• Marketing women in Iceland: challenges of establishing a company

      Armannsdottir, Guja; Brindley, Clare; Foster, Carley; Wheatley, Dan (2014)
      Objectives: This paper explores the experiences of nine Icelandic business women who that have their own marketing businesses. In recent years more women graduated from Icelandic universities than men (Statistic Iceland, 2012a) where business and marketing studies have proved popular. Little is known though about the experiences of Icelandic women moving into self-employment in marketing, particularly in relation to challenges of setting up and managing their own business. Iceland provides a unique context as it is a small island with only 325.000 habitants (Statistic Iceland, 2014). The country was hit badly by the economic crisis in 2008 which is likely to have affected the career and business decisions of self-employed women. Prior Work: Marketing is considered to be a female-oriented industry but experiences of women working in marketing are an under-researched area (Maclaren and Catterall, 2000). In addition, Marlow et al.,(2009) called for studies focusing on the challenges of the entrepreneurial environment for women. Some of the challenges that women owning their own business have to face have been identified as capitalisation, working hours and location (Carter et al., 2001; Roper and Scott, 2009; Harding, 2006). These experiences will be discussed in this paper. Approach: This paper builds on work from a similar study already undertaken in the UK by Foster and Brindley (2010); Foster et al., (2011) and Wheatley at al., (2011) and their investigation of marketing businesses in the UK but explores the experiences in the novel context of Iceland which is a much smaller economy and often heralded as a beacon of gender equality (Petterson 2012; Acthenhagen and Tilmar, 2013). The study takes an exploratory, qualitative approach. Convenience sampling was used for the study with nine Icelandic women who owned a marketing business. All the interviews were conducted with the owner of the company using a set of questions around a priori themes drawn from the literature. The interviews took place in August 2013. Results: Preliminary analysis indicates that Icelandic women are cautious when it comes to capitalisation. They are quite reluctant to take out a loan to finance their business. In addition the majority seemed to work long hours, often nights and weekends. Full findings will be presented at the conference. Implications: These findings give the first account of experiences of Icelandic self-employed women in marketing and answers recent calls for studies in the field of marketing and the entrepreneur environment for women (Maclaren and Catterall, 2000; Marlow et al.,2009). Value: This paper provides an insight into the experiences of the Icelandic business women working in marketing. In addition it offers comparisons with previous studies conducted in the UK.
    • Marketing women: a sector experience

      Foster, Carley; Brindley, Clare; Nottingham Trent University (2010)
    • Marketing women: a sector experience

      Brindley, Clare; Foster, Carley; Wheatley, Dan; Kariv, Dafna; Nottingham Trent University (RoutledgeAbingdon, 2012)
    • Maximising women's potential in the UK's retail sector

      Harris, Lynette; Foster, Carley; Whysall, P.; Nottingham Trent University (2006)
    • Maximising women's potential in the UK's retail sector

      Harris, Lynette; Foster, Carley; Whysall, P.; Nottingham Trent University (EmeraldBradford, 2007)
      Purpose – A defining characteristic of the UK retail sector is the high number of women it employs but there remains an enduring under-representation of women in its management positions. The majority of women in the industry work part-time and this paper explores the factors that impact upon the career progression. Approach – One thousand questionnaires were completed by store staff in three leading retailers supported by interviews with store staff and SME retailers in the UK’s East Midlands region. Findings – The study revealed continuing barriers to career progression for women working part-time in retailing. Despite family friendly employment policies becoming an increasingly important feature of modern work organisations, career progression was informed by a traditional concept of a career based on full-time working. Research Limitations - the study was limited to one sector, there is a need for further studies into women’s career progression in other sectors reliant on female employment. Practical implications - the findings have implications for promotion policies, training and development provision and line management practices if retailers are to maximise the potential of the women they employ. Originality/Value – The findings, based on both quantitative and qualitative data, suggest that retailing is an industry where a significant number of women are working below their potential despite organisational policies supportive of diversity and equality of opportunity.
    • Mean spillover effects in agricultural prices: Evidence from changes in policy regimes

      Apergis, Nicholas; Rezitis, Antonios; University of Ioannina; University of Ioannina (Springer, 2003-02)
      This paper investigates the behavior of input, output, and consumer food prices under two different policy regime periods, before and after the reformulation of the Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) occurred in May 1992. The findings, through Granger causality tests, support a different behavior in terms of the transmission from the input level to the consumer level and vice versa. This transmission occurs through the output level only for the post-CAP reformulation period, while it occurs in a direct manner over the first period. The results imply that the decrease of agricultural output prices, due to lower minimum support prices following the reformulation of the CAP, is transmitted through the output price mechanism in both input and consumer food markets.
    • Mean spillover effects in agricultural prices: The case of Greece

      Apergis, Nicholas; Rezitis, Antonios; University of Macedonia; University of Ioannina (Wiley, 2003-10-08)
      This article investigates the behavior of agricultural input prices, agricultural output prices, and retail food prices using the cointegration/error–correction methodology. The findings support “cost push” and “demand pull” theories, because disequilibrium at the input level is transmitted to the retail level, and vice versa, through the output level. The estimated error–correction coefficients and price responses indicate, first, imperfect price transmission among agricultural input, output, and retail food prices, and second, that agricultural output prices are more flexible than agricultural input and retail food prices.
    • Measuring Price Elasticity of Aggregate Demand in Greece: 1961-1995

      Apergis, Nicholas; Eleftheriou, Sofia; University of Ioannina; Thessaloniki Stock Exchange (Sage, 2000-09-01)
      he goal of this article is to measure the price elasticity of aggregate demand in Greece over the period 1961 to 1995 to assess various economic policy steps undertaken by Greek fiscal policy makers to satisfy the budget-cut criterion set by the Maastricht Treaty
    • Measuring the value of placements to employers: A cost-benefit approach

      Wond, Tracey; Rambukwella, Shan; University of Derby (Sage, 2018-03-08)
      This article explores the concept and measurement of placement value, underexplored in theory and practice to date. The article makes a theoretical contribution to the placement value discourse by examining and articulating the placement value concept. It also offers a practical contribution by exploring a piloted tool to evaluate employer placement value, developed as part of a project funded by the Higher Education Funding Council for England. It examines the immaturity of the placement value concept against contemporary value discourse, including service- and goods-dominant logic frameworks (exploring value-in-use and value-in-exchange) and calls for greater attention to be paid to placement value to support the sustainable provision of placements.
    • Media sentiment and CDS spread spillovers: evidence from the GIIPS countries.

      Apergis, Nicholas; Lau, Chi Keung Marco; Yarovaya, Larisa; University of Piraeus; Northumbria University; Anglia Ruskin University (Elsevier., 2016-06-30)
      This study explores the role of newswire messages during the European debt crisis. It quantifies how this news metric, revealed by statements recorded by newspapers articles, affects CDS spillovers across five European countries with sovereign debt problems and strict bail-out programs, i.e. Greece, Ireland, Italy, Portugal, and Spain with daily data spanning the period 2009–2012. Using panel ARDL and asymmetric conditional volatility modeling methods, the empirical findings document that the news variable generates significant spillover effects across the underlined CDS markets. These findings cast a cloudy doubt on the effectiveness of economic modeling on which CDS spreads are based.
    • "Meteor showers" and "heat waves" in Greek financial markets.

      Apergis, Nicholas; Katrakilidis, Costas; Papastamatis, Stamatis; University of Macedonia; Aristotelian University of Thessaloniki; Ioanian Bank of Greece (Springer, 1997-11)
      This paper examines the presence of "meteor showers" and "heat waves" effects in Greek financial markets. In particular, the relationship between the stock market price index volatility and the volatility of three exchange rates (U.S. dollar, deutsche mark, and ECU) recorded on a daily basis is investigated. The results provide evidence in favor of the "heat wave" hypothesis, while the "meteor shower" hypothesis was observed only with respect to the U.S. dollar.
    • Mitigation processes – antecedents for building supply chain resilience.

      Scholten, Kirstin; Sharkey Scott, Pamela; Fynes, Brian; University College Dublin; University of Groningen; Dublin Institute of Technology (Emerald, 2014-03-04)
      This study aims to combine theory and practice to develop an integrated supply chain resilience framework by investigating the inter-dependencies between the strategic literature based concept of supply chain resilience and operational practitioner based disaster management processes. Utilising an in-depth qualitative case of a collaborative agency, this study identifies best practices within disaster management for insights on the operationalisation of supply chain resilience. The empirical data leads to the development of an integrated supply chain resilience framework capturing the interplay of disaster management processes and capabilities required to build supply chain resilience. The critical importance of mitigation processes in building supply chain resilience is highlighted. The generic supply chain resilience framework represents a valuable guide for managers when directing resources and planning for building the capabilities required in each phase of disaster management, while remaining strategically focused. The value of the framework is demonstrated by a retrospective analysis of aid operations in response to Hurricane Katrina. The study's results are the first to bridge theory and practice on supply chain resilience. By utilising the unique humanitarian aid disaster supply chain management context, a two-way knowledge and learning flow between humanitarian and commercial organisations is established.
    • Modeling the time varying volatility of housing returns: Further evidence from the U.S. Metropolitan condominium markets

      Apergis, Nicholas; Payne, James; University of Derby; University of Texas, El Paso (Wiley, 2019-04-22)
      This study extends the literature on modeling the volatility of housing returns to the case of condominium returns for five major U.S. metropolitan areas (Boston, Chicago, Los Angeles, New York, and San Francisco). Through the estimation of ARMA models for the respective condominium returns, we find volatility clustering of the residuals. The results from an ARMA-TGARCH-M model reveal the absence of asymmetry in the conditional variance. Dummy variables associated with the housing market collapse unique to each metropolitan area were statistically insignificant in the conditional variance equation, but negative and statistically significant in the mean equation. Condominium markets in Los Angeles and San Francisco exhibit the greatest persistence to volatility shocks.
    • Monetary policy and commodity markets: unconventional versus conventional impact and the role of economic uncertainty

      Apergis, Nicholas; Chatzianoniou, Ioannis; Cooray, Arusha; University of Derby; University of Portsmouth; Embassy of Sri Lanka in Oslo; Centre for Poverty Analysis, Sri Lanka (Elsevier, 2020-06-20)
      This study explores the impact of both conventional and unconventional monetary policies in the US and the Euro area on the mean and volatility of certain commodity prices. The analysis considers the prices of eight commodities, i.e. oil, natural gas, gold, silver, aluminium, copper, platinum, and nickel, while the methodology employs the EGARCH-X modelling approach. The empirical findings clearly document that (i) the direction of the impact of both conventional and unconventional monetary policy on commodity returns and commodity volatility is similar and (ii) the impact from unconventional monetary policy on both commodity returns and volatility is relatively more pronounced, while these findings hold valid, irrespective of the geographical region and commodity type. Further investigation of the disparity on the size of the impact through the prism of economic uncertainty reveals that unconventional monetary policy has a stronger effect on economic uncertainty, thereby offering an indirect channel of monetary policy transmission on commodity markets.
    • Monetary policy and macroprudential policy: new evidence from a world panel of countries.

      Apergis, Nicholas; University of Piraeus (Wiley., 2017-03-24)
      The event of the recent financial crisis raises the question of whether policy makers could have done more or something different to prevent the build‐up of financial imbalances. This paper contributes to the field of regulatory impact by tackling the debate on whether central banks should ‘lean against the wind’, while in case the response is positive, how macroprudential policies should be combined with monetary policy. Using an augmented Taylor rule and a sample of 127 global economies, the results provide evidence on the importance of macroprudential issues for the implementation of an effective monetary policy. They also document that the type of adopted macroprudential instrument has a substantial effect on such effectiveness, with this policy mix being less ‘integrated’ when the monetary rule aims at primarily safeguarding inflation stability. The results survive robustness checks under alternative assets.
    • Monetary policy and the gender pay gap: Evidence from UK households

      Apergis, Nicholas; Hayat, Tasawar; Kadasah, Nasser; University of Derby; King Abdulaziz University (Taylor & Francis, 2019-04-16)
      This paper studies how monetary policy decisions affect the gender pay gap across UK households through a survey database. The results signify the impact of monetary policy shocks on the gap; monetary authorities’ decisions carry welfare effects for households through their pay income.
    • Monetary policy design and the buffer–stock hypothesis: further evidence from European Union countries

      Apergis, Nicholas; University of Macedonia (Taylor & Francis, 1999)
      The buffer-stock hypothesis is examined through a structural vector autoregression (SVAR) model across European Union (EU) countries. Variance decompositions do not provide uniform evidence in favour of the buffer-stock hypothesis in all case studies. The results are very important for the design of monetary policy within EU.
    • Monetary policy rules and the equity risk premium: Evidence from the US experience.

      Apergis, Nicholas; Payne, James; University of Piraeus; Benedictine University (Wiley., 2018-04-23)
      This study explores the role of monetary policy rules and central bank actions originating from such rules that directly affects the equity risk premium. The results indicate that monetary policy rules have a direct impact on the equity risk premium through investors’ appetite for risk and greater uncertainty faced by market participants. The analysis includes the pre‐ and post‐2008 financial crisis periods in finding that monetary policy actions had a much greater impact on the equity risk premium in the post‐2008 crisis period due in part to the funding conditions of banking intermediaries, thus exerting a greater impact on credit conditions during this period.
    • The monetary policy transmission mechanism and the role of money market funds in the Eurozone

      Apergis, Nicholas; Hayat, Tasawar; Saeed, Tareq; University of Derby; King Abdulaziz University (Scimago Journal, 2020-05-06)
      This paper investigates the pass-through mechanism of monetary policy through money market funds and bank loan rates under conventional and unconventional monetary policy. Using the Autoregressive Distributed Lag method, spanning the period 2003-2018, the findings document that the pass-through of bank loan rates is weaker than that of MMF rates (0.642 vs 1.044, respectively), especially during the unconventional monetary policy period (0.637 vs 1.568, respectively). They highlight that in this period, banks earned less from traditional lending business, due to low or even negative rates, while taking increasingly large risks.
    • Monetary volatility, real volatility, and real exchange rate

      Apergis, Nicholas; Katrakilidis, Costas; University of Macedonia; Aristotelian University of Thessaloniki (Springer, 1996-11)