• Energy efficiency of selected OECD countries: A slacks based model with undesirable outputs.

      Apergis, Nicholas; Aye, Goodness; Barros, Carlos Pestana; Gupta, Ragan; Wanke, Peter; University of Pretoria; University of Lisbon; Federal University of Rio de Janeiro; Northumbria University (Elsevier, 2015-06-23)
      This paper presents an efficiency assessment of selected OECD countries using a Slacks Based Model with undesirable or bad outputs (SBM-Undesirable). In this research, SBM-Undesirable is used first in a two-stage approach to assess the relative efficiency of OECD countries using the most frequent indicators adopted by the literature on energy efficiency. Besides, in the second stage, GLMM–MCMC methods are combined with SBM-Undesirable results as part of an attempt to produce a model for energy performance with effective predictive ability. The results reveal different impacts of contextual variables, such as economic blocks and capital–labor ratio, on energy efficiency levels.
    • Environmental Kuznets curves: New evidence on both panel and country-level CO2 emissions.

      Apergis, Nicholas; University of Piraeus (Elsevier., 2015-12-18)
      Using data on per capita CO2 emissions and per capita real GDP from fifteen countries, spanning the period 1960–2013, this paper tests the validity of the Environmental Kuznets Curve (EKC) using both panel-based and time-series-based methodological approaches of cointegration. Given that the EKC hypothesis postulates an inverted U-shaped relationship between emissions and output, the study tests for cointegration between per capita CO2 emissions, per capita real GDP and the squared values of per capita real GDP. The evidence from panel cointegration methodologies is mixed. This result might arise due to time dependence of cointegrating coefficients. The time-varying cointegration approaches provide strong evidence in favor of time-varying cointegration parameters. Furthermore, based on the quantile cointegration approach, the results indicate that the EKC hypothesis holds in 12 out of the 15 countries. However, even for these three countries, the EKC hypothesis seems to hold at certain quantiles.
    • Environmentalism in the EU-28 context: the impact of governance quality on environmental energy efficiency

      Apergis, Nicholas; Garćıa, Claudia; University of Derby; University of Granada (Springer, 2019-11-19)
      Environmental policies are a significant cornerstone of a developed economy, but the question that arises is whether such policies lead to a sustainable growth path. It is clear that the energy sector plays a pivotal role in environmental policies, and although the current literature has focused on examining the link between energy consumption and economic growth through an abundance of studies, it does not explicitly consider the role of institutional or governance quality variables in the process. Both globalization and democracy are important drivers of sustainability, while environmentalism is essential for the objective of gaining a “better world.” Governance quality is expected to be the key, not only for economic purposes but also for the efficiency of environmental policies. To that end, the analysis in this paper explores the link between governance quality and energy efficiency for the EU-28 countries, spanning the period 1995 to 2014. The findings document that there is a nexus between energy efficiency and income they move together: the most efficient countries are in the group with higher GDP per capita. Furthermore, the results show that governance quality is an important driver of energy efficiency and, hence, of environmental policies.
    • An estimation of the natural rate of unemployment in Greece.

      Apergis, Nicholas; University of Macedonia (Elsevier, 2005-01-19)
      This paper estimates the natural rate of unemployment for Greece over the 1983–2000 period. The results show a rising natural rate of unemployment. The rate increased from 5.0% in 1983 to 7.2% in 2000. The slowdown in productivity, the rising share of female workers with higher unemployment rates, a higher number of illegal foreign workers, and the problem of insider–outsider could be considered as potential contributors to the rising natural rate.
    • Evaluating local implementation: An evidence based approach.

      Wond, Tracey; Macaulay, Michael; University of Teesside (Taylor and Francis, 2010-03)
      This article, based on data collected from a year-long study, investigates the evaluation of a UK local government policy implementation and the use of evaluation data as an evidence-base for public policy (Bovaird & Loeffler, 2007; McCoy & Hargie, 2001; Schofield, 2004; Stern, 2008). Our case study highlights a number of issues. First, uncertainty and ambiguity of policy direction inhibiting the establishment of clear evaluation goals, which, second, results in frustration among stakeholders at a perceived disparity between what we term problem-inspired policy and problem-solving policy. Finally, this perception can be compounded by a lack of consideration for local variations of, for example, specific cultures, geographies or historical contexts. In responding to these problems our article argues that regardless of where policy control and decision-making occurs, the importance of the experiences of policy-implementers at a local level (where subject/geographical/cultural specialism and familiarisation exists) is crucial.
    • Evaluation for what purpose? Findings from two stakeholder groups

      Wond, Tracey; University of Derby (Springer Singapore, 2018-07-03)
      A host of reasons exist for the pursuit of evidence in the public sector, including to support good governance and policy development. As the expectations for program evaluation from policymakers have evolved, so too has evaluation practice and a great deal of experimentalism has ensued. There is a risk that these developments and the complexity inherent in them, may lead to conflicting expectations about why program evaluation is done, or even a loss of purpose. This prompts the meso-level analysis of two types of stakeholders in a governance network, explored in this chapter. This chapter presents the findings of an ongoing study which explores the perceptions of program evaluators and policy implementers towards the purpose of evidence. The findings suggest that program evaluators and policy implementers have divergent expectations of why and how evaluation data might be used. The findings suggest that program evaluators aspire to support change and enhance the policy domains they serve, whereas policy implementers perceive program evaluation as serving a more governance-/management-orientated role. The chapter demonstrates the complexity of both program evaluation and policy and may have implications for the twin pillars of governance and responsibility at the heart of the book. If governance and responsibility are the twin pillars of sustainability then the complex networks of relationships, expectations, values, and outcomes may need to be considered. The findings also have implications for evaluation commissioners and practitioners, demonstrating the need for the purpose and expectations of program evaluation to be agreed early. The use of program evaluation as a symbolic, aesthetic or structural mechanism also emerges, prompting opportunity for further research, for instance, to explore legitimacy and program evaluation.
    • An examination of Okun's law: evidence from regional areas in Greece

      Apergis, Nicholas; Rezitis, Antonios; University of Macedonia; University of Ioannina (Taylor & Francis, 2010-10-06)
      This paper estimates Okun's coefficient for certain regional areas in Greece over the period 1960–1997. Through the Hodrick-Prescott filtering and the band-pass filtering the empirical analysis shows that that the coefficients do not exhibit substantial interregional differences, except for the cases of Epirus and North Aegean Islands. In these two cases, the estimates are larger than the regional average under both detrending methodologies. The empirical findings also show that Okun's relationship undergoes a structural change in 1981. After this break, unemployment becomes less responsive to output changes in all regional areas.
    • An exploration of Icelandic marketing entrepreneurs

      Armannsdottir, Guja; Brindley, Clare; Foster, Carley; Wheatley, Dan; Nottingham Trent University (2014)
      Little research have focused on women entrepreneurship in Iceland and yet it is often heralded as a beacon of gender equality (Pettersson, 2012; Achtenhagen and Tilmar, 2013; Smith-Hunter, 2013). The World Economic Forum (2013) identified Iceland as the country with the world's smallest gender gap. This small gender gap is not reflected in the entrepreneurship figures which show that only 8 percent of Icelandic women are classed as entrepreneurs (GEM, 2009) compared to 15 percent of men. Furthermore, Danson and Burnett (2013) posited that entrepreneurship in island environments is an under-researched area. It is therefore pertinent to explore what is happening in terms of women’s entrepreneurship in Iceland. The paper builds upon similar studies already undertaken in the UK and Europe (see Foster et al., 2011 and Wheatley et al, 2011) that have investigated the careers of marketing professionals through their life-courses. Marketing is considered to be a feminised industry in Iceland yet there is little knowledge about the careers these women have in the profession or why they decide to become self- employed. The findings showed the most often women became self-employed because of a trigger event and it seemed in most cases to be the financial crises in 2008.
    • An exploration of Icelandic marketing women entrepreneurs

      Armannsdottir, Guja; Brindley, Clare; Foster, Carley; Wheatley, Dan; Pich, Christopher; Nottingham Trent University (Edward Elgar Publishing, 2016)
      Written by leading scholars from a wide range of countries, this book advances the understanding of women's entrepreneurship by drawing attention to the contexts in which they operate. With its impact on gendered institutions and gendered social forces, it will be of interest for researchers, faculty and students as well as policy-makers and practitioners. It is the fifth in the series of books produced in partnership with the Diana International Research Network.
    • An exploration of impact and engaged scholarship among DBA students

      Foster, Carley; Kirk, Susan; Shipton, H.; Zhang, M.; Kougianno, K. (2016-03)
    • An exploration of power asymmetry in the apparel industry in the UK and Turkey.

      Talay, Cagri; Oxborrow, Lynn; Brindley, Clare; Nottingham Trent University; University of Derby (Elsevier, 2018-04-11)
      This paper is designed to explore the concept of power asymmetry in apparel supply chains between large retailers and SME suppliers by focusing on the experiences of 20 SME apparel manufacturer suppliers in relationship with large retailers based in the UK and Turkey. This research presents a framework for examining how suppliers’ capabilities help them to overcome power asymmetry.Using an exploratory case methodology, the paper discusses the supply chains in which the SMEs operate, identifies the power asymmetry evident in these supply chains and how the capabilities of suppliers overcome power asymmetry in relationships. The empirical findings from the data collected in the UK and Turkey illustrate both production and technical capabilities affect power asymmetry but cause and effect is difficult to establish as these capabilities are fundamental to the relationship. Management capability is significant in a number of ways, exhibited by importance of managing relationships and mitigating the risks associated with these. Custom capabilities supported suppliers efficiently in their efforts of value delivery. The study makes a contribution to the work of the Industrial Marketing Purchasing (IMP) school and the interaction approach (e.g. Ford, Hakansson, & Johanson 1986; Hakansson, & Snehota, 1998; Gadde, & Hakansson, 2002). The capability framework demonstrated a new approach to explore the further dimensions of power asymmetry and understand approaches of mitigating asymmetry in dyadic relationships. In contrast to earlier work, the research extends to industry level, rather than that of the individual firm. The paper concludes by evaluating the application of capabilities by apparel suppliers and how they build inter-dependencies and position themselves in asymmetric relationships with retailers.
    • An exploratory investigation of aberrant consumer behaviour in Libya: a sociocultural approach

      Abdelhadi, A.; Foster, Carley; Whysall, P.; Nottingham Trent University (Taylor & Francis, 2014)
      Studies concerning aberrant consumer behaviour (ACB) are dominated by research conducted in the West. By examining the impact social and cultural factors have on the management and understanding of ACB in Libya, a Muslim country, this paper extends knowledge by exploring this issue in a different setting. Materials were collected by conducting in-depth interviews with 26 sellers in Libya and ACB was explored in three different contexts: grocery stores, computer stores and hotels. The study finds that the sellers use alternative marketplace behaviours to manage ACB to that described in the literature, namely informal, community based approaches which reflect accepted societal and cultural norms. Furthermore, the study finds that not all activities reported to be ACB in the literature are perceived to be misbehaviour by the Libyan sellers.
    • Exploring the importance of cultural collectivism on the efficacy of lean practices: Taking an organisational and national perspective.

      Wiengarten, Frank; Gimenez, Cristina; Fynes, Brian; Ferdows, Kasra; University College Dublin (Emerald., 2015-02-03)
      The purpose of this study is to assess the influence of cultural collectivism on the efficacy of lean practices. Furthermore, this study assesses whether or not potential cultural disadvantages related to the level of individualism at the national level can be compensated for at the organisational culture level. Hofstede’s cultural dimension of individualism is used to test whether practicing a collectivistic culture at the organisational level can fully compensate for the potential disadvantages of being geographically situated in an individualistic culture when practicing lean. Results suggest that cultural collectivism at the national and organisational level have a significant impact on the efficacy of lean practices. Furthermore, the negative impact of being situated in an individualistic country cannot be fully compensated for through practicing a collectivistic organisational culture when practicing lean. This study represents a comprehensive attempt to simultaneously assess the collectivism cultural components of lean practices at the national as well as at the organisational level.
    • Exploring the relationship between corporate branding, internal branding and employer branding: an empirical study

      Punjaisri, K.; Cheng, Ranis; Foster, Carley; Nottingham Trent University (2010)
    • Exploring the relationship between corporate, internal and employer branding

      Foster, Carley; Punjaisri, K.; Cheng, Ranis; Nottingham Trent University (EmeraldBingley, 2010)
    • Exploring the relationship between corporate, internal and employer branding - an empirical study

      Foster, Carley; Punjaisri, K.; Cheng, Ranis; Nottingham Trent University (2011)
    • Exploring the UK high street retail experience: is the service encounter still valued?

      Resnick, Sheilagh; Foster, Carley; Woodall, T.; Nottingham Trent University (Emerald Group PublishingBingley, 2014)
      Purpose: The relationship between service quality, the service encounter and the retail experience is explored within a changing UK retail environment. Design: Data was gathered from forty customers and twenty staff of an established UK health and beauty retailer with a long standing reputation for personal customer service. A qualitative analysis was applied using both a service quality and a customer value template. Findings: Customers focused more on the utilitarian features of the service experience and less on ‘extraordinary’ aspects, but service staff still perceived that the customer encounter remained a key requisite for successful service delivery. Research implications: Recent environmental developments - involving customers, markets and retail platform structures - are challenging traditional service expectations. Practical Implications: Retailers may need to reassess the role of the service encounter as part of their on-going value proposition. Originality/value: There has been limited research to date on the perception of shoppers to the service encounter in a changing retail environment and to the evolving notions of effort and convenience.
    • Exploring the ZMET methodology in services marketing

      Hancock, Charles C.; Foster, Carley; University of Derby (Emerald, 2019-12-16)
      This paper aims to explore how the Zaltman metaphor elicitation technique (ZMET) can be adopted in services marketing to provide deeper customer experience insights. This paper explores how ZMET interviews, which use images selected by the participant to facilitate discussion, can be used by researchers. This paper draws upon a study of 24 student experiences at a UK university. Adopting this qualitative method for services marketing can counter depth deficit when compared to other qualitative approaches, because it is participant led. However, the method requires competent interview skills and time for the interview and analysis. We find that ZMET has not been widely adopted in academia because of its commercial licenced use. The paper illustrates how to use the ZMET process step-by-step. Findings are limited to student experiences. Further research is necessary to understand how researchers could use ZMET in other areas of services marketing. This paper provides guidance to researchers on how to use ZMET as a methodological tool. ZMET facilitates a deeper understanding of service experiences through using participant chosen images and thus enabling researchers to uncover subconscious hidden perceptions that other methods may not find. ZMET has been used commercially to gain market insights but has had limited application in service research. Existing studies fail to provide details of how ZMET can be used to access the consumer subconscious. This paper makes a methodological contribution by providing step-by-step guidance on how to apply ZMET to services marketing.
    • Explosive bubbles in the US–China exchange rate? Evidence from right-tailed unit root tests.

      Fry, John; Apergis, Nicholas; El Montasser, Ghassen; University of Manouba; Sheffield University; Nortumbria University (Taylor & Francis, 2016-01-13)
      In this article we apply novel right-tailed unit root (sup Augmented Dickey-Fuller (SADF) and generalized sup ADF) tests to the China–US exchange rate. The empirical results document that the recent financial crisis in 2008 may be preceded by early warning signs of exuberance. Using the SADF test, evidence of an explosive behavior in the nominal exchange is found from 2005 onwards. This period coincides with both financial reforms in China and early indications of an impending US crisis that both have been reported in the literature. Our findings suggest that such an explosive behavior may be attributable to differences in the relative prices of traded goods. Policy implications are also derived.
    • Extending time – Extended benefits

      Wond, Tracey; Macaulay, Michael; University of Teesside (Taylor and Francis, 2011-02)
      This article argues that there are considerable benefits in using longitudinal research in public management and public policy research. Evaluation research (and UK public management research more generally) still pre-eminently utilizes a short-term perspective, preventing the value of longitudinal, rich data being realized. We argue that longitudinal research develops a deeper contextual approach, and will demonstrate how such methodologies can enhance research endeavours through an extended temporality.