• Folklinguistics and social meaning in Australian English.

      Penry Williams, Cara; La Trobe University; University of Derby (Routledge, 2019-09-30)
      Folklinguistics and Social Meaning in Australian English presents an original study of Australian English and, via this, insights into Australian society. Utilising folklinguistic accounts, it uncovers everyday understandings of contemporary Australian English through variations across linguistic systems (sounds, words, discourse and grammar). Focusing on one variation at time, it explores young speakers’ language use and their evaluations of the same forms. The analysis of talk about talk uncovers ethnic, regional and social Others in social types and prevailing ideologies around Australian English essential for understanding Australian identity-making processes, as well as providing insights and methods relevant beyond this context. These discussions demonstrate that while the linguistic variations may occur in other varieties of English, they are understood through local conceptualisations, and often as uniquely Australian. This book harnesses the value and richness of discourse in explorations of the sociocultural life of language. The findings show that analysis attending to language ideologies and identities can help discover the micro–macro links needed in understanding social meanings. The volume explores a wide range of language features but also provides a deep contemplation of Australian English.
    • Jane Austen, free indirect style, gender and interiority in literary fiction.

      MacMahon, Barbara; University of Derby (Palgrave Macmillan, 2018-11-12)
      Austen is known for her development of free indirect style as a narrative form. Free indirect style is a fusion of narrator and character perspectives, a peculiar linguistic manipulation of deictic centres which allows for a semi-experiential representation of a character’s perceptions, thoughts and experiences. The style does not tell, it shows, and in doing so it invites close engagement with and empathetic reading of character, at the same time as maintaining the distance of a third-person narrative. This can be a powerful narrative device with complex effects.
    • Sort of in Australian English: The elasticity of a pragmatic marker

      Mulder, Jean; Penry Williams, Cara; Moore, Erin E. F.; University of Melbourne (Victoria, Australia) (JM); La Trobe University (Victoria, Australia) (CPW); University of Derby (CPW); University of New South Wales, Canberra (A.C.T, Australia) (EEFM) (John Benjamins, 2019-05)
      This study examines the pragmatic functions of sort of in Australian English (AuE), utilising discourse from 12 months of the Australian Broadcasting Corporation’s television program Q&A. It explores the frequency of sort of uses in context with a focus on multifunctionality. Uses are classified in a data-based schema which synthesises the previously described pragmatic functions of sort of and locates these within Zhang’s (2015) Elastic Language framework. The article thus provides an understanding of the pragmatic functions of sort of in public discussion contexts within AuE, arguing, most notably, that sort of performs five of Zhang’s six functions, rather than just the two previously reported, and that in accounting for the complex uses of this pragmatic marker, a wider range of subtypes needs to be distinguished within two of the functions.
    • Understanding the place of Australian English: exploring folk linguistic accounts through contemporary Australian authors

      Mulder, Jean; Penry Williams, Cara; University of Melbourne (Victoria, Australia) (JM); La Trobe University (Victoria, Australia) (CPW) (Taylor and Francis, 2018-02-19)
      This paper explores Australian English (AuE), utilising a folk linguistic approach and engaging with its use in novel-writing. It is argued that discussions by contemporary Australian authors about their approaches to writing and voicing characters, and the actual voices authors give to their characters can be used as data to gain new understandings of what language forms have social meanings within AuE. The value of this analytical approach is then illustrated with interview and text extracts from one Australian author, revealing that this type of analysis provides insights into both the folk linguistic understandings of an author and how language variation is employed within the fiction series to index local types. It is concluded that such an approach can be generalised to better understand variation in AuE as accessed by other language-focussed professions and their differing conceptualisations of language, as well as to further understand variation in other varieties of English, and in other languages.
    • ‘The natural foundation of perfect efficiency’: Medical services and the Victorian post office

      McIlvenna, Kathleen; Brown, Douglas; Green, David R; Kingston University (Oxford University Press, 2019-01-23)
      This article explores the creation of the Post Office medical service. Working for the Post Office was relatively well-paid and an increasing number of doctors were employed. Medical provision expanded with the introduction of non-contributory pensions from mid-century and developed into a comprehensive and nationwide service that was involved at all stages of employment, from initial recruitment through to receiving a pension. Post Office doctors assessed candidates’ fitness for work, checked on sick absences, provided free medicine and advice and visited workers’ homes. Doctors were responsible for determining whether or not a worker should be pensioned off on grounds of ill health. The career of the first Chief Medical Officer, Dr Waller Lewis, also illustrates the range of other areas in which the Post Office medical service became involved, including the clinical assessment and relief of sickness as well as identifying preventative measures to improve health outcomes.
    • “Learning to Walk”: Qing constitutional reform and Britain’s imperial pedagogy, 1901-1911

      Neuhaus, Tom; University of Derby (Routledge, 2019-08-07)
      This contribution examines British attitudes towards the Qing government’s efforts at introducing constitutional reform in China during the first decade of the twentieth century. During this period, China gradually introduced elected assemblies as well as a range of other reforms in education, civil service administration, and a number of other fields. The chapter will explore to what extent imperial ambitions shaped British understandings of the changes that occurred in the Qing Empire and whether British observers believed constitutional government would be successful. Judging from Foreign Office and consular reports, British opinion on reforms in China was ambivalent. On the one hand, there was a strong sense that Britain should support efforts at democratization, even if many consular officials believed that optimism about China's path towards constitutional government was misplaced. While there was some support for specific reforms, many observers believed that China lacked capable leaders and that the Chinese people were not truly committed to political change. On the other hand, in the aftermath of the Boxer Rebellion, there was also a growing concern that constitutional government was interwoven with a growing sense of Chinese assertiveness, nationalism, and anti-foreign sentiment. This, British consular staff feared, would endanger British interests in the region and the stability of the British Empire, particularly in regions with a significant overseas Chinese population. The ambivalence contained in this assessment of Chinese reforms was never fully resolved, but its very existence demonstrates the importance which British commentators attached to safeguarding not only Britain’s economic interests but also her status as a global symbol of constitutional government.
    • Old ways, new ways: Theatre artists peopling the media in Uganda

      Kasule, Samuel; University of Derby (African Theatre Association, 2018)
    • Oladipo Agboluaje’s mother courage as an “African” play

      Kasule, Samuel; University of Derby (African Theatre Association, 2018)
    • Jane Austen free indirect style, gender and interiority in literary fiction

      MacMahon, Barbara; University of Derby (Palgrave Macmillan, 2018-05-21)
      In this chapter I suggest that Jane Austen’s use of free indirect style has a far-reaching legacy in terms of establishing the form as central to a sense of literariness in prose fiction. More particularly, I argue that Austen’s use of language metarepresents the thoughts of female characters as a dynamic process of understanding themselves and their worlds. This coincides with a more general perception, construction and performance of ‘feminine’ thought and language use as hesitant, equivocal and spontaneous. I explore the influence of Austen’s style with close analysis and comparison of passages of interiority in Austen’s Mansfield Park, Katherine Mansfield’s short story ‘Millie’ and Monica Ali’s novel Brick Lane.
    • A preservice teacher’s learning of instructional scaffolding in the EAL practicum

      Nguyen, Minh Hue; Penry Williams, Cara; Monash University (Victoria, Australia) (MHN); La Trobe University (Victoria, Australia) (CPW) (Australian Literacy Educator's Association, 2019)
      This qualitative case study examines how a preservice English as an Additional Language (EAL) teacher from the Faculty of Education at a large Melbourne-based university learned to scaffold EAL learning during a two-week practicum in a secondary school and the factors shaping his cognition. The data sources include individual interviews, oral reflections on lessons and recordings of those same lessons. The study was underpinned by a sociocultural perspective on scaffolding and van de Pol, Volman, and Beishuizen's (2010) framework for analysing scaffolding, which is based on a synthesis of previous models and findings. The findings indicate that the preservice teacher implemented a number of scaffolding strategies during the EAL practicum. The use of these strategies was shaped by the preservice teacher’s theoretical knowledge of scaffolding and belief about its importance, which he gained from the teacher education coursework and his prior practicum experience. Learning within practice was also found to be important in his cognition of scaffolding as through the practicum he developed knowledge about his students’ abilities and their difficulties in learning EAL, which are the basis for his contingent scaffolding strategies. Based on the findings, the paper suggests that instructional scaffolding is an important area of professional learning, especially for teachers working with EAL students, and needs to be explicitly built into teacher education in both coursework and the teaching practicum.
    • Appeals to semiotic registers in ethno-metapragmatic accounts of variation

      Penry Williams, Cara; La Trobe University (Victoria, Australia); University of Derby (Wiley, 2019-04-29)
      Discussions of folklinguistic accounts of language use are frequently focused on dismissing them because of their limitations. As a result, not a lot is written regarding how such accounts are done and how they ‘work’. This article examines how folklinguistic evaluations are achieved in interaction, particularly through appeals to semiotic registers (Agha 2007). It describes how in explaining their beliefs regarding linguistic variation, speakers frequently produce voicings with varying transparency. These rely on understandings of the social world and bring large collections of linguistic resources into play. They offer rich insights if analytic attention is given to their details because even when evaluating a single variant, whole ways of speaking, and even being, may be utilized. The paper explores in turn how analysis reveals the inseparability of variants, understandings of context and audience, the relationship between linguistic forms and social types, and the performance of social types via the evaluation of semiotic resources. In each section, discussion is grounded in extracts from interviews on Australian English with speakers of this variety of English. Cumulatively they show the primacy of semiotic registers in ethno-metapragmatic accounts.
    • Losing people: A linguistic analysis of minimisation in First World War soldiers’ accounts of violence

      Penry Williams, Cara; ; Rice-Whetton, John; La Trobe University (Victoria, Australia); University of Derby; University of Melbourne (Victoria, Australia) (Palgrave, 2019)
      This chapter examines the First World War letters and diaries of Australian soldiers for insights into the relationships between language and violence, focusing on accounts of violent actions and the deaths these caused. Analysis from a corpus of writings from 22 soldiers demonstrates around two-thirds of accounts utilise linguistic resources to minimise or downplay the realities of violence. Two main approaches are generally used: figurative language (euphemism and metaphor) and language that downplays human involvement (passive voice, simplified register, nominalisation/light verb constructions, and the use of inanimate nouns in place of people involved). Our exemplification and analysis of these strategies provides insight into both soldiers’ experiences of violence and death and how they made sense of these experiences. The chapter thus adds to the understanding of First World War vernacular writing, contributes to existing scholarship by using a linguistic method of analysis, and more broadly considers the way violence is discussed.
    • Swimming in the ‘fishpond’ or solidarity with the ‘Beresfordian Syndicate’: An analysis of the inquiry by the subcommittee of imperial defence into Naval policy, 1909

      McLay, Keith; Canterbury Christ Church University (IJN, 2015-01-15)
      Modern histories of the army and navy have long recognised that these institutions are in respect of their external and internal relationships, sui generis, political. The former relations, typically manifest in a competition for resources and prominence in campaign, have retained headline currency but it is arguably the latter associations which have proved more pointed and historically significant. 1 For the Royal Navy, the Edwardian period was especially divisive with the high command, and the officer corps more generally, split into two groups. A dominant collection of officers coalesced around the First Sea Lord, 1904-11, Sir John Arbuthnot Fisher, thereby forming the ‘Fishpond’, while the opposition faction was known as the ‘Syndicate of Discontent’ and fostered by Admiral Lord Charles Beresford, who between 1903 and 1909 served successively as Commander-in-Chief of the Channel Squadron and the Mediterranean and Channel Fleets.
    • Patient and clinician engagement with health information in the primary care waiting room: A mixed methods case study

      Penry Williams, Cara; Elliott, Kristine; Gall, Jane; Woodward-Kron, Robyn; University of Melbourne (Victoria, Australia) (Page Press, 2019-03-11)
      Background. Primary care waiting rooms can be sites of health promotion and health literacy development through the provision of readily accessible health information. To date, few studies have considered patient engagement with televised health messages in the waiting room, nor have studies investigated whether patients ask their clinicians about this information. The aim of this study was therefore to examine patient (or accompanying person) and clinician engagement with waiting room health information, including televised health messages. Design and methods. The mixed methods case study was undertaken in a regional general practice in Victoria, Australia, utilising patient questionnaires, waiting room observations, and clinician logbooks and interviews. The qualitative data were analysed by content analysis; the questionnaire data were analysed using descriptive statistics. Results. Patients engaged with a range of health information in the waiting room and reportedly received health messages from this information. 44% of the questionnaire respondents (33 of 74) reported watching the television health program, and half of these reported receiving a take home health message from this source. Only one of the clinicians (N=9) recalled a patient asking about the televised health program. Conclusions. The general practice waiting room remains a site where people engage with the available health information, with a televised health ‘infotainment’ program receiving most attention from patients. Our study showed that consumption of health information was primarily passive and tended not to activate patient discussions with clinicians. Future studies could investigate any link between the health infotainment program and behaviour change.
    • 'But now we float': Cowper, air-balloons, and the poetics of flight

      Lafford, Erin; University of Oxford (The Cowper and Newton Museum, 2018-06)
    • Clare's mutterings, murmurings, and ramblings: the sounds of health

      Lafford, Erin; University of Oxford (The John Clare Society, 2014-07)
      Clare is valued as a poet of direct communication. His poems are filled with Northamptonshire dialect that fosters an instantaneous connection to his local environment, creating an immediate sense of place though sound. Likewise, Clare’s representations of natural sounds, such as the ‘whewing’ of the pewit, the ‘swop’ of the jay bird as it flies, and the ‘chickering crickets’, have a mimetic quality that creates a direct experience of what he hears.1 Seamus Heaney grouped Clare with what he called ‘monoglot geniuses’, meaning that he had a gift for conveying through poetry a ‘univocal homeplace’ that his readers could understand without necessarily belonging to that place themselves.2 However, this idea of Clare as a poet of such direct coherency is complicated by his madness or, specifically, by his repeated usage of a vocalisation which carries connotations of madness. This essay will consider the ways that Clare represents health and madness at the level of sound, by bringing them into relationship with a mode of speaking that recurs throughout his poetry and prose: his use of muttering. It will suggest that Clare’s poetic investment in muttering and the sub-vocal register as both a personalised, therapeutic mode of self-address, and a way to foster a deep poetic relationship with his natural surroundings, comes to complicate his formal representation of health as a clear ‘strong voice’.
    • Addressing Ill Health: Sickness and Retirement in the Victorian Post Office.

      Green, David R; Brown, Douglas H L; McIlvenna, Kathleen; University of Derby (Oxford Academic., 2018-11-15)
      This article explores ill health and retirement in the Victorian Post Office. Compared to other branches of the Civil Service, ill health was of greater importance as a cause of retirement. Post Office doctors kept careful records of sickness absence, which rose over the period for all workers. These records were also used to determine if employees should be pensioned off on grounds of ill health. Employees in different sections of the Post Office experienced varying levels of sickness depending on their place of employment and the type of work undertaken. Feminisation of the workforce also affected the prevalence of sickness absences, especially in London. Place of work was an important influence on the pattern of sickness with urban areas having higher levels of sickness than rural districts, with distinct sets of conditions linked to each.
    • Criminal Lives 1780-1925: Punishing Old Bailey Convicts

      Allwork Larissa; Robert Shoemaker; Tim Hitchcock; AHRC Digital Panopticon (London Metropolitan Archives, 2017-12-11)
      Between 1700 and 1900 the British government stopped punishing the bodies of London’s convicts and increasingly sought to exile them and/or reform their minds. From hanging, branding and whipping the response to crime shifted to transportation and imprisonment. By the nineteenth century, judges chose between two contrasting forms of punishments: exile and forced labour in Australia, or incarceration in strictly controlled ‘reformatory’ prisons at home. This exhibition, based on material from London Metropolitan Archives and the AHRC funded Digital Panopticon research project, traces the impact of punishments on individual lives. It follows the men, women and children convicted in London from their crimes and trials through to their experiences of punishment and their subsequent lives.
    • Literature 1780–1830: the Romantic Period.

      Branagh-Miscampbell, Maxine; Leonardi, Barbara; Whickman, Paul; Ward, Matthew; Halsey, Katie; University of Derby (Oxford University Press, 2018-10-29)
    • Why use mimeograph?

      Cheeseman, Matthew; University of Derby (2016)