Recent Submissions

  • A common language and shared understanding?: Corpus approaches in support of system responses to family violence

    Penry Williams, Cara; Stebbins, Tonya N.; University of Derby; La Trobe University, Victoria, Australia (Edinburgh University Press, 2023)
    Family violence is an enduring social problem with devastating impacts. The Victorian Government (Australia) Royal Commission (state inquiry) into Family Violence (RCFV) noted that language is implicated in underreporting and under-recording of violence and emphasised the importance of agencies having ‘a common language’ and ‘shared understanding’ of family violence. Our analyses examine written submissions to the RCFV for frequencies and collocations, focussed on the construction and roles of human referents. We utilised corpus assisted discourse analysis to explore if community service and law-based professional bodies do have common vocabularies and if these represent shared ideas, responding directly to agendas set by those involved. Analyses show key differences but also undercover a shared lack of agency given to victims and a loss of focus on the role of those who inflict these forms of violence. We argue for the utility of corpus linguistic methods to empirically show how language is used to construct conceptualisations of family violence across key sectors of the service system. We intend this research as a starting point for discussion between professionals working to improve cross-sector communication, by bringing linguistic insights to this deep-rooted social issue.
  • Discovering intercultural communication: From language users to language use

    Kim, Hyejeong; Penry Williams, Cara; University of Melbourne, Australia; University of Derby; La Trobe University, Australia (Palgrave Macmillan / Springer, 2021-12-26)
    This textbook provides a succinct, contemporary introduction to intercultural communication with a focus on actual language use. With English as a lingua franca and Communicative Accommodation Theory as the underpinning concepts, it explores communication, language use, and culture in action. Each chapter includes discourse extracts so that students can apply what they have learned to real text examples, and supplementary instructor materials including suggestions for discussion points and activities are hosted on springer.com. The book will be key reading for students taking modules on Intercultural Communication or Language, Culture and Communication as part of a degree in Linguistics and Applied Linguistics, or English Language both at undergraduate and postgraduate level.
  • Curating the Canon: Editorial Decision-Making, Bias and Privilege in Publishing

    Barker, David; University of Derby (Lectito Journals, 2021-07-31)
    In September 2003, the independent publishing house Continuum launched a book series under the banner of “33 1/3”. These were, in the publisher's own promotional literature, “short books about classic albums”. But who decides what constitutes a classic album, and who decides which authors should write such books? Using an autoethnographic approach to analyse the curatorial thinking and strategy behind this book series, and through close analysis of the online discourse around it, the article innovates by exploring the commercial and curatorial practice of one publishing imprint in the first decade of the 2000s. By focusing closely on the work of one editor and drawing on primary data concerning book proposals that were accepted or rejected as well as reader reactions to those decisions, I illustrate how decisions are made and how editorial bias might impact the authorial voices that publishers choose to amplify. Finally, the article examines curatorial practice in publishing in light of more recent discussions of inequalities and imbalances of power (along both gender and ethnic lines) in the industry.
  • Andersen’s Scissors: Cutting his own shape

    McCrory, Moy; University of Derby (National Association of Writers in Education, 2019)
    Hans Christian Andersen worked in a variety of written forms beyond children’s stories and also as a visual artist, sketching for his diaries, travel writing and journals. If he wrote in the anonymous tradition of fairy tales Andersen’s work for children is full of individual responses. “The Little Mermaid” while strong on folk motifs is also about personal yearning and we can read here the shift he made in his lifetime between social classes, as if from one element to another. Although better known as a writer, an examination of some of his lesser known visual work, namely a surprising range of paper cut outs, shows recognisable figures and key images cut into this form which he used in performance as a storyteller. A study of these images which do not always figure in his writings, suggest that other meanings and disguises were adopted by the author. If in writing he chose to work in fabulation where a lack of reality allowed him to disguise himself inside the heart of a story, did the paper cut outs with their repeated motifs extend the possibilities for disguise and allow him to hide in plain sight.
  • Erasmus Darwin's Gardens: Medicine, Agriculture and the Sciences in the Eighteenth Century

    Elliott, Paul; University of Derby (Boydell and Brewer, 2021-06)
    Famous as the author of the Botanic Garden (1791) and grandfather of Charles Darwin (1809-1882), Erasmus Darwin (1731-1802) was a larger-than-life enlightenment natural philosopher (scientist) and writer who practised as a doctor across the English Midlands for nearly half a century. A practical gardener and horticulturist, Darwin created a botanic garden near Lichfield - which galvanised his poetry - and kept other gardens, an orchard and small "farm" in Derby. Informed by his medical practice and botanical studies, Darwin saw many parallels between animals, plants and humans which aroused hostility during the years of revolution, warfare and reaction, but helped him to write Zoonomia (1794/96) and Phytologia (1800) - his major studies of medicine, agriculture and gardening. Captivated by the changing landscapes and environments of town and country and supported by social networks such as those in Lichfield and Derby, Darwin avidly exchanged ideas about plants, animals and their diseases with family, patients, friends such as the poet Anna Seward (1742-1809), farmers, fellow doctors, huntsmen and even the local mole catcher. The is the first full study of Erasmus Darwin's gardening, horticulture and agriculture. It shows him as keen a nature enthusiast as his contemporary Rev. Gilbert White of Selbourne (1720-1793) or his grandson Charles, fascinated with everything from swarming insects and warring bees to domestic birds and dogs, pigs and livestock on his farm to fungi growing from horse dung in Derby tan yards. Ranging over his observations of plant physiology and anatomy to the use of plant "bandages" in his orchard and electrical machines to hasten seed germination to explosive studies of vegetable "brains", nerves and sensations, the book demonstrates the ways in which Erasmus Darwin's landscape and garden experiences transformed his understanding of nature. They provided him with insights into medicine and the environmental causes of diseases, the classification of plants and animals, chemistry, evolution, potential new medicines and foodstuffs and the ecological interdependency of the natural economy. Like the amorous vegetables of the Loves of the Plants (1789) which fascinated, scandalised and titillated late Georgian society, the many living creatures of Darwin's gardens and farm encountered in this book were for him real, dynamic, interacting and evolving beings who helped inspire and re-affirm his progressive social and political outlook.
  • Death, landscape and memorialisation in Victorian urban society: Nottingham's General Cemetery (1837) and Church Cemetery (1856)

    Elliott, Paul; University of Derby (The Thoroton Society, 2021-05-13)
    This article argues that through their buildings, landscaping, planting, monuments and management, Nottingham’s Victorian garden cemeteries functioned as heterotopias and heterochronias enabling visitors to traverse the globe, serving as portals to remote places and linking past with present and future and the living and dead. By the 1820s, the town faced problems associated with a high population density, crowded churchyards and poor public health, exacerbated by space restrictions caused by burgess rights to surrounding common lands. From the 1830s campaigners called for a comprehensive enclosure act with associated public green spaces intended to compensate the burgesses for loss of rights of common. As the first specially-designed public green space established under the reformed corporation, the General Cemetery (1837) played a crucial role in winning support for the Nottingham Enclosure Act (1845). This enabled the creation of the Nottingham Arboretum (1852) and other interconnected public parks and walks, providing additional space for the General Cemetery and land for a new Anglican Church Cemetery (1856). Landscaped and planted like a country-house garden with some (but not universal) interdenominational support, the General Cemetery provided a model for the public parks laid out after the 1845 act. It was also seen as an arboretum because of its extensive tree collection, which pre-dated the arboretums in Derby (1840) and Nottingham (1852). The Church Cemetery too, with its commanding location, landscaping, planting, antiquities and rich historical associations, likewise effectively served as another public park. Although quickly joined by other urban and suburban cemeteries in the Nottingham vicinity, the two Victorian garden cemeteries served the needs of a modern industrial population whilst invoking memories of communities long gone. Like the botanical gardens, arboretums, art galleries, museums and libraries, the two cemeteries were intended to further the objectives of middle-class rational recreationists as well as to serve moral and religious purposes and foster urban identity, even if, like them, they remained institutions divided by class and religion.
  • Teaching ‘freedom of speech’ freely

    Whickman, Paul; University of Derby (Manchester University Press, 2020-11-20)
    Despite being on the teaching front line, academics are commonly excluded from debates concerning the supposed ‘free speech’ crisis on campuses. This chapter offers an academic perspective, arguing that the increasingly common perception of students as sensitive or censorious is not borne out in the classroom. This chapter is particularly inspired by experiences over the past five years in teaching on literary censorship, offence and ‘freedom of speech’ in literature from the seventeenth century to the present day. Following this anecdotal experience, this chapter turns to argue that much of the furore concerning free speech on university campuses comes from a position of bad faith; to insist, as many commentators do, that no topic should be off-limits, is commonly not applied to the very concept of ‘freedom of speech’ itself, despite its loose definition and weighty cultural baggage. In addition, it argues that freedom of speech, like all ‘freedoms’, involves being freed from things as much as it involves being left free to do them. This has important teaching implications. To encourage the ‘freest’ speech in the classroom is to discourage monopoly of conversation; this requires a respectful, diverse environment. It concludes that the weaponisation of ‘free speech’ commonly undermines itself as it is demonstrably more concerned with the preservation of the voices of particularly privileged groups than in encouraging plurality of opinion.
  • I wouldn't start from here: The second-generation Irish in Britain

    French, Ray; McCrory, Moy; Mckay, Kath; University of Derby (The Wild Geese Press, 2019-04-08)
    The Wild Geese Press launches with a collection to showcase second-generation Irish writers in Britain. Not quite British, not quite Irish, through their essays, fiction and poetry about music, family, and history these distinguished writers explore questions of identity and belonging and ask the perennial question: where is home – here or Ireland? The writers gathered here hold up a mirror to the diverse and complicated experience of the Irish in Britain. The collection features essays, fiction and poetry from Elizabeth Baines, Maude Casey, Ray French, Maria C. McCarthy, Moy McCrory, Kath Mckay and John O’Donoghue and many more.
  • Consumption and material culture of poverty in early-modern Europe, c.1450-1800

    Harley, Joseph; University of Derby (Routledge, 2020-12-31)
  • Ramblings: A walk in progress (or the minutes of the International Society of the Imaginary Perambulator)

    Cheeseman, Matthew; Chakrabarti, Gautam; Österlund-Pötzsch, Susanne; Poole, Dani; Schrire, Dani; Seltzer, Daniella; Tainio, Matti; University of Derby (Routledge, 2020-07-14)
    In this paper, seven writers experiment with ethnographic and artistic responses to each other’s walking practices. The point of departure is a panel held at a conference at the University of Jyväskylä.1 In the morning session, five papers were presented and discussed. In the afternoon the panellists and audience engaged in a series of walking experiments that took us outside the confines of the lecture room, and indeed, the conference venue. In this chapter, we (the panel presenters and cochairs) re-embody this moment by walking together, writing together and engaging our understanding of self and our experiences of walking. This sense of experimentation is open to the reader, to whom we extend an invitation to travel with us through the process of ethnographic knowledge production. Walking is a pedestrian activity peculiarly elusive to academic categorisation. It engages the emotions, involves the senses, invites creativity, brings forth memories and provokes the imagination. All are notoriously difficult to capture in ethnographic writing. Consequently, some of the questions we approached in our initial meeting were focused on possibilities: how can the intangible experience of walking be conveyed in writing? Can walking be archived? What happens in the process of textualisation? Can genres like creative writing and ethnographic fiction help us understand and communicate the “unwritable”, including those emotive, mobile and sensory aspects? Finally, we wanted to know whether walking could be used as a hermeneutic tool – could enactment elucidate that which evades ethnographic description?
  • Identities and communities: negotiating working-class identity in the regional press

    Steel, John; University of Sheffield (Edinburgh University Press, 2020-11)
    This chapter examines of how regional newspapers sought to represent working-class interests during three distinctive periods of the twentieth century: the 1930s, the 1950s and the 1980s. In doing so, it examines the negotiation newspapers had to make between national and regional identity as well as class and ideological affiliation. The chapter also provides a more focused case study as an example of where regional and national editorial agendas were negotiated around a particular issue – the Sheffield marches for free speech in 1914 in the pages of the Sheffield Daily Telegraph. The case study and the three historical periods under examination emphasise stories which signal the ways in which working-class identity is being negotiated within their specific constituencies by emphasising key ideological parameters of this negotiation. The material presented here stresses how, in seeking to represent and reflect (Bell 1984) both the distinctive local character of their readership and also a particular moral and political outlook, regional newspapers were seeking to provide a more nuanced and less confrontational news product than their national counterparts. Such nuance reflects the process of negotiation as regional newspapers were pulled, Janus-faced, in two opposing directions: one that sought to connect with and reflect their readers’ interests, the other reinforcing particular notions of place and class status – the more explicit ideological character of newspapers’ coverage. Though negotiation resonates in a wide variety of stories and newspaper content, it is at its most stark when the regional titles cover topics centred around economic hardship, industrial disputes and party-political affiliation and it is these stories that form the main focus of this survey.
  • Letters to the editor: Comparative and historical perspectives

    Steel, John; Cavanagh, Alison; University of Sheffield; University of Leeds (Springer Nature/ Palgrave Macmillan, 2019-10)
    This book provides an account of current work on letters to the editor from a range of different national, cultural, conceptual and methodological perspectives. Letters to the editor provide a window on the reflexive relationship between editorial and readership identities in historical and international contexts. They are a forum through which the personal and the political intersect, a space wherein the implications of contemporaneous events are worked out by citizens and public figures alike, and in which the meaning and significance of unfolding media narratives and events are interpreted and contested. They can also be used to understand the multiple and overlapping ways that particular issues recur over sometimes widely distinct periods. This collection brings together scholars who have helped open up letters to the editor as a resource for scholarship and whose work in this book continues to provide new insights into the relationship between journalism and its publics.
  • ‘Making voices heard …’: index on censorship as advocacy journalism

    Steel, John; University of Sheffield (Sage, 2018-03-14)
    The magazine Index on Censorship has sought, since its launch in 1972, to provide a space where censorship and abuses against freedom of expression have been identified, highlighted and challenged. Originally set up by a collection of writers and intellectuals who were concerned at the levels of state censorship and repression of artists in and under the influence of the Soviet Union and elsewhere, ‘Index’ has provided those championing the values of freedom of expression with a platform for highlighting human rights abuses, curtailment of civil liberties and formal and informal censorship globally. Charting its inception and development between 1971 and 1974, the article is the first to situate the journal within the specific academic literature on activist media. In doing so, the article advances an argument which draws on the drivers and motivations behind the publication’s launch to signal the development of a particular justification or ‘advocacy’ of a left-libertarian civic model of freedom of speech.
  • A sociolinguistic perspective on the (quasi-)modals of obligation and necessity in Australian English

    Penry Williams, Cara; Korhonen, Minna; University of Derby (CPW); La Trobe University (Victoria, Australia) (CPW); Macquarie University (New South W,ales Australia) (MK) (John Benjamins, 2020-11-09)
    This article examines the distribution and sociolinguistic patterning of (quasi-)modals which express strong obligation/necessity, namely must, have to, have got to, got to and need to, in Australian English. Variationist studies in other varieties of English have had contrasting findings in terms of distributions of root forms, as well as their conditioning by social and linguistic factors. The corpus analysis suggests real-time increased use of need to and decrease in have got to through comparison to earlier findings. The variationist analysis shows quasi-modals have to, have got to and got to as sensitive to speaker age and sex, and a recent increase of have to via apparent time modelling. Linguistic conditioning relating to the type of obligation and subject form is also found. The study contributes to sociolinguistic understanding of this large-scale change in English and the place of Australian English amongst other varieties.
  • Enlightenment science, technology and the industrial revolution: a case study of the Derby philosophers c1750-1820

    Elliott, Paul; University of Derby (Arkwright Society, Cromford, 2020-08-30)
    After briefly reviewing the historiography of Enlightenment science, industry and the Derby philosophers, this essay examines industry and science in eighteenth-century Derby and the industrial orientation of the philosophical societies. It then explores the relationship between the leading entrepreneurs and manufacturers Jedediah Strutt and Richard Arkwright and the ‘Derby Philosophers’, demonstrating how much they gained from their association with the Derby Philosophical Society. This is especially evident, as it demonstrates when we consider the case of Erasmus Darwin, first president of the Society, and how as a physician, avid mechanic and experimenter, he helped meld the worlds of Enlightenment science and industry. Likewise, whilst the struggles that Arkwright experienced over his patents during the 1780s has been often described, viewing these from the perspective of the Derby Philosophers adds a new dimension to our understanding of the relationship between scientific associations, industrial innovation and entrepreneurialism. The article concludes with a critical investigation of the role of the sciences in agriculture and domestic economy and the part played by the Derby Philosophers in promoting scientific education for what they believed to be the benefit of industry and manufactures.
  • Here’s looking at youse: Understanding the place of yous(e) in Australian English

    Mulder, Jean; Penry Williams, Cara; University of Melbourne, Australia; University of Derby (Springer, 2020-08-31)
    This chapter further documents the place of yous(e) in Australian English (AuE) by analyzing occurrences in Australian literature taken from the Macquarie Dictionary’s OzCorp. Firstly, we substantiate that in AuE yous(e) has developed a singular usage alongside the plural. Analysis of the reference in 308 tokens within our subcorpus of literature finds 40% clearly have a singular referent and that such forms occur in just over half of the texts. Secondly, we provide an analysis of its social evaluation as a stigmatized form by examining its utilization in the voices authors give to their characters. Focussing on texts with high use, we uncover yous(e) is linked both to particular ‘types’ and to certain fictional worlds/milieus. In both cases, the authors draw on understandings of it as Australian and working class, with recognition of its claimed Irish origins only (potentially) indirectly indexed.
  • "Mild health I seek thee": Clare and Bloomfield at the limits of pastoral

    Lafford, Erin; University of Derby (Taylor & Francis, 2020)
    In The Country and the City (1973), Raymond Williams dismantled the “pastoral assumption” that the rural laboring class were pictures of health and vitality, uncovering instead the reality of embodied suffering in laboring-class poetry. This essay considers how Robert Bloomfield and John Clare interrogated this “pastoral assumption” of rural health, suggesting that to claim they merely rejected it risks losing sight of their subtle forms of poetic critique. The body, mind, and verse of laboring-class poets were subject to simultaneous cultural narratives of robust health and sickly weakness, within which Bloomfield and Clare had to forge their own distinctive poetic voices. They wrote poems, I argue, that ostensibly upheld a pastoral ideal of health emanating from the natural world, but also critiqued this ideal through an artful hesitancy, especially in their use of apostrophe. I consider the influence of Bloomfield’s “To My Old Oak Table” (1806), and “Shooter’s Hill” (1806) on Clare’s early poem “To Health” (1821) and one of his middle-period sonnets in particular. Far from being uncomfortable or under-confident in the pastoral mode, Bloomfield and Clare brought their own aesthetic experiments and experiences of precarious health to bear on some of its key tropes.
  • 'fancys or feelings': John Clare's hypochondriac poetics

    Lafford, Erin; University of Derby (Palgrave Macmillan, 2020-09-18)
    Clare’s mental and physical health has long been a source of interest and contention in his critical reception. Approaches to his ‘madness’ have ranged from retroactive diagnoses of bipolar disorder, to interrogations of insanity as a discourse of clinical power. If the result of these debates is that critics are more willing to read pathology as performance, or even to suggest that Clare’s disorder might not have been straightforwardly ‘real’, then this essay asks what can be gained from returning to some fleeting claims about the poet’s mental and physical health that express a struggle between reality and imagination, but have not yet received sufficient attention. I refer here to suggestions, both from his contemporary moment and from his subsequent critical reception, that Clare was a hypochondriac. Clare has been overlooked in critical conversations that discuss the significance of hypochondria as a facet of the Romantic medical imagination and cultivation of ‘fashionable disease’ but, as I hope to show, hypochondria should be taken seriously as a conceptual lens through which to read his poetic imagination in relation to illness and disorder. Hypochondria occupies a distinct interpretative space of uncertainty and of literary associations that, this essay argues, is better able to approach Clare on his own terms. I consider hypochondria in two interrelated ways: as a social and literary culture that Clare wanted to participate in and that also framed some of his writing, and as a form of poetic imagination and attention that emerged from Clare’s anxious scrutiny of his own body and mind. I also explore, through a final reading of a sonnet Clare published in the London Magazine in 1821, how hypochondria can become an important lens through which to consider his lyric subjectivity, uncovering as it does the ambiguously pathological experiences or registers that might disrupt his observation of the natural world.
  • Palgrave advances in John Clare studies

    Kovesi, Simon; Lafford, Erin; Oxford Brookes University; University of Derby (Palgrave Macmillan, 2020-09-18)
    Contributes to ongoing conversations about John Clare's work while offering new perspectives and directions on Clare scholarship, in an accessible writing style Serves as both a useful introduction to Clare and his work for students that are new to it, and a rich resource for scholars already working in the area Essays look at interdisciplinary topics including ecocriticism, environmental humanities, medical humanities, and posthumanism Features essays from established and early career scholars Is comprehensive in its coverage of popular and new topics in Clare studies.

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