constitutional reform in China during the first decade of the twentieth century. During this period, China gradually introduced elected assemblies as well as a range of other reforms in education, civil service administration, and a number of other fields. The chapter will explore to what extent imperial ambitions shaped British understandings of the changes that occurred in the Qing Empire and whether British observers believed constitutional government would be successful. Judging from Foreign Office and consular reports, British opinion on reforms in China was ambivalent. On the one hand, there was a strong sense that Britain should support efforts at democratization, even if many consular officials believed that optimism about China's path towards constitutional government was misplaced. While there was some support for specific reforms, many observers believed that China lacked capable leaders and that the Chinese people were not truly committed to political change. On the other hand, in the aftermath of the Boxer Rebellion, there was also a growing concern that constitutional government was interwoven with a growing sense of Chinese assertiveness, nationalism, and anti-foreign sentiment. This, British consular staff feared, would endanger British interests in the region and the stability of the British Empire, particularly in regions with a significant overseas Chinese population. The ambivalence contained in this assessment of Chinese reforms was never fully resolved, but its very existence demonstrates the importance which British commentators attached to safeguarding not only Britain’s economic interests but also her status as a global symbol of constitutional government.
    • Sort of in Australian English: The elasticity of a pragmatic marker

      Mulder, Jean; Penry Williams, Cara; Moore, Erin E. F.; University of Melbourne (Victoria, Australia) (JM); La Trobe University (Victoria, Australia) (CPW); University of Derby (CPW); University of New South Wales, Canberra (A.C.T, Australia) (EEFM) (John Benjamins, 2019-05)
      This study examines the pragmatic functions of sort of in Australian English (AuE), utilising discourse from 12 months of the Australian Broadcasting Corporation’s television program Q&A. It explores the frequency of sort of uses in context with a focus on multifunctionality. Uses are classified in a data-based schema which synthesises the previously described pragmatic functions of sort of and locates these within Zhang’s (2015) Elastic Language framework. The article thus provides an understanding of the pragmatic functions of sort of in public discussion contexts within AuE, arguing, most notably, that sort of performs five of Zhang’s six functions, rather than just the two previously reported, and that in accounting for the complex uses of this pragmatic marker, a wider range of subtypes needs to be distinguished within two of the functions.
    • Appeals to semiotic registers in ethno-metapragmatic accounts of variation

      Penry Williams, Cara; La Trobe University (Victoria, Australia); University of Derby (Wiley, 2019-04-29)
      Discussions of folklinguistic accounts of language use are frequently focused on dismissing them because of their limitations. As a result, not a lot is written regarding how such accounts are done and how they ‘work’. This article examines how folklinguistic evaluations are achieved in interaction, particularly through appeals to semiotic registers (Agha 2007). It describes how in explaining their beliefs regarding linguistic variation, speakers frequently produce voicings with varying transparency. These rely on understandings of the social world and bring large collections of linguistic resources into play. They offer rich insights if analytic attention is given to their details because even when evaluating a single variant, whole ways of speaking, and even being, may be utilized. The paper explores in turn how analysis reveals the inseparability of variants, understandings of context and audience, the relationship between linguistic forms and social types, and the performance of social types via the evaluation of semiotic resources. In each section, discussion is grounded in extracts from interviews on Australian English with speakers of this variety of English. Cumulatively they show the primacy of semiotic registers in ethno-metapragmatic accounts.
    • Patient and clinician engagement with health information in the primary care waiting room: A mixed methods case study

      Penry Williams, Cara; Elliott, Kristine; Gall, Jane; Woodward-Kron, Robyn; University of Melbourne (Victoria, Australia) (Page Press, 2019-03-11)
      Background. Primary care waiting rooms can be sites of health promotion and health literacy development through the provision of readily accessible health information. To date, few studies have considered patient engagement with televised health messages in the waiting room, nor have studies investigated whether patients ask their clinicians about this information. The aim of this study was therefore to examine patient (or accompanying person) and clinician engagement with waiting room health information, including televised health messages. Design and methods. The mixed methods case study was undertaken in a regional general practice in Victoria, Australia, utilising patient questionnaires, waiting room observations, and clinician logbooks and interviews. The qualitative data were analysed by content analysis; the questionnaire data were analysed using descriptive statistics. Results. Patients engaged with a range of health information in the waiting room and reportedly received health messages from this information. 44% of the questionnaire respondents (33 of 74) reported watching the television health program, and half of these reported receiving a take home health message from this source. Only one of the clinicians (N=9) recalled a patient asking about the televised health program. Conclusions. The general practice waiting room remains a site where people engage with the available health information, with a televised health ‘infotainment’ program receiving most attention from patients. Our study showed that consumption of health information was primarily passive and tended not to activate patient discussions with clinicians. Future studies could investigate any link between the health infotainment program and behaviour change.
    • ‘The natural foundation of perfect efficiency’: Medical services and the Victorian post office

      McIlvenna, Kathleen; Brown, Douglas; Green, David R; Kingston University (Oxford University Press, 2019-01-23)
      This article explores the creation of the Post Office medical service. Working for the Post Office was relatively well-paid and an increasing number of doctors were employed. Medical provision expanded with the introduction of non-contributory pensions from mid-century and developed into a comprehensive and nationwide service that was involved at all stages of employment, from initial recruitment through to receiving a pension. Post Office doctors assessed candidates’ fitness for work, checked on sick absences, provided free medicine and advice and visited workers’ homes. Doctors were responsible for determining whether or not a worker should be pensioned off on grounds of ill health. The career of the first Chief Medical Officer, Dr Waller Lewis, also illustrates the range of other areas in which the Post Office medical service became involved, including the clinical assessment and relief of sickness as well as identifying preventative measures to improve health outcomes.
    • Addressing Ill Health: Sickness and Retirement in the Victorian Post Office.

      Green, David R; Brown, Douglas H L; McIlvenna, Kathleen; University of Derby (Oxford Academic., 2018-11-15)
      This article explores ill health and retirement in the Victorian Post Office. Compared to other branches of the Civil Service, ill health was of greater importance as a cause of retirement. Post Office doctors kept careful records of sickness absence, which rose over the period for all workers. These records were also used to determine if employees should be pensioned off on grounds of ill health. Employees in different sections of the Post Office experienced varying levels of sickness depending on their place of employment and the type of work undertaken. Feminisation of the workforce also affected the prevalence of sickness absences, especially in London. Place of work was an important influence on the pattern of sickness with urban areas having higher levels of sickness than rural districts, with distinct sets of conditions linked to each.
    • Jane Austen, free indirect style, gender and interiority in literary fiction.

      MacMahon, Barbara; University of Derby (Palgrave Macmillan, 2018-11-12)
      Austen is known for her development of free indirect style as a narrative form. Free indirect style is a fusion of narrator and character perspectives, a peculiar linguistic manipulation of deictic centres which allows for a semi-experiential representation of a character’s perceptions, thoughts and experiences. The style does not tell, it shows, and in doing so it invites close engagement with and empathetic reading of character, at the same time as maintaining the distance of a third-person narrative. This can be a powerful narrative device with complex effects.
    • Literature 1780–1830: the Romantic Period.

      Branagh-Miscampbell, Maxine; Leonardi, Barbara; Whickman, Paul; Ward, Matthew; Halsey, Katie; University of Derby (Oxford University Press, 2018-10-29)
    • Laon and Cythna and The Revolt of Islam: revisions as transition.

      Whickman, Paul; University of Derby (Taylor & Francis, 2018-10-16)
      The enforced amendments made to Laon and Cythna following its withdrawal from publication in December 1817 are generally regarded as workmanlike and prudent, sacrificing aesthetic merit in the name of compromise and self-censorship. There remain, however, few detailed readings of these modifications that go beyond subjective responses. To this end, this article offers a reading of these revisions arguing that although some are indeed functional alterations, other amendments serve thematic and aesthetic ends. One of Shelley’s most common changes, that of changing the word ‘God’ to ‘Power’, is a case in point. Since a key theme of the poem is of the collusion between political and religious tyranny, Shelley’s alteration of ‘God’ to ‘Power’ makes this connection more explicit. From this, this article concludes that these revisions signal, analogously at the very least, a transitioning point in Shelley’s thought and career. Whereas Queen Mab (1813) refers explicitly to ‘God’, later works such as Prometheus Unbound (1820) settle upon the term ‘Power’. The fact that we see Shelley move from one to the other between Laon and Cythna and The Revolt of Islam is therefore significant.
    • Re-odorization, disease and emotion in mid-nineteenth century England

      Tullett, William; University of Derby (Cambridge University Press, 2018-10-08)
      This article argues that smell’s place in nineteenth-century medicine and public health was distinctly ambiguous. Standard narratives in the history of smell argue that smell became less important in this period whilst also arguing that urban spaces were deodorized. The causal motor for the latter shift is medical theories about odour and miasma. By contrast, this article argues that sanitary practices of circulation, ventilation, and disinfection proceeded despite, not because of, medical attitudes to smell. Surgeons and physicians argued that odours were no indicator of disease causing matter and distrusted the use of smell because of its subjective qualities and resistance to linguistic definition. Yet these qualities made smell all the more powerful in sanitary literature, where it was used to generate a powerful emotional effect on readers. Histories of smell need to attend not just to deodorization but re-odorization; the disjuncture between practices of smelling and their textual or visual representation; and chronologies that track the shelving and re-deploying of ways of sensing in different times, places, and communities rather than tracking the de novo emergence of a modern western sensorium. In mid nineteenth-century England smell retained its power, but that power now came from its rhetorical rather than epistemological force.
    • Digitally-social genre fiction: Citizen authors and the changing power dynamics of writing in digital, social spaces.

      Johnson, Miriam J.; University of Derby; College of Arts, Humanities and Education, University of Derby, Derby, UK (Taylor and Francis, 2018-08-09)
      The growth of digitally social media has given rise to the citizen author, as an author who actively chooses to forgo the traditional publishing model and seeks instead to share their works among communities on social platforms. Taking into account the nature of the medium on which they write, they use genre fiction as a means to push the boundaries of what is expected of a ‘book’ or narrative structure. This article shows that, by pushing back against the structure of the author-agent-publisher model, these authors engender communities around their writing and develop relationships directly with readers. These digital villages proliferate around genre writing in online spaces, creating a shifting power dynamic between the publishing industry and the writers who choose to work in these digital spaces, blurring the differential between ‘high’ and ‘low’ art and addressing the issues of gender in genre fiction.
    • Bruno Schulz.

      Cheeseman, Matthew; University of Derby (Boiler House Press, 2018-07)
      A creative non-fiction memoir of a lost friend who introduced me to Bruno Schulz. This is a chapter in a pro-EU anthology which was published on the anniversary of Brexit in response to surges of violent British nationalism and political paranoia. Edited by JT Welsch and Ágnes Lehóczky the anthology marks the vital contribution of non-UK-born writers to the UK's poetry culture. Wretched Strangers brings together innovative writing from around the globe, celebrating the irreducible diversity such work brings to ‘British’ poetry. While documenting the challenges faced by writers from elsewhere, these pieces offer hopeful re-conceptions of ‘shared foreignness’ as Lila Matsumoto describes it, and the ‘peculiar state of exiled human,’ in Fawzi Karim’s words.
    • Pauper inventories, social relations, and the nature of poor relief under the old poor law, England, c. 1601–1834.

      Harley, Joseph; University of Derby (Cambridge University Press, 2018-06-13)
      ABSTRACT During the old poor law, many paupers had their possessions inventoried and later taken by authorities as part of the process of obtaining poor relief. Historians have known about this for decades, yet little research has been conducted to establish how widespread the system was, what types of parishioners had their belongings inventoried and why, what the legal status of the practice was, and how it affected social relations in the parish. Using nearly 450 pauper inventories, this article examines these historiographical lacunae. It is argued that the policy had no legal basis and came from local practices and policies. The system is found to be more common in the south and east of England than in the north, and it is argued that the practice gradually became less common from the late eighteenth century. The inventorying of paupers’ goods often formed one of the many creative ways in which parishes helped the poor before 1770, as it guaranteed many paupers assistance until death. However, by the late eighteenth century the appraising of paupers’ goods was closely tied to a negative shift in the attitudes of larger ratepayers and officials, who increasingly wanted to dissuade people from applying for assistance and reduce expenditure.
    • 'But now we float': Cowper, air-balloons, and the poetics of flight

      Lafford, Erin; University of Oxford (The Cowper and Newton Museum, 2018-06)
    • Like a ghost out of nowhere.

      Cheeseman, Matthew; University of Derby (Spirit Duplicator, 2018-06)
      This chapter questions disciplinary voices and explores how researchers have worked with power differentials. The whole book features researchers working across art, architecture, ethnography and creative writing discussing how multiple voices are activated and hosted in their work. Edited by Jon Orlek and designed by Jon Cannon, each copy is unique and contains a performance by Vulpes Vulpes.
    • Jane Austen free indirect style, gender and interiority in literary fiction

      MacMahon, Barbara; University of Derby (Palgrave Macmillan, 2018-05-21)
      In this chapter I suggest that Jane Austen’s use of free indirect style has a far-reaching legacy in terms of establishing the form as central to a sense of literariness in prose fiction. More particularly, I argue that Austen’s use of language metarepresents the thoughts of female characters as a dynamic process of understanding themselves and their worlds. This coincides with a more general perception, construction and performance of ‘feminine’ thought and language use as hesitant, equivocal and spontaneous. I explore the influence of Austen’s style with close analysis and comparison of passages of interiority in Austen’s Mansfield Park, Katherine Mansfield’s short story ‘Millie’ and Monica Ali’s novel Brick Lane.
    • The narrative nightclub.

      Cheeseman, Matthew; University of Derby (2018-05-04)
      This chapter brings together expertise in film and cultural studies to analyse representations of nightclub dancefloors in British films from the 1990s onwards: Human Traffic (Justin Kerrigan, 1999), Sorted (Alexander Jovy, 2000), Soul Boy (Shimmy Marcus, 2010), Everywhere and Nowhere (Menhaj Huda, 2011) and Northern Soul (Elaine Constantine, 2014). We use these films to identify persistent visual iconographies and accompanying ideological underpinnings within the British dancefloor film. To understand what these lms do not do, we also look by way of contrast to a film from France, Eden (Mia Hansen-Løve, 2014). Our approach links academic writing on dance music and nightclub cultures with analysis of filmic texts, and in doing so the chapter captures a sense of the wider discourse surrounding nightclubs and especially the dancefloors that often form their focus, on- and off-screen.